Lee Tracy


Actor
Lee Tracy

About

Also Known As
William Lee Tracy
Birth Place
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Born
April 14, 1898
Died
October 18, 1968

Biography

If any one actor is emblematic of the early years of talking pictures, it's Lee Tracy. As one of the fastest mouths in the West, he helped usher in sound with a dazzling cascade of words, many of them the product of writers quickly imported from the worlds of theatre, radio and burlesque to fill the new medium's need for spoken dialogue. All that dialogue required experienced actors t...

Biography

If any one actor is emblematic of the early years of talking pictures, it's Lee Tracy. As one of the fastest mouths in the West, he helped usher in sound with a dazzling cascade of words, many of them the product of writers quickly imported from the worlds of theatre, radio and burlesque to fill the new medium's need for spoken dialogue. All that dialogue required experienced actors to bring it to life, making stage-trained performers like Tracy a necessity. But these writers also brought a tougher viewpoint than had been seen in the more romantic silent era. And Tracy had the hard edge, even in comedy, to capture their more cynical, hard-nosed view of life and the stronger subject matter on display in the years before strict Production Code enforcement.

The Atlanta native was born in 1898 and relocated to New York with his family at an early age, studying engineering at Union College. He was about to give that up to join a theatre company when the U.S. entered World War I, and he joined the Army. In the post-war period, he went to work for the Treasury Department, but the lure of the stage was too strong and he started appearing in vaudeville and working on tour. Then he had the good fortune to make his Broadway bow in a hit, George Kelly's The Show Off, in which he played the leading man's inventor brother. Tracy quickly made a name for himself on stage with back-to-back successes as a song-and-dance man mixed up with gangsters in Phillip Dunning and George Abbott's Broadway and as Hildy Johnson, the fast-talking reporter in Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur's The Front Page. But he was also developing a reputation of another kind -- for heavy drinking and temperamental outbursts.

Nonetheless, he was among the flood of stage talent imported to Hollywood with the dawn of the talking picture era. He first signed with Fox, where he made an unbilled debut as a radio announcer in the football drama Salute (1929), starring George O'Brien and Helen Chandler. Then he moved to top billing for his first credited film, the vaudeville drama Big Time (1929). His best role at Fox was the gangster who gets Charles Farrell killed in Liliom (1930), the non-musical version of the play that would become Carousel. After a year, however, Tracy had tired of Fox and moved on to Warner Bros.

Warner Bros. was the perfect setting for Tracy, with its realistic, timely stories and rat-a-tat dialogue. He made seven films there in 1932, starting with The Strange Love of Molly Louvain. Although he got to play a reporter, the real focus of the film is Ann Dvorak, a fallen woman if ever there was one. Made in the confessional style so popular in the pre-Code days, the film follows Dvorak through a youthful indiscretion, illegitimate pregnancy and marriage to a small-time hood who tricks her into a life of crime. Tracy got behind the news desk again in Love Is a Racket, but only in a supporting role as Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.'s fellow reporter, with both caught up in the murder of gangster Lyle Talbot. In Doctor X he was the wisecracking reporter who cracks the case of a cannibalistic serial killer. Made to cash in on the success of Universal's horror classics Dracula and Frankenstein (both 1931), the film combined their sense of lurking, gothic menace with a more American setting, with Tracy's performance an essential part of that mix. Perhaps his best vehicle there was Blessed Event (1932), as a Broadway gossip columnist based on Walter Winchell. Among the victims of his barbed pen are crooner Dick Powell, in his big-screen debut, gangster Edwin Maxwell and pregnant nightclub singer Isabel Jewell.

After leaving Warner's, Tracy freelanced briefly, landing at RKO for The Half Naked Truth (1932), which gave him his other great on-screen profession -- publicity man. His job is to turn sideshow dancer Lupe Velez into a Broadway star, as long as he can keep all of his lies straight. Then, Tracy moved to MGM, surprisingly finding some pretty strong roles at Hollywood's House of Glamour. His first MGM film cast him as, what else, a reporter. Clear All Wires! (1933) proved the studio could match any other in Hollywood in producing a fast-paced newspaper yarn. This time Tracy's an international correspondent whose unscrupulous methods put him out of a job and land him in a Moscow prison.

