Nicholas and Alexandra


3h 3m 1971
Nicholas and Alexandra

Brief Synopsis

Story of Russia's last czar, Nicolas II, and his ill-fated family.

Film Details

MPAA Rating
Genre
Historical
War
Biography
Release Date
Dec 1971
Premiere Information
London opening: 29 Nov 1971; New York opening: 13 Dec 1971; Los Angeles opening: 22 Dec 1971
Production Company
Horizon Pictures, Inc.
Distribution Company
Columbia Pictures
Country
Great Britain and United States
Location
Spain; Madrid,Spain; Spain; Yugoslavia
Screenplay Information
Based on the book Nicholas and Alexandra by Robert K. Massie (New York, 1967).

Technical Specs

Duration
3h 3m
Sound
70 mm 6-Track (70 mm prints) (UK release), Mono (35 mm prints)
Color
Color (Eastmancolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
2.35 : 1

Synopsis

In 1904 Russia, Tsar Nicholas II is overjoyed when his wife, Imperial Highness Alexandra Fedorovna, known as Alix, gives birth to their fifth child and first son, Alexis. The tsarevitch and heir to the throne joins his older sisters, the four grand duchesses, Olga, Tatiana, Marie and Anastasia. A few weeks after the birth, Nicholas inquires about a bruise on baby Alexis' elbow, but Alix dismisses his concern. Nicholas then meets with his advisor, Count Sergius Witte, to discuss Russia's deteriorating war with Japan over Korea. The minister cautions Nicholas that Russia can ill afford a defeat and reminds Nicholas that the Russian people long for a constitution and government representation. Nicholas' uncle, Grand Duke Nicholas, nicknamed Nickolasha, also advises the tsar to bring a rapid end to the war, but Nicholas remains confident in the devotion of his subjects and assured that he leads by God's will. When Witte insists that a prolonged conflict will result in strikes and riots, Nicholas angrily asserts that he will not surrender his sovereign rights as have his English cousins, King George and the Hohensollerns. A few evenings later at a formal party for the Queen Mother, Marie Fedorovna, the reticent Alix, sensitive to her outsider status as a native-born German, spends most of the evening away from the festivity. Nickolasha piques Alix's interest when he mentions a fellow guest, Gregory Rasputin, a peasant holy man from Siberia who claims to have visions and cure the sick. Alix asks to meet Rasputin and although taken aback by his coarse appearance, is moved by his spiritual demeanor. After the party, Nicholas and Alix meet with the court physician, Dr. Eugene Botkin, and three other specialists who inform them that Alexis has the blood disease hemophilia, which is untreatable. Mortified to learn that she has transmitted the gene responsible for the disease, Alix insists that her son will live a long life, but grows despondent and seeks refuge in religious rituals. Over the next several months, as the war with Japan continues to go badly, the Imperial family maintains their public duties while keeping Alexis' illness secret. Increasingly in despair over her son's health, Alix sends for Rasputin. When the holy man arrives and correctly analyzes Alexis' illness without seeing the baby, then declares that he has visions from God, Alix is convinced of his abilities and demands that he have free access to the palace. Meanwhile, there is increasing public unrest over the unsuccessful war, widespread impoverishment and the apparent detachment of the tsar from daily events. As the discontent grows, a priest leads a peaceful march to the palace to speak with Nicholas, but the army meets the assembly and when the crowd panics, the soldiers open fire, killing many. Nicholas is horrified by the event, but when he demands an explanation from Witte, the minister declares that because the peoples' hopes for political representation are continually met with arrests and execution, ordered by the tsar, a violent reaction is inevitable. When the war with Japan ends in failure, Witte, now the president of the Council of Ministers, draws up a memorandum on the nation's continuing political turmoil that concludes there are only two alternatives for Russia: a military dictatorship or a constitution. Nicholas reluctantly agrees to modernize his government with the Imperial Manifesto, which transforms Russia into a semi-constitutional monarchy, with an elected parliament, the Duma. Leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Social Democratic Labor Party Vladimir Lenin meets with fellow Marxist revolutionary Leon Trotsky to discuss how the new Manifesto might be used to overturn the monarchy altogether. Eight years pass of an uneasy peace in Russia, during which Nicholas and Alix continue to dote on their daughters and the boisterous Alexis, who has a full-time companion, sailor Nagorny, to keep the energetic boy from physical harm. Prime Minister Peter Arkadyevich Stolypin meets with the Imperial family while they are on vacation in the Crimea to discuss the increasingly lurid rumors of Rasputin's relationship with Alix. Nicholas states that he is unable to challenge his deeply religious wife on Rasputin's presence in the palace and ruefully admits his awareness of the priest's reputation as a drunken womanizer. Stolypin also advises Nicholas to make a public tour to celebrate three hundred years of the Romanov family's rule, which will negate the lingering impression that Nicholas is detached from the continued unrest and strikes spreading across the country. Later, Nicholas meets with Rasputin to banish him to St. Petersburg to halt the rumors. Rasputin agrees and counsels Nicholas to help Alix and trust that God speaks through the tsar. Upon learning of Rasputin's banishment, Alix reacts with fury, insisting that should Alexis die, Nicholas will be to blame. Shortly afterward in Kiev, Nicholas takes his eldest daughters, Olga and Tatiana, to the opera where they witness a young revolutionary assassinate Stolypin. Deeply mortified and convinced the political strife is to blame, Nicholas recalls the assassination of his grandfather Alexander and orders harsh public reprisals, then threatens to shut down the Duma. Alexander Fedorovich Kerensky, a member of the Duma and known as a harsh critic of the government, becomes the new prime minister and pleads in vain with Minister Vladimir Kokovtsov not to allow Nicholas to shut down the Duma. Soon after, while the Imperial family vacations in Spala, Poland, Alexis suffers a fall resulting in serious internal bleeding and great pain. Kokovtsov reports to the tsar that the strikes have continued to multiply and that the hundreds shot and hanged in reprisal have had no effect. The minister pleads with Nicholas to stop the killing and reconvene the Duma. Meanwhile a distraught Alix begs Nicholas to allow Rasputin's return. Nicholas agrees to restore the Duma and to the return of Rasputin. When Alix receives