Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade


2h 7m 1989

Brief Synopsis

When his father Dr. Henry Jones, Sr. goes missing, Indiana dumps his books to retrace his steps. Indy finds his father in Germany, where Nazis have been picking his brain in an attempt to find the resting place of the Holy Grail, an artifact that promises eternal life to anyone who drinks from it. N

Film Details

Also Known As
Indiana Jones e l'Ultima Crociata, Indiana Jones et la Derniere Croisade, Indiana Jones och det sista korst├ąget
MPAA Rating
Release Date
1989
Production Company
Robert Wayne Harris
Distribution Company
Paramount Pictures
Location
Borehamwood, England, United Kingdom; West Germany; Colorado, USA; Almeria, Spain; Texas, USA; Arizona, USA; California, USA; Utah, USA; Venice, Italy; Elstree Studios, London, England, United Kingdom; San Luis Valley, New Mexico, USA; Jordan

Technical Specs

Duration
2h 7m

Synopsis

When his father Dr. Henry Jones, Sr. goes missing, Indiana dumps his books to retrace his steps. Indy finds his father in Germany, where Nazis have been picking his brain in an attempt to find the resting place of the Holy Grail, an artifact that promises eternal life to anyone who drinks from it. Now Indiana, his father and dotty museum curator Marcus Brody are in a race to find the cup before the Nazis use it in their evil scheme to enslave the world.

