Tora! Tora! Tora!


2h 24m 1970
Tora! Tora! Tora!

Brief Synopsis

The Japanese take advantage of American blunders to launch a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.

Film Details

MPAA Rating
Genre
Historical
War
Release Date
Jan 1970
Premiere Information
New York opening: 23 Sep 1970
Production Company
Twentieth Century--Fox Film Corp.
Country
United States
Screenplay Information
Based on the book Tora! Tora! Tora! by Gordon W. Prange (New York, 1969) and the book The Broken Seal by Ladislas Farago (New York, 1967)

Technical Specs

Duration
2h 24m
Sound
70 mm 6-Track (70 mm prints), Mono (Westrex Recording System) (35 mm prints)
Color
Color (DeLuxe)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
2.35 : 1

Synopsis

After Japan signs the Axis Alliance with Germany in 1941, Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto, commander of the Japanese Navy, realizes that the center of United States Naval operations at Pearl Harbor must be destroyed if Japanese power is to spread in the Pacific. In Washington, Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson suggest the cooling of diplomatic relations with Japan after the treaty, but few in the U. S. military or diplomatic corps fear imminent attack. At Pearl Harbor, Gen. Walter C. Short, commander of U. S. ground forces, is more worried about sabotage than foreign attack and orders all planes to be placed in the middle of the runway; in addition, the radar system he has developed is rendered useless since its operators do not know how to interpret the readings. After Japan invades Indochina, Lieut. Col. Rufus S. Bratton of U. S. Army Intelligence convinces Stimson that a Japanese attack is impending, and Pearl Harbor is placed on full alert on November 30th; few preparations are actually made, however, and within a couple of days the base is back to its unprepared state. Just before the actual attack, Bratton learns from a decoded message that Japanese Adm. Chuichi Nagumo has received orders to sail for Hawaii with six aircraft carriers, but the intelligence officer is unable to locate Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall, who is horseback riding, and President Roosevelt is warned only hours before the bombing is to begin. Japan instructs Ambassador Kichisaburo Nomura to present Hull with an ultimatum, which the Japanese expect to be refused, in order to make the attack seem retaliatory, but an inept typist in the Japanese Embassy delays the message so that its delivery coincides with the actual bombing. The Japanese attack results in the devastation of almost all Navy ships and planes based in the Pacific, but Yamamoto regards the holocaust with mixed emotions because of the anticipated American retaliation.

Crew

L. B. Abbott

Special Photography Effects

Carl Biddiscombe

Set Decoration

Layne Britton

Makeup

Jack Canary

Air op

Inoue Chikaya

Film Editor for Japanese seq

James Corcoran

Sound Recording

Art Cruickshank

Special Photography Effects

Richard Day

Art Director

William Eckhardt

Unit Production Manager

Richard Fleischer

Company

A. D. Flowers

Mech Effects

Larry Forrester

Screenwriter

Kinji Fukasaku

Director of Japanese seq

Osami Furuya

Photographer for Japanese seq

Jerry Goldsmith

Music

Stanley Goldsmith

Unit Production Manager

David Hall

Assistant Director

Courtney Halsam

Wardrobe Supervisor

Pembroke J. Herring

Film Editor

Shinsaku Himeda

Photographer for Japanese seq

Kuranoshuke Isoda

Tech adv for Japanese seq

Taizo Kawashima

Art Director for Japanese seq

Ray Kellogg

2nd unit Director

Ryuzo Kikushima

Screenplay for Japanese seq

Keinosuke Kubo

Associate prod for Japanese seq

Otto Lang

Associate prod for Japanese seq

Herman Lewis

Sound Recording

Toshio Masuda

Director of Japanese seq

Arthur Morton

Orchestration

Yoshiro Muraki

Art Director for Japanese seq

Hiroshi Nagai

Assistant Director for Japanese seq

Masao Namikawa

Unit prod Manager for Japanese seq

James E. Newcom

Film Editor

Hideo Oguni

Screenplay for Japanese seq

Norman Rockett

Set Decoration

Tsuyoshi Saka

Tech adv for Japanese seq

Masamichi Sato

Photographer for Japanese seq

Elliot Schick

Assistant Director

Walter M. Scott

Set Decoration

Jack Martin Smith

Art Director

Ted Soderberg

Sound Recording

Kameo Sonokawa

Tech adv for Japanese seq

Murray Spivack

Sound Recording

Cmdr. Usn E. P. Stafford Ret.