a telegram from the holy man assuring her that Alexis will recover, she is ecstatic. In August of 1914 after the assassination of the Austrian archduke by a native Serbian and an ultimatum from Austria to Serbia demanding the Serbs accept responsibility, Nicholas believes Russia should mobilize its army as a show of support for its longtime Serbian protectorate. Witte fervently protests, reminding Nicholas that his cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany, will view the action as a declaration of war that will surely extend to France and England. Confident that his cousin will understand his motives, Nicholas proceeds with the mobilization and is shocked when Wilhelm, coming to the aid of his Austrian ally, declares war. Hoping that a war will unite the country, Kerensky calls for public and political support of the tsar. Over the next several months, as Russia faces crucial losses, Nicholas is angered by Alix's determination to pass on war strategy from Rasputin, yet defends his wife to the ministers. While Alix ministers to the soldiers, despite their bitter resentment of her Germanic heritage, Nicholas takes Alexis on numerous trips throughout the countryside to lift the sagging morale of the soldiers. A year into the war with the army in full retreat, Nicholas relieves Nickolasha as commander-in-chief of the Russian armies. Welcoming the tsar to the battlefront, the grand duke advises Nicholas to continue with a cautious retreat to preserve the army, and to rid himself of Rasputin's unwieldy influence in the palace. Marie Federovna visits Nicholas in the field to rebuke him for ignoring the continued riots and starving populace in Petersburg. When the queen mother declares that the public believes Alix is a German spy who allows Rasputin to meddle in government affairs, Nicholas insists the holy man is from God and must be supported. In late 1916, as the Russian economy founders and the war drags on, Rasputin attends a private party at the Petrograd residence of young Grand Duke Dmitry Pavlovich and Prince Felix Yussoupov. Unknown to Rasputin, Dmitry and Yussoupov, with the help of Dr. Lazovert, are conspiring to kill the priest. Lazovert laces the dessert cakes and wine with cyanide, while the young royals get drunk and smoke opium. After Rasputin consumes several cakes and drinks the poisoned wine, he collapses, then shocks the men by reviving and accusing them of treachery. Although befuddled, Yussoupov fires a pistol at Rasputin who staggers down to the cellar in an attempt to escape. The doctor and Youssoupov follow and finding Rasputin semi-conscious, shoot him and beat him with chains. Rasputin's body is later discovered bound and chained in the river. Distraught over the brutal assassination, Alix falls into mourning and refuses to assume responsibility when Sazonov brings her a decree to aid the starving masses. In the Duma, Kerensky presides over the celebration of Rasputin's demise, and vows to attend to the critical national troubles that Nicholas continues to avoid. In late winter, when the populace begins rioting for food, Nicholas, still at the front, is dismayed by reports that the army not only refuses to fire upon the protesters, but is actively assisting them. Deciding to visit the family at Tsarskoe Selo, Nicholas finds his trip prohibited by remnants of the splintered army, many of whom are siding with revolutionaries. Soon after, General Michael Vasilevich Alexeiev reports to Nicholas that his ministers in Petrograd have been arrested and the Duma has set up a provisional government demanding his abdication. Staggered to learn from Alexeiev that the generals support this solution, Nicholas realizes he has no hope of resisting. Nicholas agrees to give up the throne, but after a realistic consultation with Dr. Fedorov on the possibilities of Alexis' future, surprises members of the governing committee by abdicating for both himself and his son. Knowing that he and the family will likely be arrested and taken into exile, Nicholas returns to the palace at Tsarkoe Selo and finds its great halls filled with peasants and soldiers. Nicholas salutes them all, but upon finding Alix waiting alone in a back room, he collapses in grief and shame at his capitulation after three centuries of Romanov rule. As Lenin counters Kerensky by meeting with the German consul to arrange Russia's withdrawal from the war, Nicholas, Alix and their children are moved to a small farm. A short time later, Kerensky, the provisional head of the government, visits Nicholas to inform him that his request to go to exile in England has been refused by his cousin King George and the other allies. Explaining that he must contend with the workers, Lenin's Bolsheviks, the army and the Socialists, Kerensky emphasizes that his protection has kept Nicholas alive and announces the royal family will be transported to Tobolsk, Siberia. Over the next few weeks, Kerensky's government begins to waver under the organized power of Lenin and the Bolshevik party, which takes over banks, communications and transportation. After Kerensky's government falls, Lenin declares a Socialist order, but soon a civil war breaks out between the conservatives, nicknamed the Whites and the revolutionary Bolsheviks, called the Reds. In Tobolsk, the Romanovs are guarded by members of the army led by Col. Eugene Kobylinsky, who tells Nicholas that with end of the provisional government and the revolution, he no longer has any reason to keep the family imprisoned. At Easter, 1918, a member of the Red faction, Commissar Vasily Vaslevich Yakovlev, arrives at the encampment to replace Kobylinsky and move the Romanovs to Moscow for a trial. After the family boards a train, however, Yakovlev is met by representatives of the Ural Soviet who declare they have been ordered to take custody of the family as the civil war is not boding well for the Reds. With only the faithful Botkin and Nagorny allowed to remain with the family, they are transported to Ekaterinburg and the Ipatiev house under the control of longtime revolutionary Filipp Isiah Goloshchekin. Nicholas and Alix are told they are to remain there under protection until their trial can be finalized. When Alexis is taunted by rough soldiers who attempt to steal the last of his personal belongings, Nagorny comes to his aid and is immediately sentenced to execution. Unknown to Nicholas and the others, Goloshchekin is waiting for orders to assassinate either Nicholas alone or the entire family. Upon receiving the confirmation to kill the entire Imperial family in July, Goloshchekin awakens the Romanovs early one morning and asks them to dress and wait in a downstairs room. Having previously arranged to burn and bury the bodies, Goloshchekin leads a small party to the room where the Romanovs are shot to death.