Crew

Todd Adelman

Other

Simon Alderton

Other

Jon Alexander

Camera Operator

Matthew Allwork

Camera Assistant

Peter Allwork

Dp/Cinematographer

Peter Allwork

Director Of Photography

Steven E Anderson

Makeup

Jonathan Angell

Special Effects

C J Appel

Adr Editor

Vic Armstrong

Stunt Coordinator

Luis Miguel Arranz

Stunts

Simon Atherton

Other

Charles Bailey

Visual Effects

Sandina Bailo-lape

Sound Effects Editor

Alan Barnard

Special Effects

William Barr

Other

Jane Bay

Assistant

Ron Beck

Wardrobe Supervisor

Steve Beck

Art Director

Dickey Beer

Stunts

Paul Beeson

Dp/Cinematographer

Paul Beeson

Director Of Photography

Alfredo R Belinchon

Location Manager

Richard Berger

Art Director

Jil-sheree Bergin

Adr

Tom Bertino

Rotoscope Animator

Tony Bianchi

Other

Tony Bianchi

Pilot

Dave Bickers

Other

Don Bies

Puppeteer

Brian Bishop

Scenic Artist

Keith Blake

Camera

Patricia Blau

Visual Effects

Jeffrey Boam

Screenplay

Yousaf Bokhari

Assistant Director

Alan Booth

Construction Manager

Jacques Bourret

Pilot

Joan Bradshaw

Unit Production Manager

Julius Brammer

Song

Barbara Brennan

Rotoscope Animator

Richard Brierley

Camera

David Brill

Sound

Robert Bromley

Special Effects

Denis Brown

Other

John Brown

Special Effects

Derek Browne

Camera Operator

Clyde E Bryan

Camera Operator

Ian Bryce

Production Manager

Pat Brymer

Stunts

Willie Burton

Sound Mixer

Ben Burtt

Sound

Ben Burtt

Sound Editor

Trevor Butterfield

Special Effects

Roy Button

Production Manager

Wally Byatt

Camera Operator

Patricia Carr

Production Supervisor

Ignacio Carreno

Stunts

Michael Carrillo

Props

Jo Carson

Camera Assistant

Maggie Cartier

Casting

Jordi Casares

Stunts

Leonello Casucci

Song

George Chamberlain

Special Effects

Paul Cheesman

Props

Wade Childress

Photography

Javier Chinchilla

Assistant Director

Nikki Clapp

Script Supervisor

Blair Clark

Visual Effects

Don Clark

Camera Operator

Roydon Clark

Stunts

Marilyn Clarke

Script Supervisor

Stuart Clarke

Stunts

Charlie Clavadetscher

Camera Operator

Lee Cleary

Assistant Director

Murray Close

Photography

Martin Cohen

Assistant

Steve Collins

Transportation Coordinator

Michael Cooper

Other

Gianni Cozzo

Assistant Director

Kenneth Craigie

Other

Michael Q Crane

Consultant

Patrick Crane

Assistant Editor

Simon Crane

Stunts

Gabe Cronnelly

Stunts

Graeme Crowther

Stunts

Juan Cruz

Wrangler

Ricardo Cruz

Stunts

Mike Culling

Animal Services

Gloria D'alessandro

Dialogue Editor

Peter Daulton

Camera Operator

Allan Davies

Accounting Assistant

Tony Dawe

Sound Mixer

Michael Dawson

Special Effects

Raul De La Morena

Medic

Jack Dearlove

Stand-In

Nrinder Dhudwar

Stunts

Nick Didman

Makeup

Joseph Dipple

Props

Les Dittert

Visual Effects

Dick Dova

Other

Jim Dowdall

Stunts

Tony Driver

Production

Michael Dunleavy

Special Effects

Stephan Dupuis

Makeup

Robert Eames

Carpenter

Teresa Eckton

Sound Effects Editor

Selwyn Eddy

Camera Assistant

Kathy Elek

Makeup Assistant

Zoltan Elek

Makeup

John Ellis

Photography

Jose Luis Escolar

Assistant Director

Roy Everson

Stand-In

Mike Fenton

Casting

Peter Fern

Special Effects

Andres Fernandez

Wardrobe

Benjamin Fernandez

Art Director

Bob Fernley

Other

Deborah Fine

Researcher

Robert Finley

Other

Ken Fischer

Sound Effects Editor

Russ Fischer

Assistant

Jerry Fitzpatrick

Construction Coordinator

Louis S Fleming

Property Master

John Flemming

Dolly Grip

Deborah Fletcher

Assistant

Helmut Fodschuk

Location Manager

Sandra Ford

Visual Effects

Joe Fulmer

Other

Fred Gabrielli

Caterer

Antonio Garcia

Production Accountant

Steve Gawley

Visual Effects

Tim Geideman

Other

George Gibbs

Digital Effects Supervisor

Carlos Gil

Assistant Director

Ray Gilberti

Camera Assistant

Nick Gillard

Stunts

Terry Glass

Special Effects

Don Glasshoff

Other

Michael Gleason

Editor

Norman Godden

Camera

Benny Goodman And His Orchestra

Song

Bradley M Goodman

Assistant

Martin Grace

Stunts

Chris Green

Animator

Paul Guraedy

Assistant

Darrell Guyon

Special Effects

Joanne Hafner

Rotoscope Animator

Jim Hagedorn

Camera Operator

Hilary Haines

Hairdresser

Graham Hall

Assistant Camera Operator

Christopher Hamilton

Location Manager

David Hanks

Camera Assistant

Barbara Harley

Assistant

Robert Wayne Harris

Cable Operator

Patricia Harrison

Assistant Camera Operator

Don Hartley

Dolly Grip

John Hatley

Stunts

Bernard Hearn

Props

Nick Heckstall-smith

Assistant Director

Frank Henry

Carpenter

Ilona Herman

Makeup

David Heron

Other

Rebecca Heskes

Rotoscope Animator

Lil Heyman

Other

Pauline Heys

Makeup

Freddie Hice

Stunts

Peter Hodgson

Video Assist/Playback

Fred Hole

Art Director

Fran Horneff

Consultant

Billy Horrigan

Stunts

Peter Howitt

Set Decorator

Simon Hume

Assistant Camera Operator

Simon Hume

Other

Peg Hunger

Other

David Hunter

Special Effects

John Hurley

Other

Paul Huston

Visual Effects

Sandy Huston

Rotoscope Animator

Gary Hutchings

Grip

Richard Hymns

Sound Editor

Tommy Ibbetson

Propman

Charles Ixer

Props

Sally Jackson

Casting

Colin Jamison

Hairdresser

Janet Jamison

Hairdresser

Bob Jaurequi

Stunts

Jeff Jensen

Stunts

Mike Jobe

Puppeteer

David Jonas

Production

Michael Kahn

Editor

David Karpman

Other

Alan S Kaye

Set Designer

Gene Kearney

Key Grip

Ira Keeler

Visual Effects

Ian C Kelly

Video Assist/Playback

Steve Kelso

Stunts

Martin Kenzie

Assistant Camera Operator

Martin Kenzie

Other

Hubie Kerns Jr.

Stunts

Patrick Kinney

Assistant Director

Film Details

Also Known As
Indiana Jones e l'Ultima Crociata, Indiana Jones et la Derniere Croisade, Indiana Jones och det sista korst├ąget
MPAA Rating
Release Date
1989
Production Company
Robert Wayne Harris
Distribution Company
Paramount Pictures
Location
Borehamwood, England, United Kingdom; West Germany; Colorado, USA; Almeria, Spain; Texas, USA; Arizona, USA; California, USA; Utah, USA; Venice, Italy; Elstree Studios, London, England, United Kingdom; San Luis Valley, New Mexico, USA; Jordan