Seeking to re-capture the all-star magic of Grand Hotel (1932), producer David O. Selznick cast Tracy alongside John Barrymore, Jean Harlow, Wallace Beery, Lionel Barrymore and Marie Dressler in an adaptation of the hit stage comedy Dinner at Eight (1933), directed by George Cukor. Tracy was ideally cast as Max Kane, the theatrical agent of faded star Larry Renault (John Barrymore), who ultimately turns on his star after one-too-many insults and disappointments. Even with a star-making turn by Jean Harlow, Dressler's irrepressible scene stealing and Barrymore's moving suicide scene, Tracy held his own.

Tracy is almost the entire show in Turn Back the Clock (1933), as a humble shop owner who gets the chance to do it all over again when he goes back in time to the moment when he could have married into money. Then he got his other great MGM role, as a studio publicity man who courts blonde Bombshell (1933) Harlow by circulating scandalous rumors about her and getting in the middle of her romances with other men. Under Victor Fleming's direction, the two stars seem to be competing to see who can spit out the John Lee Mahin-Jules Furthman screenplay faster, which makes for a rollicking good time.

The good times started getting in the way of Tracy's career at that point. His reputation for hard drinking and bad temper had grown significantly over the years. He was cast as a reporter covering Pancho Villa's escapades in Viva Villa! (1934), but during location shooting his behavior triggered an international scandal. Whether, as some sources report, he became drunk and urinated on a military parade, or, as others suggest, he was simply involved in an exchange of obscene gestures he did not initiate, he was fired from the film along with director Howard Hawks, who took his side in the matter (they were replaced by actor Stu Erwin and director Jack Conway). In addition, the studio canceled Tracy's contract. The one beneficiary of the event was Spencer Tracy, whose heavy drinking had just cost him his contract at Fox. MGM hired him to fill the spot left vacant by Tracy's absence, setting the stage for his rise to major stardom.

Tracy worked without a studio contract from then on, though the quality of his films began to slide. In the first of several pictures for RKO, he with Gloria Stuart played a pair of postal investigators in Wanted: Jane Turner (1936). The studio then cast him as a Criminal Lawyer (1937) who tries to break free of his past associates to become district attorney. They sent him Behind the Headlines (1937) as a radio reporter out to save his former girlfriend from kidnappers. As a screenwriter in Crashing Hollywood (1938), he hires ex-con Paul Guilfoyle to help him write authentic gangster films, which brings the mob down on their heads. He got at least a bit of MGM when RKO borrowed their child star Virginia Weidler to play a circus orphan he helps out as Fixer Dugan (1939). It was back to court for The Spellbinder (1939) as an unscrupulous criminal lawyer whose daughter marries the killer he's just gotten off. And he finished his tenure at RKO as a convict who takes four Millionaires in Prison (1940) under his wing.

Pretty much finished with Hollywood, Tracy returned to the stage, scoring a personal hit in the London company of Robert E. Sherwood's Pulitzer Prize-winning comedy-drama Idiot's Delight, in the role originally played by Alfred Lunt. He also managed to clean up his act and make a go of his marriage to Helen Thomas Wyse, a young woman outside the worlds of film and theatre. During this period, he only made sporadic returns to the screen, mostly in low-budget films like RKO's Betrayal from the East (1945) in which he plays a double agent before World War II, torn between his Japanese handler, Philip Ahn, and beautiful woman of mystery Nancy Kelly. After a visit to Monogram for High Tide (1947), he dropped out of the movies for 17 years.

That was hardly idle time for Tracy. He continued active on stage, starring in revivals of The Show Off, this time in the leading role, and Idiot's Delight. But television was his real bread and butter. He guested in numerous series and even starred in three of his own, as a sophisticated criminal lawyer in The Amazing Mr. Malone, as the famous private eye in Martin Kane and as a crusading reporter in New York Confidential.