Cast

Michael Jayston

[Tsar] Nicholas [Romanov]

Janet Suzman

[Empress] Alexandra [Fedorovna] By courtesy of The Royal Shakespeare Company

Roderic Noble

Alexis

Ania Marson

Olga

Lynne Frederick

Tatiana

Candace Glendenning

Marie

Fiona Fullerton

Anastasia

Harry Andrews

Grand Duke Nicholas "Nikolasha"

Irene Worth

The Queen Mother Marie Fedorovna

Tom Baker

[Gregory] Rasputin By courtesy of the National Theatre of G.B.

Jack Hawkins

Count [Vladimir] Fredericks

Timothy West

Dr. [Eugene] Botkin

Katharine Schofield

[Alexandra] Tegleva

Jean-claude Drouot

[Pierce] Gilliard

John Hallam

Nagorny

Guy Rolfe

Dr. Fedorov

John Wood

Col. [Eugene] Kobylinsky

Laurence Olivier

Count [Sergius] Witte By courtesy of the National Theatre of G. B.

Eric Porter

[Peter Arkadyevich] Stolypin

Michael Redgrave

[Serge] Sazonov

Maurice Denham

[Vladimir] Kokovtsov

Ralph Truman

[Michael] Rodzianko

Gordon Gostelow

[Alexander] Guchkov

John Mcenery

[Alexander Fedorovich] Kerensky

Michael Bryant

[Vladimir Ilyich] Lenin

Vivian Pickles

Mme. [Nadezhda] Krupskaya

Brian Cox

[Leon] Trotsky

James Hazeldine

[Josef] Stalin

Stephen Greif

Martov

Steven Berkoff

[Vasily] Pankratov

Ian Holm

[Vasily Vaslevich] Yakovlev

Alan Webb

[Yakov] Yurovsky

Leon Lissek

Avadeyev

David Giles

[Filipp Isiah] Goloshchekin

Roy Dotrice

General [Michael Vasilevich] Alexeiev

Martin Potter

Prince [Felix] Yussoupov

Richard Warwick

Grand Duke Dmitry [Pavlovich]

Vernon Dobtcheff

Dr. Lazovert

Alexander Knox

The American ambassador [Root]

Ralph Neville

The British ambassador [Buchanan]

Jorge Rigaud

The French ambassador [Paleologue]

Curt Jurgens

The German consul [Sklarz]

Julian Glover

Gapon

John Shrapnel

Petya

Diana Quick

Sonya

John Forbes-robertson

Col. Voikov

Alan Dalton

Flautist

David Baxter

Young Bolshevik

Penny Sugg

Young opera singer

Eric Chapman

Plekhanov

Film Details

MPAA Rating
Genre
Historical
War
Biography
Release Date
Dec 1971
Premiere Information
London opening: 29 Nov 1971; New York opening: 13 Dec 1971; Los Angeles opening: 22 Dec 1971
Production Company
Horizon Pictures, Inc.
Distribution Company
Columbia Pictures
Country
Great Britain and United States
Location
Spain; Madrid,Spain; Spain; Yugoslavia
Screenplay Information
Based on the book Nicholas and Alexandra by Robert K. Massie (New York, 1967).