Technical Specs

Duration
2h 7m

Award Wins

Best Sound Effects Sound Editing

1989

Award Nominations

Best Score

1989

Best Sound

1989

Articles

The Adventures of Indiana Jones on DVD


Since its advent, DVD technology has created a new and wholly original generation of movie collectors. Not content with bulky VHS tapes, film fans have embraced the slender, attractive, and affordably collectible DVD like it's a priceless artifact. Now available from Paramount is the Golden Fleece of DVD, The Adventures of Indiana Jones. (The Holy Grail of DVD would be the first Star Wars trilogy, rumored for a late 2004 release.) Breathlessly awaited by legions of fans, the four-disc set, encompassing Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984), Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989), and a fourth disc of marvelous special features, does not leave you wishing for more, not even an audio commentary track. The blockbuster success of the Indy trilogy, both in terms of dollars and endless imitations, may have dimmed since the "final" chapter The Last Crusade debuted in 1989 (a fourth film, Indiana Jones and the fill-in-the-blank-here, is currently in the pre-production phase, projected for a Summer 2005 release), but these discs are an excellent reminder of how much fun are The Adventures of Indiana Jones.

The first film in the series, Raiders of the Lost Ark, was released in May of 1981, shortly after executive producer George Lucas' sublime The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and director Steven Spielberg's titanic misfire, 1941 (1979). While basking in the radiant glow of their recent respective successes, Star Wars (1977) and Jaws (1975), Lucas and Spielberg dreamed up the Indiana Jones character, while vacationing in Hawaii.

For those who have never seen Mr. Jones' tales of wonder, Raiders of the Lost Ark introduces Indiana Jones (named Indiana Smith in earlier drafts of the script) as a renowned archaeologist, college professor, and adventurer who is more adept at plunging into ancient, snake-infested tombs than in reacting to a smitten student's clever come-on. Indy is a nostalgic throwback to the hero of the Republic Studios serials that Lucas and Spielberg grew up on, as well as a postmodern statement on movie heroism. Indy is sort of an "anti-James Bond": rugged, rough and ready, but exasperated, professorial, and prone to groan and bleed when hurt. Raiders finds Indy squaring off against the old-standby of cinematic heavies, the Nazis, in a relentless game of "keep-away" with God's long-lost box, the Ark of the Covenant. Indy is convinced the Ark belongs in a museum where it can be studied and marveled over, while the Nazis are bent on opening the thing and turning it into a Hopelessness Chest for the free world. The film has it all: Unbelievable stunt sequences that still have not been equaled for their sheer fun and inventiveness; a legendary, majestic score by John Williams that is still stuck in many moviegoers' heads; and superb performances that really have no business being in a popcorn escapist film. All of this, plus God showing the Nazis who's boss. In this era of advanced CGI, the simple effect used to wipe away the Nazis in a maelstrom of Yahweh anger is still truly frightening. Small children and the squeamish should avert their eyes.

The worldwide success of Raiders in dollars and critical accolades, including the winning of several Academy Awards and even a nomination for Best Picture, pressure-cooked the demand for a sequel, a demand that Spielberg and Lucas were already prepared for, having planned on making a trilogy anyway. But they still needed a story on which to hang their first sequel. Screenwriting team Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz were called in to develop a story set in India, since the twosome were familiar with the country and its culture. Using several set pieces that were carried over from Raiders (including the river rafting and the mine car sequences), they came up with Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984), a dark tale of the intrepid adventurer coming to the rescue of an impoverished Indian village that has suffered twin debilitating losses: their children and three sacred, life-giving rocks, all stolen by the Thugee killer cult that is spiritually poisoning the region under the legitimizing front of the Maharaja. Note the ingenuous way in which Indy gets out of a pickle on a suspension bridge in the film's thrilling climax. It's a potent, gutsy, and shocking solution that you don't see much in action adventure films.

Lucas and Spielberg meant for the second Indy adventure to be darker in tone, a horror movie even, but it turned out to be much darker than either one of them thought. Lucas opines in the documentary on the making of the film that perhaps the darker tone had to do with the divorce he was going through at the time of production. This darker tone was practically pitch black, thanks to gruesome scenes of a character having his beating heart taken out of his chest, slave children put under the whip of Thugee henchmen, and a over-the-top gross-out dinner scene, consisting of all sorts of macabre munchies. But perhaps the most disturbing plot point has Indy turning into a mindless Thugee zombie. It could be argued that many a serial's hero was temporarily placed under the spell of the villain, but in a film already surrounded by so much ugliness, this plot point is wholly unnecessary. It's no wonder that this film and the malevolent, Spielberg-produced Gremlins (1984) were responsible for the motion picture rating, PG-13.