DOD project officer and naval coordinator.

Dan Striepeke

Makeup Supervisor

Jack Stubbs

Unit Production Manager

Shizuo Takada

Tech adv for Japanese seq

Masayuki Takagi

Associate prod for Japanese seq

Theodore Taylor

Prod coordinator

Duane Toler

Script Supervisor

Maurice Unger

Prod coordinator

Vision Photography Inc.

Aerial Photographer

Shin Watarai

Sound rec for Japanese seq

Cmdr. Usn George Watkins

Air op

Charles F. Wheeler

Director of Photography

Lt. Col. Arthur P. Wildern Ret.

Air op

Douglas O. Williams

Sound Recording

Elmo Williams

Producer

Elmo Williams

Company

Ed Wynigear

Wardrobe

Film Details

MPAA Rating
Genre
Historical
War
Release Date
Jan 1970
Premiere Information
New York opening: 23 Sep 1970
Production Company
Twentieth Century--Fox Film Corp.
Country
United States
Screenplay Information
Based on the book Tora! Tora! Tora! by Gordon W. Prange (New York, 1969) and the book The Broken Seal by Ladislas Farago (New York, 1967)

Technical Specs

Duration
2h 24m
Sound
70 mm 6-Track (70 mm prints), Mono (Westrex Recording System) (35 mm prints)
Color
Color (DeLuxe)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
2.35 : 1

Award Wins

Best Special Effects

1971

Award Nominations

Best Art Direction

1970

Best Cinematography

1970

Best Editing

1970
Inoue Chikaya

Best Editing

1970
Pembroke J Herring

Best Editing

1970
James E. Newcom

Best Sound

1970

Articles

Tora! Tora! Tora!


"The most spectacular film ever made," read the advertising copy when 20th Century Fox released Tora! Tora! Tora! in August 1970. In this case, it was not much of an exaggeration. The producer Elmo Williams and the young studio executive Richard Zanuck, son of Fox mogul Darryl F. Zanuck, envisioned the project as a follow-up to The Longest Day (1962), Fox's well-regarded war film depicting the invasion of Normandy. This time they recreated the Japanese invasion of Pearl Harbor in painstaking detail, using locations in Hawaii and Japan, vintage aircraft and full-scale replicas of battleships. As Williams and others involved have often quipped, their restaging of the event was more expensive to mount than the original attack itself.

The research of Gordon W. Prange, at that time a military historian at the University of Maryland, bore a formative impact on the script. A former member of General MacArthur's staff in Tokyo, Prange interviewed numerous subjects, including Japanese military officers involved in the attack. He also obtained access to the original log books on both the American and Japanese sides, enabling him to reconstruct a minute-by-minute account of the Pearl Harbor attack. A translated version of Prange's resulting book was first published in Japan in 1966 under the title Tora Tora Tora. Referring to the Japanese code name for the operation, the phrase literally means "Tiger Tiger Tiger." A few years later, Reader's Digest published a condensed version of the book under that same title. (Only in 1981 did a longer edition of the book appear in English, under the title of At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor.) The American and Japanese military also reviewed the script closely for accuracy, and the studio even hired Minoru Genda, the officer in charge of planning under Vice Admiral Churichi Nagumo, as a consultant. News of Genda's presence resulted in protests by the Survivors of Pearl Harbor Association and chapters of Veterans of Foreign Wars.

The first director hired on for the project was actually Akira Kurosawa, whose agreement to film the Japanese sequences was instrumental in securing the necessary financial backing. Richard Zanuck also named Richard Fleischer early on to direct the American sequences and to serve as the director for the film as a whole. At first Kurosawa and his co-writer Hideo Oguni produced a script over 400 pages long, which the studio estimated at four hours of screen time. Concerned about the length, Fleischer and Williams met with Kurosawa in Honolulu and convinced him to cut a number of scenes. The studio was also troubled by Kurosawa's decision to cast amateurs--wealthy Japanese industrialists--in leading roles. When Kurosawa began shooting in December 1967, his behavior on the set only compounded the studio's worries. In his audio commentary on the DVD, Fleischer recalled that on the first day of shooting Kurosawa demanded to repaint a Shinto shrine on the battleship set multiple times because he didn't like the shade of white used. He also insisted on replacing the books in the library with books from the right period, even though they were barely visible. As a result of these and other delays, after two weeks the studio replaced him and announced publicly that he was stepping down due to "fatigue." Ultimately, none of Kurosawa's footage remained in the finished picture.