Technical Specs

Duration
3h 3m
Sound
70 mm 6-Track (70 mm prints) (UK release), Mono (35 mm prints)
Color
Color (Eastmancolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
2.35 : 1

Award Wins

Best Art Direction

1971

Best Costume Design

1971

Award Nominations

Best Actress

1971
Janet Suzman

Best Cinematography

1971

Best Picture

1971

Best Score

1971

Articles

Nicholas and Alexandra


One of history's most compelling stories is the reign of the last Czar of Russia, Nicholas II, and his family during the Bolshevik revolution. The demands of WWI left a country vulnerable to the growing rebellion against the governing rulers, culminating in the extermination of the entire royal family in the middle of the night in 1918. Filmmakers have brought the story of the Romanovs to the screen many times, with some versions focusing on the Czarina's mystic advisor, Rasputin; others concentrate on the fascinating but unfounded account of daughter Anastasia surviving the family massacre. In 1971, uberproducer Sam Spiegel brought one of the most lavish biographies of the doomed family to the screen in Nicholas and Alexandra. Clocking in at just over three hours, the film is a feast for the eyes with elaborate sets, intricate period costumes and a literal cast of thousands. Like Spiegel's previous epics Lawrence of Arabia (1962) and The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), there was also plenty of drama and intrigue going on behind the scenes as well as in front of the cameras.

Spiegel ran into trouble right from the start by insisting that he didn't need to pay for rights to the book upon which the script was based, claiming that the story was public domain. The author, Robert K. Massie, disagreed; lawsuits were threatened, but ultimately a deal was reached in 1968 satisfying both parties. Fresh off his Oscar® win for The Lion in Winter (1968), James Goldman was hired to adapt the screenplay but Spiegel ran into serious problems trying to find a director who could do justice to Goldman's literate script. A first choice was George Stevens, a power-director known for such cinematic classics as Gunga Din (1939), I Remember Mama (1948), A Place in the Sun (1951), and Shane (1953). Industry observers were surprised to see him linked with Nicholas and Alexandra as both Stevens and Spiegel had famous reputations of being meticulously involved with every aspect of their productions. Despite a half-a-million salary, Stevens pulled out after three months, handing over the reins to Anthony Harvey, the director of The Lion in Winter, and for a brief period, the repeat pairing of Goldman and Harvey looked promising.

Spiegel was soon up to his old tricks, however, according to Natasha Fraser-Cavassoni's biography of the mogul. During preproduction planning, "Spiegel was insistent that 'the script had to be drastically rewritten.' During the process, Goldman found him to be 'very dogmatic and stubborn.' The producer was also back to pulling his most infamous trick out of the bag. 'He had a heart attack on me,' he recalled. The event took place on the terrace of Spiegel's suite. 'I suppose I gave in, I'm not a confrontational person,' admitted Goldman." Sam's decidedly unconventional methods may have worked on Goldman, but not Harvey, who left shortly thereafter. Numerous replacements were considered, including Ken Russell and John Boorman, who all declined. There was a brief flicker of hope when Joseph Mankiewicz expressed interest; he had experience working with Spiegel from Suddenly, Last Summer (1959). When that failed to pan out, Charles Jarrott, who had just finished Anne of a Thousand Days (1969), was a contender...briefly. The weary Goldman finally suggested Franklin J. Schaffner, Oscar®-winning director of Patton (1970). Everyone agreed, and Schaffner started work immediately, despite the fact that preproduction by that point was almost complete!

The casting was somewhat less dramatic, although the press was rife with speculation on who had been offered what part. Although Audrey Hepburn, Elizabeth Taylor, and Grace Kelly were reported as candidates for Alexandra, Vanessa Redgrave and Katharine Hepburn actually received copies of the script. Rex Harrison was only offered a minor part and not the role of Nicholas as reported (Harrison snarled, "Tell him [Spiegel] I don't play bit parts.").

The role Spiegel was most concerned with was Rasputin, and he had only one man in mind, Peter O'Toole, much to the dismay of Yul Brynner, who desperately wanted the part. Negotiations with O'Toole looked promising, but then the option time expired and Spiegel couldn't afford to pursue him. The guard had changed at Columbia Pictures, and old-schoolers like Spiegel could no longer spend whatever they wanted. The end result for Nicholas and Alexandra was that the leads had to be relatively unknown actors since Spiegel couldn't afford top marquee names. He quickly spun this into a strategy, stating, "When actors are still relatively unknown, they are easygoing and amiable. When they lose their sense of proportion, they become lionized and begin to believe their own publicity."