There was one more great role waiting for him. When Gore Vidal put his thoughts about presidential politics into his play The Best Man, Tracy won the role of former present Arthur Hockstader, loosely based on Harry S. Truman. He was a natural as the plain-talking liberal leader and won a Tony nomination for his performance. When the play was filmed in 1964, he was the only original cast member in the film, alongside Henry Fonda and Cliff Robertson. He earned an OscarĀ® nomination for Best Supporting actor, but lost to Peter Ustinov in Topkapi.

Tracy finished his career with a trio of TV guest shots, bowing out after appearing on an episode of the medical drama Ben Casey. He passed away from liver cancer in 1968 at the age of 70, leaving the world a drabber, somewhat slower place.

TCM's Summer Under the Stars pays tribute to Lee Tracy with 17 films -- Blessed Event (1932), Doctor X (1932), Love Is a Racket (1932), The Strange Love of Molly Louvain (1932), Bombshell (1933), Clear All Wires! (1933), Dinner at Eight (1933), The Half Naked Truth (1932), Turn Back the Clock (1933), Wanted: Jane Turner (1936), Behind the Headlines (1937), Criminal Lawyer (1937), Crashing Hollywood (1938), Fixer Dugan (1939), The Spellbinder (1939), Millionaires in Prison (1940) and Betrayal from the East (1945).

Filmography

 

Cast (Feature Film)

The Best Man (1964)
Art Hockstader
High Tide (1947)
Hugh Fresney
I'll Tell the World (1945)
Gabriel ["Gabby"] Patton [Jr.]
Betrayal from the East (1945)
Eddie Carter
The Pay Off (1943)
Brad McKay
Power of the Press (1943)
Griff Thompson
Millionaires in Prison (1940)
Nick Burton
The Spellbinder (1939)
Jed Marlow
Fixer Dugan (1939)
Charlie "The Fixer" Dugan
Crashing Hollywood (1938)
Michael Winston
Behind the Headlines (1937)
Eddie Haines
Criminal Lawyer (1937)
[Barry] Brandon
Sutter's Gold (1936)
Pete Perkin
Wanted! Jane Turner (1936)
Tom Mallory
Carnival (1935)
Chick Thompson [also known as Doc Crawford]
Two Fisted (1935)
Hap Hurley
Dinner at Eight (1934)
Max Kane
I'll Tell the World (1934)
Stanley Brown
The Lemon Drop Kid (1934)
Wally Brooks, The Lemon Drop Kid
You Belong to Me (1934)
Bud Hannigan
Bombshell (1933)
[E. J.] Space [Hanlon]
Advice to the Lovelorn (1933)
Toby Prentiss
The Nuisance (1933)
Joe [Phineas] Stevens
Turn Back the Clock (1933)
Joe [Gimlet]
Private Jones (1933)
William ["Bill"] Jones
Clear All Wires (1933)
Buckley Joyce Thomas
The Half Naked Truth (1932)
Jimmy Bates
The Strange Love of Molly Louvain (1932)
Scottie Cornell
The Night Mayor (1932)
Mayor Bobby Kingston
Blessed Event (1932)
Alvin Roberts
Washington Merry-Go-Round (1932)
[Button Gwinnett] Brown
Doctor X (1932)
Lee Taylor
Love Is a Racket (1932)
Stanley Fiske
Born Reckless (1930)
Bill O'Brien
She Got What She Wanted (1930)
Eddie
Liliom (1930)
Buzzard
Big Time (1929)
Eddie Burns

Cast (Short)

Cinema Circus (1937)
Himself
Pirate Party on Catalina Isle (1935)

Life Events

1925

Broadway debut in "The Show Off"

1929

Film debut, "Big Time"