In his place, Fox hired two younger Japanese directors; Kinji Fukasaku handled the action sequences and Toshio Masuda handled the dialogue sequences. Fukasaku is best known for the violent and controversial Battle Royale (2000) and the Yakuza series Battles Without Honor and Humanity (1972-1974). Before working on Tora! Tora! Tora!, he had directed Black Lizard (1969) and Black Rose Mansion (1969), both starring the popular female impersonator Akihiro Miwa. Toshio Masuda was Nikkatsu's leading director of crime thrillers in the 1960s. He is still little known in the West compared to contemporaries such as Seijun Suzuki, though Velvet Hustler (1967) did eventually receive VHS distribution and Rusty Knife (1958) has since appeared on DVD in Criterion's "Nikkatsu Noir" Eclipse box set. Fleischer recalled that initially, Fukasaku and Masuda didn't provide sufficient coverage of scenes for editing. Accustomed to working with limited amounts of film stock, they tended to film in short fragments rather than shooting master shoots of entire scenes and then shooting additional close-ups and inserts. Thus the first few days' worth of footage left Fleischer and Williams with very little latitude in the cutting room.

If the task of editing together footage shot by separate Japanese and American production units proved inherently difficult, it was hardly the only logistical challenge that the producers faced. An article published in the Los Angeles Times during the time of production stated that the film employed "what is believed to be the largest contract player roster in film history." This included a total 224 actors: 137 Americans and 87 Japanese. At great effort and expense, the studio also tracked down and refurbished a number of World War II fighter planes, mainly Boeing B-17 "Flying Fortresses" and Curtis P-40 Warhawks. For the Japanese A6M "Zero" fighters, the technical crew had to repaint American T-6 Texan planes and equip them with new fiberglass nose cones, since none of the original Japanese fighter planes remained after Japan's armistice agreement. Although no pilots died during shooting, one was killed before shooting began and another died in a crash during practice exercises for the film.

Shooting on Tora! Tora! Tora! finished under schedule in May 1969, but Fleischer and Williams experienced significant delays in post-production due to the extensive miniature and special effects work required. For this production Fox wanted to try out its own front projection system, which other studios were starting to use at the time; the best-known example of this was MGM's 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). Fleischer later stated that he was happy with the final results, though the front projection system was very time-consuming compared to the rear projection method that was more commonly used at the time.

While the film earned 14.5 million dollars in rentals during its initial release, this ordinarily respectable sum hardly offset a negative cost of approximately 22 million dollars, making it the most expensive Hollywood film of the era after Cleopatra (1963) and Hello, Dolly! (1969). The underperformance of Tora! Tora! Tora! only compounded the difficulties Fox was facing after the high-profile flops of Doctor Dolittle (1967) and Star! (1968). The studio executive Richard Zanuck resigned under pressure in December 1970 due to the studio's ongoing financial woes. Since then, the film has found a new life on home video and stands out as one of the most impressive reconstructions of a battle on film.