British stage actors Michael Jayston and Janet Suzman were subsequently cast as the doomed couple: it was the first major film role for both actors. Another recruit from the National Theatre, Tom Baker, won the part of "the mad monk" Rasputin - at the urging of fellow actor Laurence Olivier. British audiences know him best as the most popular of the four actors who played Doctor Who in the cult sci-fi TV series. Coincidentally, Baker had been a monk for 6 years prior to abandoning the order to pursue an acting career. Olivier accepted the "bit part" Rex Harrison had eschewed, that of Count Witte. Michael Redgrave, father of Vanessa, appeared in what would be his last major feature film.

Nicholas and Alexandra was the first theatrical film role for Brian Cox, as Trotsky. He went on to enjoy a prolific career as a character actor in such films as Manhunter (1986) Braveheart (1995), and Rushmore (1998). Also appearing in a supporting role is Ian Holm, whose extraordinary career includes performances in Alien (1979), Chariots of Fire (1981), Brazil (1985), and - more recently - Bilbo Baggins in Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings series. Peter Sellers fans may recognize his fourth wife, Lynne Frederick, as Tatiana, one of the teenage daughters of the royal family. Even at the young age of sixteen, she had caught the roving eye of Spiegel. Fortunately, the savvy casting director, Maude Spector, knew how to run effective interference to keep the - in her words - "erudite guttersnipe" focused on his work and away from the young talent!

When Spiegel's epic had its official opening, the critics were decidedly mixed in their reviews. Roger Ebert of the The Chicago Sun-Times wrote that Spiegel and Schaffner have "given us a big, expensive, sprawling indoor epic, in which vast landscapes are mostly avoided in favor of drawing rooms and boudoirs, but they haven't given us characters who really make things come alive...If the movie isn't exactly stirring, however, it is undeniably interesting." Pauline Kael panned it, noting that the title characters "appear to be two dunces sitting on a volcano, and the solemnly square movie is more interested in the dunces than in the volcano...It avoids drama." Among the positive reviews, however, was Variety's notice which announced, "Sam Spiegel comes up with a rarity: the intimate epic, in telling the fascinating story of the downfall of the Romanovs...Scripter James Goldman (with an assist from Edward Bond) has provided literate, sparse dialog in fashioning a crystal-clear picture of a confused and confusing period."

When the Oscar® nominations were announced for 1971, Nicholas and Alexandra received six - Best Picture, Best Cinematography, Best Actress (Janet Suzman), Best Music, Best Costume Design and Best Art Direction-Set Decoration with the latter two winning Academy Awards. The film also scored three nominations each with both the BAFTA (British Academy of Film and Television Arts) and the Golden Globes.

Producer: Andrew Donally, Sam Spiegel
Director: Franklin J. Schaffner
Screenplay: Edward Bond, James Goldman, Robert K. Massie (book)
Cinematography: Freddie Young
Film Editing: Ernest Walter
Art Direction: Ernest Archer, Jack Maxsted, Gil Parrondo
Music: Richard Rodney Bennett
Cast: Michael Jayston (Tsar Nicholas II), Janet Suzman (Empress Alexandra), Roderic Noble (The Tsarevitch Alexei), Ania Marson (The Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna), Lynne Frederick (Tatiana), Candace Glendenning (The Grand Duchess Marie Nikolaevna).
C-189m. Letterboxed.