Less offensive than the darker tone is Kate Capshaw's character, Willie Scott (named after Spielberg's dog--Indy was named after Lucas' dog), who is nearly as annoying as Jar-Jar Binks in Lucas' Star Wars, Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1998). But to Capshaw's credit, she portrayed the whining, selfish, vain, screaming Willie as written. So blame Willie Scott on screenwriters Huyck and Katz, who also floated for us Howard the Duck in 1986. The documentary gamely addresses the screaming criticism, as well as the gripe that Willie Scott is just another stereotypical woman. That is all true, but her character is at least consistent. A bigger negative of the first and third films are the inconsistent characters. When we first meet the heroine Marion Ravenwood in Raiders, she is literally drinking a heavy oaf of a man under the table, portraying a gutsy femininity that would be a help to globe-trotting Indy, rather than an hindrance. And yet, when she is chased through the streets of Cairo by Nazi stooges, she's reduced to wielding a frying pan when not protesting loudly, "You can't do this to me. I'm an American!" And Denholm Elliot's Marcus Brody in Raiders is almost a totally different character in The Last Crusade. He acts as a grounding agent for Indy in Raiders, reminding him of the dangers involved and what finding the lost Ark of Covenant means to humanity and to Indy. No one can gravely say "Wiped clean by the wrath of God" quite like the Denholm Elliot and mean it. But in The Last Crusade, Brody is simply comic relief, which is fine, but instead of an intellectual-fish-out-of-water trying to keep up with the Joneses, Brody's a doddering fool in the Jerry Lewis tradition.

Stinging slightly from the criticism incurred from The Temple of Doom, Spielberg and Lucas came home again with the third film in the series, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989). Originally intended to be a haunted castle adventure, the creators wisely got Indy back out in the open, hoping across the globe in places like Venice, instead of being cooped up in one setting, like the Thugee temple in the last film. Spielberg and Lucas came up with a quest for the Holy Grail, even though that search had been the basis of a legendary search by some guy named Arthur and a gang of knights. The filmmaking duo reasoned that the search for the Holy Grail would really be a metaphor for Indy's search for redemption and reconciliation with his estranged father, Professor Henry Jones, Sr., played by a welcome Sean Connery. Back again were the Nazis, this time led by duplicitous American Walter Donovan (Julian Glover), a entrepreneur more interested in the Grail rather than Nazis ideology. Donovan is much like Belloq from Raiders, only without the Frenchman's worldly sex appeal. The Last Crusade was unfairly criticized for being too much like Raiders. Admittedly, Crusade's well-done tank chase does seem derivative of Raider's truck chase, but the development of Indy's character through the lens of his troubled relationship with the Senior Jones makes for a compelling and entirely fresh Indiana Jones chapter.

All three segments of The Adventures of Indiana Jones are steeped in a wink-wink-nudge-nudge game of cinematic "allusionism." Aside from the obvious nods to the Republic serials that inspired the film series in the first place, homage to and inspiration from the films that made up Spielberg and Lucas' movie-going heritage are replete. The government bureaucrats who hire Indy to find the Ark in Raiders bear a suspicious resemblance to Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, while the ignominy of the Ark's fate quotes the famous ending to Citizen Kane (1941). Indiana's adversaries in The Temple of Doom are the Thugee cult, a malevolent tribe of religious zealots who also served as bloodthirsty villains for British soldiers Cary Grant, Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., and Victor McLaglen in the classic Gunga Din (1939). The throwbacks to old Hollywood were especially helpful when it came time for Spielberg and Lucas to fill their cast. Karen Allen brought to the role of Marion Ravenwood a saltiness that Carole Lombard possessed, while Spielberg insisted that Ford instill Humphrey Bogart into his characterization of Indy. The lead villain, Frenchman Belloq (played by the fine Paul Freeman), may be a humorous nod to one of Spielberg's mentors, Francois Truffaut, while sniveling, sadistic SS agent Toht (Ronald Lacey) was creepy in the Peter Lorre tradition. As numerous as the allusions to old classics, there are just as many to Lucas' Star Wars (1977), which shares many of the same crew members with Raiders. The excellent documentary shows the detail of an engraving of R2-D2 and C-3PO on a column in the Well of the Souls from Raiders. And let us not forget Club Obi-Wan in The Temple of Doom.