Producer: Elmo Williams
Associate Producers for Japanese sequences: Otto Lang, Masayuki Takagi, Keinosuke Kubo
Directors: Richard Fleischer (American sequences), Toshio Masuda and Kinji Fukasaku (Japanese sequences)
Script: Larry Forrester (American sequences), Hideo Oguni and Ryuzo Kikushima (Japanese sequences), based on the books Tora! Tora! Tora! by Gordon W. Prange and The Broken Seal by Ladislas Farago
Director of Photography: Charles F. Wheeler
Photography for Japanese sequences: Shinsaku Himeda, Masamichi Satoh and Osami Furuya
Art Directors: Jack Martin Smith, Richard Day, Yoshiro Muraki and Taizo Kawashima
Film Editors: James E. Newcom, Pembroke J. Herring and Inoue Chikaya
Music: Jerry Goldsmith
Special Photography Effects: L. B. Abbott and Art Cruickshank
Technical Advisors for Japanese sequences: Kameo Sonokawa, Kuranoshuke Isoda; Shizuo Takada and Tsuyoshi Saka
Air Operators: Lieutenant Colonel Arthur P. Wildern (Retired), Commander USN George Watkins, Jack Canary
Cast: Martin Balsam (Adm. Husband E. Kimmel), So Yamamura (Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto), Jason Robards, Jr. (Gen. Walter C. Short), Joseph Cotten (Henry L. Stimson), Tatsuya Mihashi (Comdr. Minoru Genda), E. G. Marshall (Lieut. Col. Rufus S. Bratton), Takahiro Tamura (Lieutenant Commander Fuchida), James Whitmore (Adm. William F. Halsey), Eijiro Tono (Adm. Chuichi Nagumo), Wesley Addy (Lieut. Comdr. Alwin D. Kramer), Shogo Shimada (Ambassador Kichisaburo Nomura), Frank Aletter (Lieutenant Commander Thomas), Koreya Senda (Prince Fumimaro Konoye), Leon Ames (Frank Knox), Junya Usami (Adm. Zengo Yoshida), Richard Anderson (Capt. John Earle), Kazuo Kitamura (Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka), Keith Andes (Gen. George C. Marshall), Edward Andrews (Adm. Harold R. Stark), Neville Brand (Lieutenant Kaminsky), Leora Dana (Mrs. Kramer), Asao Uchida (Gen. Hideki Tojo).
C-143m. Letterboxed.

by James Steffen

Sources:
Tora! Tora! Tora! 2-disc Special Edition DVD. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2006.
"Fatigue Halts Film Director." Los Angeles Times, December 27, 1968, p.F8.
Dallos, Robert E. "Young Zanuck Out in Studio Shakeup" Los Angeles Times, December 30, 1970, p.A1.
Diehl, Digby. "'Tora! Tora! Tora!' Shows Both Sides of Pearl Harbor, 1941." Los Angeles Times, April 20, 1969, p.W20.
Fradkin, Philip. "'Mistake' Told in Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor." Los Angeles Times, September 2, 1968, p.3.
Thomas, Kevin. "Dec. 7, 1941: It Happens Again in 'Tora! Tora! Tora!'" Los Angeles Times, August 25, 1968, p.C1.
Tora! Tora! Tora!

Tora! Tora! Tora!