by Eleanor Quinn
Nicholas And Alexandra

Nicholas and Alexandra

One of history's most compelling stories is the reign of the last Czar of Russia, Nicholas II, and his family during the Bolshevik revolution. The demands of WWI left a country vulnerable to the growing rebellion against the governing rulers, culminating in the extermination of the entire royal family in the middle of the night in 1918. Filmmakers have brought the story of the Romanovs to the screen many times, with some versions focusing on the Czarina's mystic advisor, Rasputin; others concentrate on the fascinating but unfounded account of daughter Anastasia surviving the family massacre. In 1971, uberproducer Sam Spiegel brought one of the most lavish biographies of the doomed family to the screen in Nicholas and Alexandra. Clocking in at just over three hours, the film is a feast for the eyes with elaborate sets, intricate period costumes and a literal cast of thousands. Like Spiegel's previous epics Lawrence of Arabia (1962) and The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), there was also plenty of drama and intrigue going on behind the scenes as well as in front of the cameras. Spiegel ran into trouble right from the start by insisting that he didn't need to pay for rights to the book upon which the script was based, claiming that the story was public domain. The author, Robert K. Massie, disagreed; lawsuits were threatened, but ultimately a deal was reached in 1968 satisfying both parties. Fresh off his Oscar® win for The Lion in Winter (1968), James Goldman was hired to adapt the screenplay but Spiegel ran into serious problems trying to find a director who could do justice to Goldman's literate script. A first choice was George Stevens, a power-director known for such cinematic classics as Gunga Din (1939), I Remember Mama (1948), A Place in the Sun (1951), and Shane (1953). Industry observers were surprised to see him linked with Nicholas and Alexandra as both Stevens and Spiegel had famous reputations of being meticulously involved with every aspect of their productions. Despite a half-a-million salary, Stevens pulled out after three months, handing over the reins to Anthony Harvey, the director of The Lion in Winter, and for a brief period, the repeat pairing of Goldman and Harvey looked promising. Spiegel was soon up to his old tricks, however, according to Natasha Fraser-Cavassoni's biography of the mogul. During preproduction planning, "Spiegel was insistent that 'the script had to be drastically rewritten.' During the process, Goldman found him to be 'very dogmatic and stubborn.' The producer was also back to pulling his most infamous trick out of the bag. 'He had a heart attack on me,' he recalled. The event took place on the terrace of Spiegel's suite. 'I suppose I gave in, I'm not a confrontational person,' admitted Goldman." Sam's decidedly unconventional methods may have worked on Goldman, but not Harvey, who left shortly thereafter. Numerous replacements were considered, including Ken Russell and John Boorman, who all declined. There was a brief flicker of hope when Joseph Mankiewicz expressed interest; he had experience working with Spiegel from Suddenly, Last Summer (1959). When that failed to pan out, Charles Jarrott, who had just finished Anne of a Thousand Days (1969), was a contender...briefly. The weary Goldman finally suggested Franklin J. Schaffner, Oscar®-winning director of Patton (1970). Everyone agreed, and Schaffner started work immediately, despite the fact that preproduction by that point was almost complete! The casting was somewhat less dramatic, although the press was rife with speculation on who had been offered what part. Although Audrey Hepburn, Elizabeth Taylor, and Grace Kelly were reported as candidates for Alexandra, Vanessa Redgrave and Katharine Hepburn actually received copies of the script. Rex Harrison was only offered a minor part and not the role of Nicholas as reported (Harrison snarled, "Tell him [Spiegel] I don't play bit parts."). The role Spiegel was most concerned with was Rasputin, and he had only one man in mind, Peter O'Toole, much to the dismay of Yul Brynner, who desperately wanted the part. Negotiations with O'Toole looked promising, but then the option time expired and Spiegel couldn't afford to pursue him. The guard had changed at Columbia Pictures, and old-schoolers like Spiegel could no longer spend whatever they wanted. The end result for Nicholas and Alexandra was that the leads had to be relatively unknown actors since Spiegel couldn't afford top marquee names. He quickly spun this into a strategy, stating, "When actors are still relatively unknown, they are easygoing and amiable. When they lose their sense of proportion, they become lionized and begin to believe their own publicity." British stage actors Michael Jayston and Janet Suzman were subsequently cast as the doomed couple: it was the first major film role for both actors. Another recruit from the National Theatre, Tom Baker, won the part of "the mad monk" Rasputin - at the urging of fellow actor Laurence Olivier. British audiences know him best as the most popular of the four actors who played Doctor Who in the cult sci-fi TV series. Coincidentally, Baker had been a monk for 6 years prior to abandoning the order to pursue an acting career. Olivier accepted the "bit part" Rex Harrison had eschewed, that of Count Witte. Michael Redgrave, father of Vanessa, appeared in what would be his last major feature film. Nicholas and Alexandra was the first theatrical film role for Brian Cox, as Trotsky. He went on to enjoy a prolific career as a character actor in such films as Manhunter (1986) Braveheart (1995), and Rushmore (1998). Also appearing in a supporting role is Ian Holm, whose extraordinary career includes performances in Alien (1979), Chariots of Fire (1981), Brazil (1985), and - more recently - Bilbo Baggins in Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings series. Peter Sellers fans may recognize his fourth wife, Lynne Frederick, as Tatiana, one of the teenage daughters of the royal family. Even at the young age of sixteen, she had caught the roving eye of Spiegel. Fortunately, the savvy casting director, Maude Spector, knew how to run effective interference to keep the - in her words - "erudite guttersnipe" focused on his work and away from the young talent! When Spiegel's epic had its official opening, the critics were decidedly mixed in their reviews. Roger Ebert of the The Chicago Sun-Times wrote that Spiegel and Schaffner have "given us a big, expensive, sprawling indoor epic, in which vast landscapes are mostly avoided in favor of drawing rooms and boudoirs, but they haven't given us characters who really make things come alive...If the movie isn't exactly stirring, however, it is undeniably interesting." Pauline Kael panned it, noting that the title characters "appear to be two dunces sitting on a volcano, and the solemnly square movie is more interested in the dunces than in the volcano...It avoids drama." Among the positive reviews, however, was Variety's notice which announced, "Sam Spiegel comes up with a rarity: the intimate epic, in telling the fascinating story of the downfall of the Romanovs...Scripter James Goldman (with an assist from Edward Bond) has provided literate, sparse dialog in fashioning a crystal-clear picture of a confused and confusing period." When the Oscar® nominations were announced for 1971, Nicholas and Alexandra received six - Best Picture, Best Cinematography, Best Actress (Janet Suzman), Best Music, Best Costume Design and Best Art Direction-Set Decoration with the latter two winning Academy Awards. The film also scored three nominations each with both the BAFTA (British Academy of Film and Television Arts) and the Golden Globes. Producer: Andrew Donally, Sam Spiegel Director: Franklin J. Schaffner Screenplay: Edward Bond, James Goldman, Robert K. Massie (book) Cinematography: Freddie Young Film Editing: Ernest Walter Art Direction: Ernest Archer, Jack Maxsted, Gil Parrondo Music: Richard Rodney Bennett Cast: Michael Jayston (Tsar Nicholas II), Janet Suzman (Empress Alexandra), Roderic Noble (The Tsarevitch Alexei), Ania Marson (The Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna), Lynne Frederick (Tatiana), Candace Glendenning (The Grand Duchess Marie Nikolaevna). C-189m. Letterboxed. by Eleanor Quinn