The documentary, which can be divided up into three chapters, each covering one film, is a treasure trove of interviews. Aside from Lucas, Spielberg, and Ford, cast members from all three films are represented. Karen Allen, Kate Capshaw and Alison Doody all share their experiences of being put through the Indy wringer, while John Rhys-Davies, Alfred Molina (soon to star as Dr. Octopus in another sure-fire winner, Spider-Man 2, set for Summer 2004), Paul Freeman, Ke Huy Quan, Roshan Seth and Sean Connery all voice their take on their supporting characters and the films. Interviews with late co-stars Denholm Elliot and River Phoenix are welcome and insightful. Behind-the-scenes participants are given their due, from cinematographer Douglas Slocombe and producer Robert Watts to screenwriters Lawrence Kasdan (Raiders), Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz (The Temple of Doom) and stunt coordinator Glen Randall. Unfortunately, the documentary makes no mention of Jeffrey Boam, screenwriter of The Last Crusade, who died in 2000.

The documentary takes into account the development of all three films, from conceptual pow-wows, through scriptwriting, production, casting and release. The quality of the documentaries, written, directed and produced by frequent Spielberg DVD collaborator Laurent Bouzereau, are top-notch. They utilize concept drawings, full-scale models, and original screen tests to tell the painstaking story of each film's evolution. More valuable is the abundance of on-set footage. Cast and crew work through tricky production problems, such as the realization that 2,000 snakes for the Well of the Souls scene in Raiders were woefully inadequate. Solution: producer Frank Marshall wrangles 7,000 more slithering reptiles for the sequence. (And speaking of snakes, the famous gaffe, that of the cobra's visible reflection in the glass that protected Harrison Ford, has been digitally erased for the DVD.) The footage is also a fun window into the filmmakers clowning around, rehearsing scenes, and a rare peek into deleted scenes, included one where Sallah is about to be executed by a German soldier.

Rarer still is the documentary's coverage of the casting process. Peter Coyote, Tim Matheson, and Tom Selleck all tested for Indiana Jones, even though Spielberg initially wanted Harrison Ford. Lucas was reluctant to cast Ford, since Ford had already been in three of Lucas' film. He didn't want Ford to be his "Bobby DeNiro," a reference to the frequent partnership between actor Robert DeNiro and director Martin Scorsese. But after Tom Selleck had to turn down the offered part due to commitments with his new television series, Magnum, P.I., Ford was cast. Similarly, Spielberg really wanted Danny DeVito to play Sallah, but DeVito couldn't do it because of his role on the television series Taxi. Sean Young tested for Marion Ravenwood, but Karen Allen was the overwhelming favorite for Spielberg and Lucas. Screen tests of Selleck and Young, Matheson and Allen, and Kate Capshaw can all be seen in the documentaries.

In addition to the truly excellent documentary, there are several featurettes which delve into the more nuanced areas of production. "The Stunts of Indiana Jones" is a fine crash course in the efforts to bring Indiana's derring-do to the screen. Vic Armstrong, who doubled Ford in I>Raiders, and served as Stunt Arranger for studio shooting in The Temple of Doom and as Stunt Coordinator for The Last Crusade, discusses how a stuntman prepares for a trick and how he or she contributes to the overall production. Stuntman Terry Leonard took the bumpy ride for Indy underneath the moving truck in Raiders, a stunt that was based on a maneuver pioneered by legendary stuntman Yakima Canutt, performed for director John Ford's Stagecoach (1939). Leonard notes that ever since he unsuccessfully attempted the stunt for the The Legend of the Lone Ranger (1981), he had been itching to try it again. With fellow stuntman Glen Randall at the wheel of the truck, Leonard was confidant the stunt would work.

Other featurettes include the marvelous "The Sound of Indiana Jones," featuring the unique and Oscar-winning talents of Ben Burtt (who came up with, among many other things, the lightsaber sounds in the Star Wars pictures), The Music of Indiana Jones," and "The Light and Magic of Indiana Jones," which discusses how Industrial Light and Magic created the films' special effects.

The Adventures of Indiana Jones is a near-perfect presentation of three grand entertainments. It is annoying that Paramount has re-named the first film Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark, but that is a small quibble with a fine boxed set. Now the only question is whether or not Paramount will release a whole different Indiana Jones set when and if the fourth Indy movie is released. But for now, this Golden Fleece set is a grand addition to your DVD museum.