Videos

Movie Clip

Half Naked Truth, The (1933) - Douse The Haberdashery Crafty agent Jimmy (Lee Tracy) stops Broadway producer Farrell (Frank Morgan) from dropping the curtain, interrupting the fake Turkish princess act so Teresita (Lupe Velez) can do her saucy "Carpenter" number (by Edward Eliscu and Harry Akst), in Gregory La Cava's The Half Naked Truth, 1932.
Half Naked Truth, The (1933) - Thirty Pounds Of Raw Meat Scamming promoter Jimmy (Lee Tracy) with sidekick "Achilles" (Eugene Pallette), angered at a Broadway producer's tactics, gets an idea to boost his phony Turkish princess Teresita (Lupe Velez), leading to a riff by director Gregory La Cava, in The Half Naked Truth, 1932.
Half Naked Truth, The (1933) - All Turkish Harems Arrived in New York embarking on a new scam, carnival man Jimmy (Lee Tracy) conjures new identities for his cohorts Teresita (Lupe Velez) and Achilles (Eugene Pallette), and neatly bamboozles the concierge (Franklin Pangborne), in Gregory La Cava's The Half Naked Truth, 1931.
Blessed Event (1932) - The Devil In Southampton Columnist Moxley (Ned Sparks) returns from vacation to chew out his substitute (Lee Tracy as Alvin Roberts) for printing outrageous society gossip, Miss Stevens (Ruth Donnelly) steering clear, when the editor Miller (Walter Walker) arrives with a surprise ruling, in director Roy Del Ruth’s Blessed Event, 1932, from Warner Bros.
Blessed Event (1932) - How Can You Say No? Often mentioned but seen now for the first time 30-minutes into the picture, Dick Powell as radio band-leader Bunny Harmon, the frequent target and general enemy of gossip columnist Alvin (Lee Tracy) offers a tune by Joseph Burke, Al Dubin and Irving Kahal, then an insult as he hands off to Alvin, who counters, in Warner Bros.’ Blessed Event, 1932.
Blessed Event (1932) - Do You Ever Read My Stuff? Off to a flying start in the definitive Lee Tracy pre-Code picture, his first starring role, as novice newsman Alvin, from the advertising department, filling in for a vacationing columnist, having discovered the trick of fabricating news of prominent pregnancies, Ruth Donnelly as Miss Stevens, Mary Brian as society writer Gladys, in Blessed Event, 1932, from a play by Manuel Seff and Forrest Wilson.
Crashing Hollywood (1938) - My Husband Is A Criminologist Herman (Paul Guilfoyle) and wife Goldie (Lee Patrick) think they’re hijacking Winston (Lee Tracy) for a suitcase full of bonds on the train, but they find out it was just his inflated sense of the value of his manuscripts, and neighbor Barbara (Joan Woodbury) needn’t have worried, in Crashing Hollywood, 1938.
Crashing Hollywood (1938) - Who's Your Leading Man? Goldie (Lee Patrick), has just picked up Herman (Paul Guilfoyle) from prison, and at the station they meet star Lee Tracy, seeking but not getting insurance for his briefcase, then he meets Barbara (Joan Woodbury), headed for the big time, in RKO’s Crashing Hollywood, 1938.
Half Naked Truth, The (1933) - As We Say In Trigonometry The disgruntled press agent (James Donlan) lights up exotic dancer Teresita (Lupe Velez), who goes gunning for carnival barker Jimmy (Lee Tracy), interrupting his spiel to the boss (Robert McKenzie), but sparking inspiration, early in Gregory La Cava's The Half Naked Truth, 1932.
Dinner At Eight (1933) - I Want The Moon Kane (Lee Tracy), the agent for the collapsing matinee idol Renault (John Barrymore), is by stages breaking the news that his Broadway play has a new producer, and it's not his play anymore, in MGM's all-star hit Dinner At Eight, 1933.
Strange Love Of Molly Louvain (1932) - I'm A Pretty Bad Egg Ann Dvorak (title character) and pal Jimmy (Richard Cromwell) have just hidden out in a new apartment, when they learn that her gangster-ish ex-boyfriend has been busted, and meet neighbor Scottie (Lee Tracy), Michael Curtiz directing, in The Strange Love Of Molly Louvain, 1932.
Doctor X (1932) - Only Stiffs Go In There In 2-strip technicolor, directed by Michael Curtiz, Lee Tracy is reporter "Lee Taylor," observing Lionel Atwill (title character) & co., chatting up a cop (Tom Dugan), and visiting Mamie (Leila Bennett) in Doctor X, 1932.

Trailer

Bibliography