Quotes

Why did you abdicate for me then?
- Alexis
I didn't want you to pay for my mistakes.
- Tsar Nicholas II
Aren't we all paying for them now?
- Alexis
Oh, God, but it's good to be alive. The Earth is like a field in summer, just bursting with good things. Someday, when all the wars are over, someone young will lead us to the harvest. As long as there are children, anything is possible.
- Tsar Nicholas II
Nicky? Is it all right if I say something intimate?
- Tsarina Alexandra
In public?
- Tsar Nicholas II
I'll whisper it.
- Tsarina Alexandra
All right. What is it?
- Tsar Nicholas II
I adore you.
- Tsarina Alexandra
I suddenly thought of the yacht this morning. Do you remember how the band used to play all the time?
- Tsar Nicholas II
Always out of tune. Do you think they drank?
- Tsarina Alexandra
How did that waltz go?
- Tsar Nicholas II
You're no better than the band.
- Tsarina Alexandra
The girls?
- Tsarina Alexandra
A strong man has no need of power, and a weak man is destroyed by it.
- Tsar Nicholas II

Trivia

The role of Alexandra was first offered to Audrey Hepburn.

Notes

As noted in the Los Angeles Times review mentions, the film, which was over three hours in length, was shown without an intermission. A January 1968 Daily Variety item noted that producer Sam Spiegel had purchased the film rights to the best-selling Robert K. Massie book, Nicholas and Alexandra. George Stevens (1904-1975), who was originally scheduled to direct according to items from a February 1969 Hollywood Reporter, withdrew when production was delayed. Nicholas and Alexandra would have been the long-time director's last film. In October 1968 Spiegel announced that Anthony Harvey would direct the project, based on a screenplay by James Goldman, with whom Harvey had worked on the 1968 Embassy Production of The Lion in Winter, based on Goldman's play.
       By February 1969, Hollywood Reporter announced that Harvey had left the production due to a scheduling conflict, and in November 1969, Spiegel signed Charles Jarrott to direct. Jarrott, a former television director, had made his feature film debut with the 1969 Universal production Anne of a Thousand Days, a period film about the relationship between England's King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. In early July 1970, Daily Variety reported that Jarrott was no longer with the production, and an undated Variety item indicated that British television and film director Jack Gold would take over the reins of Nicholas and Alexandra. A July 28, 1970 Daily Variety news item stated that Franklin J. Schaffner, Academy Award winning director for Twentieth Century-Fox's 1970 production of Patton, had been signed to direct. According to Filmfacts, Joseph Mankiewicz was under serious consideration for the film, and had met with Goldman, making copious notes on the script and on casting suggestions. A biography on Spiegel states that other directors considered before Shaffner included Ken Russell, Lindsay Anderson and John Boorman. The same source states that Vincent Korda worked as the production designer extensively during pre-production, but was replaced by John Box. A July 1970 article from Beverly Hills Citizen indicated that Spiegel requested permission from the Soviet government to film in the winter palace in the former St. Petersburg, then Leningrad, but was refused.
       News items reveal the following information about the production: A November 1970 New York Times article alleged that Spiegel was hoping to cast Marlon Brando either in the role of "Lenin" or "Rasputin." A February 1971 item revealed that Peter O'Toole was originally cast as Rasputin, but upon withdrawing, was replaced by National Theatre actor Tom Baker. Spiegel's biography adds that Vanessa Redgrave and Katharine Hepburn were considered for "Alexandra," Rex Harrison was considered for "Witte" and Yul Brynner campaigned for the role of Rasputin. The final cast was predominantly British but also featured actors from South Africa (Janet Suzman), United States (Irene Worth) and Belgium (Jean-Claude Drouet). Numerous items announced that the production cost of Nicholas and Alexandra was expected to have a budget of between eight and nine million dollars. Jack Hawkins' voice was dubbed in the film, as the actor had lost his voice due to surgery for throat cancer. The film was shot on location in Spain.