To order The Adventures of Indiana Jones - The Complete DVD Movie Collection (Letterboxed Edition), go to TCM Shopping.

by Scott McGee
The Adventures Of Indiana Jones On Dvd

The Adventures of Indiana Jones on DVD

Since its advent, DVD technology has created a new and wholly original generation of movie collectors. Not content with bulky VHS tapes, film fans have embraced the slender, attractive, and affordably collectible DVD like it's a priceless artifact. Now available from Paramount is the Golden Fleece of DVD, The Adventures of Indiana Jones. (The Holy Grail of DVD would be the first Star Wars trilogy, rumored for a late 2004 release.) Breathlessly awaited by legions of fans, the four-disc set, encompassing Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984), Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989), and a fourth disc of marvelous special features, does not leave you wishing for more, not even an audio commentary track. The blockbuster success of the Indy trilogy, both in terms of dollars and endless imitations, may have dimmed since the "final" chapter The Last Crusade debuted in 1989 (a fourth film, Indiana Jones and the fill-in-the-blank-here, is currently in the pre-production phase, projected for a Summer 2005 release), but these discs are an excellent reminder of how much fun are The Adventures of Indiana Jones. The first film in the series, Raiders of the Lost Ark, was released in May of 1981, shortly after executive producer George Lucas' sublime The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and director Steven Spielberg's titanic misfire, 1941 (1979). While basking in the radiant glow of their recent respective successes, Star Wars (1977) and Jaws (1975), Lucas and Spielberg dreamed up the Indiana Jones character, while vacationing in Hawaii. For those who have never seen Mr. Jones' tales of wonder, Raiders of the Lost Ark introduces Indiana Jones (named Indiana Smith in earlier drafts of the script) as a renowned archaeologist, college professor, and adventurer who is more adept at plunging into ancient, snake-infested tombs than in reacting to a smitten student's clever come-on. Indy is a nostalgic throwback to the hero of the Republic Studios serials that Lucas and Spielberg grew up on, as well as a postmodern statement on movie heroism. Indy is sort of an "anti-James Bond": rugged, rough and ready, but exasperated, professorial, and prone to groan and bleed when hurt. Raiders finds Indy squaring off against the old-standby of cinematic heavies, the Nazis, in a relentless game of "keep-away" with God's long-lost box, the Ark of the Covenant. Indy is convinced the Ark belongs in a museum where it can be studied and marveled over, while the Nazis are bent on opening the thing and turning it into a Hopelessness Chest for the free world. The film has it all: Unbelievable stunt sequences that still have not been equaled for their sheer fun and inventiveness; a legendary, majestic score by John Williams that is still stuck in many moviegoers' heads; and superb performances that really have no business being in a popcorn escapist film. All of this, plus God showing the Nazis who's boss. In this era of advanced CGI, the simple effect used to wipe away the Nazis in a maelstrom of Yahweh anger is still truly frightening. Small children and the squeamish should avert their eyes. The worldwide success of Raiders in dollars and critical accolades, including the winning of several Academy Awards and even a nomination for Best Picture, pressure-cooked the demand for a sequel, a demand that Spielberg and Lucas were already prepared for, having planned on making a trilogy anyway. But they still needed a story on which to hang their first sequel. Screenwriting team Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz were called in to develop a story set in India, since the twosome were familiar with the country and its culture. Using several set pieces that were carried over from Raiders (including the river rafting and the mine car sequences), they came up with Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984), a dark tale of the intrepid adventurer coming to the rescue of an impoverished Indian village that has suffered twin debilitating losses: their children and three sacred, life-giving rocks, all stolen by the Thugee killer cult that is spiritually poisoning the region under the legitimizing front of the Maharaja. Note the ingenuous way in which Indy gets out of a pickle on a suspension bridge in the film's thrilling climax. It's a potent, gutsy, and shocking solution that you don't see much in action adventure films. Lucas and Spielberg meant for the second Indy adventure to be darker in tone, a horror movie even, but it turned out to be much darker than either one of them thought. Lucas opines in the documentary on the making of the film that perhaps the darker tone had to do with the divorce he was going through at the time of production. This darker tone was practically pitch black, thanks to gruesome scenes of a character having his beating heart taken out of his chest, slave children put under the whip of Thugee henchmen, and a over-the-top gross-out dinner scene, consisting of all sorts of macabre munchies. But perhaps the most disturbing plot point has Indy turning into a mindless Thugee zombie. It could be argued that many a serial's hero was temporarily placed under the spell of the villain, but in a film already surrounded by so much ugliness, this plot point is wholly unnecessary. It's no wonder that this film and the malevolent, Spielberg-produced Gremlins (1984) were