       Nicholas and Alexandra chronicles the final fourteen years of Imperial Russia before the 1917 revolution, which led to civil war, the assassination of the royal family and the creation of the Communist state, the Soviet Union, in 1922. Although the chronology of some events was changed for the dramatic continuity of the film, it is historically accurate in most aspects. As depicted in the film, Tsarevitch Alexis (or Alexei) was diagnosed in early infancy with hemophilia, an hereditary genetic illness that prevents blood from clotting. England's Queen Victoria passed the disease on through her son and various daughters to the royal houses in Germany, Spain and Russia. Empress Alexandra was the daughter of Victoria's daughter, Princess Alice, and, as the film notes, passed on the gene to her son Alexei. As depicted throughout Nicholas and Alexandra, Alexei's life-threatening illness as well as Alexandra's fanatical religious devotion to the holy man Grigori Rasputin, played a significant role in the collapse of Imperial Russia.
       As shown in the film, as World War I began, Russia was filled with rumors that Alexandra and Rasputin were lovers, a suspicion also held by members of the government. This included Duma member Vladimir Purishkevich, who was not a character in the film, but who assisted Prince Felix Yussoupov and Grand Duke Dmitry Pavlovich in Rasputin's assassination. Although the film shows that Rasputin was affected by the potassium cyanide-laced cakes and wine, in reality they had no effect on him, forcing the panicked Yussoupov to shoot Rasputin two hours after they were consumed. The attack on Rasputin continued outside, not in the cellar as shown in the film, as the wounded man attempted to flee through the snow. Purishkevich then shot Rasputin twice, after which Yussoupov struck him repeatedly with a club. The men then rolled the body into a blue curtain, wrapped it with chains and dumped it into the partially frozen Neva River. Unmentioned in the film was an autopsy report that showed that Rasputin died not of his wounds, but from drowning.
       Nicholas and Alexandra ends with the family's murders. The film includes Dr. Botkin in the massacre, but omits Alexandra's maid, Anna Dimadova, and two more servants who were killed with the Imperial family, footman Trupp and cook Kharitonov. The massacre was led not directly by Isiah Goloshechkin, as shown in the movie, but by Yakov Yurovsky. The Bolsheviks did not acknowledge that the entire Imperial family had been murdered until 1919. One of the most popular myths surrounding the mass execution of the Royal family, the last of the Romanov dynasty, was that one of their daughters, the Grand Duchess Anastasia, had somehow survived (other Romanov claimants appeared over the years, including an "Alexei"). For more information on Anastasia, see the entry for the 1956 Twentieth Century-Fox production Anastasia, which won Ingrid Bergman an Academy Award for the starring role, directed by Anatole Litvak. The release of Yurovsky's statement seventy-three years after the events provided details about the location of the Romanovs' remains, and in 1991 they were exhumed. The bodies of Alexei and one of the Grand Duchesses were missing. The Romanovs were re-interred in the Romanov family crypt in St. Petersburg in 1998, on the eightieth anniversary of their deaths.
       Nicholas and Alexandra received Academy Awards for Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design and nominations for Best Picture, Best Actress, Best Cinematography and Best Music (Original Dramatic Score). Modern sources add Robin Askwith, Bernabe Barta Barri, Frank Braña, Jeremy Brett, Don Jaime de Mora y Aragon to the cast but their appearance in the released film has not been confirmed.
       Numerous films have been produced recounting portions of the lives of the Romanovs and Rasputin's influence on the Imperial family including the 1917 World Film production Rasputin, The Black Monk; First National's 1918 production The Fall of the Romanoffs; the 1933 M-G-M film Rasputin and the Empress, starring John Barrymore as Rasputin, Ethel Barrymore as Alexandra and Lionel Barrymore as "Prince Paul"; the 1956 German CCC Production Is Anna Anderson Anastasia?, starring Lilli Palmer; the above-mentioned Anastasia; the Twentieth Century-Fox 1966 production Rasputin, the Mad Monk (see below), starring Christopher Lee and the 1997 Twentieth Century-Fox animated feature film Anastasia, directed by Don Bluth and Gary Goldman, with Meg Ryan providing the voice of Anastasia. Television films include Anastasia, The Mystery of Anna, a TV movie directed by Marvin Chomsky and starring Amy Irving, Olivia de Havilland and Omar Sharif and the 1996 HBO television production Rasputin, starring Alan Rickman in the title role.

Miscellaneous Notes

Released in United States Winter December 1971

Based on the Robert K. Massie book "Nicholas and Alexandra" (New York, 1967).

Released in United States Winter December 1971