responsible for the motion picture rating, PG-13. Less offensive than the darker tone is Kate Capshaw's character, Willie Scott (named after Spielberg's dog--Indy was named after Lucas' dog), who is nearly as annoying as Jar-Jar Binks in Lucas' Star Wars, Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1998). But to Capshaw's credit, she portrayed the whining, selfish, vain, screaming Willie as written. So blame Willie Scott on screenwriters Huyck and Katz, who also floated for us Howard the Duck in 1986. The documentary gamely addresses the screaming criticism, as well as the gripe that Willie Scott is just another stereotypical woman. That is all true, but her character is at least consistent. A bigger negative of the first and third films are the inconsistent characters. When we first meet the heroine Marion Ravenwood in Raiders, she is literally drinking a heavy oaf of a man under the table, portraying a gutsy femininity that would be a help to globe-trotting Indy, rather than an hindrance. And yet, when she is chased through the streets of Cairo by Nazi stooges, she's reduced to wielding a frying pan when not protesting loudly, "You can't do this to me. I'm an American!" And Denholm Elliot's Marcus Brody in Raiders is almost a totally different character in The Last Crusade. He acts as a grounding agent for Indy in Raiders, reminding him of the dangers involved and what finding the lost Ark of Covenant means to humanity and to Indy. No one can gravely say "Wiped clean by the wrath of God" quite like the Denholm Elliot and mean it. But in The Last Crusade, Brody is simply comic relief, which is fine, but instead of an intellectual-fish-out-of-water trying to keep up with the Joneses, Brody's a doddering fool in the Jerry Lewis tradition. Stinging slightly from the criticism incurred from The Temple of Doom, Spielberg and Lucas came home again with the third film in the series, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989). Originally intended to be a haunted castle adventure, the creators wisely got Indy back out in the open, hoping across the globe in places like Venice, instead of being cooped up in one setting, like the Thugee temple in the last film. Spielberg and Lucas came up with a quest for the Holy Grail, even though that search had been the basis of a legendary search by some guy named Arthur and a gang of knights. The filmmaking duo reasoned that the search for the Holy Grail would really be a metaphor for Indy's search for redemption and reconciliation with his estranged father, Professor Henry Jones, Sr., played by a welcome Sean Connery. Back again were the Nazis, this time led by duplicitous American Walter Donovan (Julian Glover), a entrepreneur more interested in the Grail rather than Nazis ideology. Donovan is much like Belloq from Raiders, only without the Frenchman's worldly sex appeal. The Last Crusade was unfairly criticized for being too much like Raiders. Admittedly, Crusade's well-done tank chase does seem derivative of Raider's truck chase, but the development of Indy's character through the lens of his troubled relationship with the Senior Jones makes for a compelling and entirely fresh Indiana Jones chapter. All three segments of The Adventures of Indiana Jones are steeped in a wink-wink-nudge-nudge game of cinematic "allusionism." Aside from the obvious nods to the Republic serials that inspired the film series in the first place, homage to and inspiration from the films that made up Spielberg and Lucas' movie-going heritage are replete. The government bureaucrats who hire Indy to find the Ark in Raiders bear a suspicious resemblance to Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, while the ignominy of the Ark's fate quotes the famous ending to Citizen Kane (1941). Indiana's adversaries in The Temple of Doom are the Thugee cult, a malevolent tribe of religious zealots who also served as bloodthirsty villains for British soldiers Cary Grant, Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., and Victor McLaglen in the classic Gunga Din (1939). The throwbacks to old Hollywood were especially helpful when it came time for Spielberg and Lucas to fill their cast. Karen Allen brought to the role of Marion Ravenwood a saltiness that Carole Lombard possessed, while Spielberg insisted that Ford instill Humphrey Bogart into his characterization of Indy. The lead villain, Frenchman Belloq (played by the fine Paul Freeman), may be a humorous nod to one of Spielberg's mentors, Francois Truffaut, while sniveling, sadistic SS agent Toht (Ronald Lacey) was creepy in the Peter Lorre tradition. As numerous as the allusions to old classics, there are just as many to Lucas' Star Wars (1977), which shares many of the same crew members with Raiders. The excellent documentary shows the detail of an engraving of R2-D2 and C-3PO on a column in the Well of the Souls from Raiders. And let us not forget Club Obi-Wan in The Temple of Doom. The documentary, which can be divided up into three chapters, each covering one film, is a treasure trove of interviews. Aside from Lucas, Spielberg, and Ford, cast members from all three films are represented. Karen Allen, Kate Capshaw and Alison Doody all share their experiences of being put through the Indy wringer, while John Rhys-Davies, Alfred Molina (soon to star as Dr. Octopus in another sure-fire winner, Spider-Man 2, set for Summer 2004), Paul Freeman, Ke Huy Quan, Roshan Seth and Sean Connery all voice their take on their supporting characters and the films. Interviews with late co-stars Denholm Elliot and River Phoenix are welcome and insightful. Behind-the-scenes participants are given their due, from cinematographer Douglas Slocombe and producer Robert Watts to screenwriters Lawrence Kasdan (Raiders), Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz (The Temple of Doom) and stunt coordinator Glen Randall. Unfortunately, the documentary makes no mention of Jeffrey Boam, screenwriter of The Last Crusade, who died in 2000. The documentary takes into account the development of all three films, from conceptual pow-wows, through scriptwriting, production, casting and release. The quality of the documentaries, written, directed and produced by frequent Spielberg DVD collaborator Laurent Bouzereau, are top-notch. They utilize concept drawings, full-scale models, and original screen tests to tell the painstaking story of each film's evolution. More valuable is the abundance of on-set footage. Cast and crew work through tricky production problems, such as the realization that 2,000 snakes for the Well of the Souls scene in Raiders were woefully inadequate. Solution: producer Frank Marshall wrangles 7,000 more slithering reptiles for the sequence. (And speaking of snakes, the famous gaffe, that of the cobra's visible reflection in the glass that protected Harrison Ford, has been digitally erased for the DVD.) The footage is also a fun window into the filmmakers clowning around, rehearsing scenes, and a rare peek into deleted scenes, included one where Sallah is about to be executed by a German soldier. Rarer still is the documentary's coverage of the casting process. Peter Coyote, Tim Matheson, and Tom Selleck all tested for Indiana Jones, even though Spielberg initially wanted Harrison Ford. Lucas was reluctant to cast Ford, since Ford had already been in three of Lucas' film. He didn't want Ford to be his "Bobby DeNiro," a reference to the frequent partnership between actor Robert DeNiro and director Martin Scorsese. But after Tom Selleck had to turn down the offered part due to commitments with his new television series, Magnum, P.I., Ford was cast. Similarly, Spielberg really wanted Danny DeVito to play Sallah, but DeVito couldn't do it because of his role on the television series Taxi. Sean Young tested for Marion Ravenwood, but Karen Allen was the overwhelming favorite for Spielberg and Lucas. Screen tests of Selleck and Young, Matheson and Allen, and Kate Capshaw can all be seen in the documentaries. In addition to the truly excellent documentary, there are several featurettes which delve into the more nuanced areas of production. "The Stunts of Indiana Jones" is a fine crash course in the efforts to bring Indiana's derring-do to the screen. Vic Armstrong, who doubled Ford in I>Raiders, and served as Stunt Arranger for studio shooting in The Temple of Doom and as Stunt Coordinator for The Last Crusade, discusses how a stuntman prepares for a trick and how he or she contributes to the overall production. Stuntman Terry Leonard took the bumpy ride for Indy underneath the moving truck in Raiders, a stunt that was based on a maneuver pioneered by legendary stuntman Yakima Canutt, performed for director John Ford's Stagecoach (1939). Leonard notes that ever since he unsuccessfully attempted the stunt for the The Legend of the Lone Ranger (1981), he had been itching to try it again. With fellow stuntman Glen Randall at the wheel of the truck, Leonard was confidant the stunt would work. Other featurettes include the marvelous "The Sound of Indiana Jones," featuring the unique and Oscar-winning talents of Ben Burtt (who came up with, among many other things, the lightsaber sounds in the Star Wars pictures), The Music of Indiana Jones," and "The Light and Magic of Indiana Jones," which discusses how Industrial Light and Magic created the films' special effects. The Adventures of Indiana Jones is a near-perfect presentation of three grand entertainments. It is annoying that Paramount has re-named the first film Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark, but that is a small quibble with a fine boxed set. Now the only question is whether or not Paramount will release a whole different Indiana Jones set when and if the fourth Indy movie is released. But for now, this Golden Fleece set is a grand addition to your DVD museum. To order The Adventures of Indiana Jones - The Complete DVD Movie Collection (Letterboxed Edition), go to TCM Shopping. by Scott McGee

Quotes

Trivia

Miscellaneous Notes

Released in United States Summer May 24, 1989

Released in United States on Video February 1, 1990

Released in United States June 27, 1989

Released in United States August 1989

Released in United States September 1989

Shown at Norwegian Film Festival in Haugesund August 19-25, 1989.

Shown at Venice Film Festival (out of competition) September 4-15, 1989.

Shown at Deauville Film Festival September 1-11, 1989.

Sequel to "Raiders of the Lost Ark" (USA/1981), directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Harrison Ford and Karen Allen.

Began shooting May 16, 1988.

Completed shooting October 1988.

Wide release in England June 30, 1989.

Released in United States on Video February 1, 1990

Released in United States June 27, 1989 (Royal charity premiere in London to benefit the Prince's Trust June 27, 1989.)

Released in United States August 1989 (Shown at Norwegian Film Festival in Haugesund August 19-25, 1989.)

Released in United States September 1989 (Shown at Venice Film Festival (out of competition) September 4-15, 1989.)

Released in United States September 1989 (Shown at Deauville Film Festival September 1-11, 1989.)

Released in United States Summer May 24, 1989