"The most spectacular film ever made," read the advertising copy when 20th Century Fox released Tora! Tora! Tora! in August 1970. In this case, it was not much of an exaggeration. The producer Elmo Williams and the young studio executive Richard Zanuck, son of Fox mogul Darryl F. Zanuck, envisioned the project as a follow-up to The Longest Day (1962), Fox's well-regarded war film depicting the invasion of Normandy. This time they recreated the Japanese invasion of Pearl Harbor in painstaking detail, using locations in Hawaii and Japan, vintage aircraft and full-scale replicas of battleships. As Williams and others involved have often quipped, their restaging of the event was more expensive to mount than the original attack itself. The research of Gordon W. Prange, at that time a military historian at the University of Maryland, bore a formative impact on the script. A former member of General MacArthur's staff in Tokyo, Prange interviewed numerous subjects, including Japanese military officers involved in the attack. He also obtained access to the original log books on both the American and Japanese sides, enabling him to reconstruct a minute-by-minute account of the Pearl Harbor attack. A translated version of Prange's resulting book was first published in Japan in 1966 under the title Tora Tora Tora. Referring to the Japanese code name for the operation, the phrase literally means "Tiger Tiger Tiger." A few years later, Reader's Digest published a condensed version of the book under that same title. (Only in 1981 did a longer edition of the book appear in English, under the title of At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor.) The American and Japanese military also reviewed the script closely for accuracy, and the studio even hired Minoru Genda, the officer in charge of planning under Vice Admiral Churichi Nagumo, as a consultant. News of Genda's presence resulted in protests by the Survivors of Pearl Harbor Association and chapters of Veterans of Foreign Wars. The first director hired on for the project was actually Akira Kurosawa, whose agreement to film the Japanese sequences was instrumental in securing the necessary financial backing. Richard Zanuck also named Richard Fleischer early on to direct the American sequences and to serve as the director for the film as a whole. At first Kurosawa and his co-writer Hideo Oguni produced a script over 400 pages long, which the studio estimated at four hours of screen time. Concerned about the length, Fleischer and Williams met with Kurosawa in Honolulu and convinced him to cut a number of scenes. The studio was also troubled by Kurosawa's decision to cast amateurs--wealthy Japanese industrialists--in leading roles. When Kurosawa began shooting in December 1967, his behavior on the set only compounded the studio's worries. In his audio commentary on the DVD, Fleischer recalled that on the first day of shooting Kurosawa demanded to repaint a Shinto shrine on the battleship set multiple times because he didn't like the shade of white used. He also insisted on replacing the books in the library with books from the right period, even though they were barely visible. As a result of these and other delays, after two weeks the studio replaced him and announced publicly that he was stepping down due to "fatigue." Ultimately, none of Kurosawa's footage remained in the finished picture. In his place, Fox hired two younger Japanese directors; Kinji Fukasaku handled the action sequences and Toshio Masuda handled the dialogue sequences. Fukasaku is best known for the violent and controversial Battle Royale (2000) and the Yakuza series Battles Without Honor and Humanity (1972-1974). Before working on Tora! Tora! Tora!, he had directed Black Lizard (1969) and Black Rose Mansion (1969), both starring the popular female impersonator Akihiro Miwa. Toshio Masuda was Nikkatsu's leading director of crime thrillers in the 1960s. He is still little known in the West compared to contemporaries such as Seijun Suzuki, though Velvet Hustler (1967) did eventually receive VHS distribution and Rusty Knife (1958) has since appeared on DVD in Criterion's "Nikkatsu Noir" Eclipse box set. Fleischer recalled that initially, Fukasaku and Masuda didn't provide sufficient coverage of scenes for editing. Accustomed to working with limited amounts of film stock, they tended to film in short fragments rather than shooting master shoots of entire scenes and then shooting additional close-ups and inserts. Thus the first few days' worth of footage left Fleischer and Williams with very little latitude in the cutting room. If the task of editing together footage shot by separate Japanese and American production units proved inherently difficult, it was hardly the only logistical challenge that the producers faced. An article published in the Los Angeles Times during the time of production stated that the film employed "what is believed to be the largest contract player roster in film history." This included a total 224 actors: 137 Americans and 87 Japanese. At great effort and expense, the studio also tracked down and refurbished a number of World War II fighter planes, mainly Boeing B-17 "Flying Fortresses" and Curtis P-40 Warhawks. For the Japanese A6M "Zero" fighters, the technical crew had to repaint American T-6 Texan planes and equip them with new fiberglass nose cones, since none of the original Japanese fighter planes remained after Japan's armistice agreement. Although no pilots died during shooting, one was killed before shooting began and another died in a crash during practice exercises for the film. Shooting on Tora! Tora! Tora! finished under schedule in May 1969, but Fleischer and Williams experienced significant delays in post-production due to the extensive miniature and special effects work required. For this production Fox wanted to try out its own front projection system, which other studios were starting to use at the time; the best-known example of this was MGM's 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). Fleischer later stated that he was happy with the final results, though the front projection system was very time-consuming compared to the rear projection method that was more commonly used at the time. While the film earned 14.5 million dollars in rentals during its initial release, this ordinarily respectable sum hardly offset a negative cost of approximately 22 million dollars, making it the most expensive Hollywood film of the era after Cleopatra (1963) and Hello, Dolly! (1969). The underperformance of Tora! Tora! Tora! only compounded the difficulties Fox was facing after the high-profile flops of Doctor Dolittle (1967) and Star! (1968). The studio executive Richard Zanuck resigned under pressure in December 1970 due to the studio's ongoing financial woes. Since then, the film has found a new life on home video and stands out as one of the most impressive reconstructions of a battle on film. Producer: Elmo Williams Associate Producers for Japanese sequences: Otto Lang, Masayuki Takagi, Keinosuke Kubo Directors: Richard Fleischer (American sequences), Toshio Masuda and Kinji Fukasaku (Japanese sequences) Script: Larry Forrester (American sequences), Hideo Oguni and Ryuzo Kikushima (Japanese sequences), based on the books Tora! Tora! Tora! by Gordon W. Prange and The Broken Seal by Ladislas Farago Director of Photography: Charles F. Wheeler Photography for Japanese sequences: Shinsaku Himeda, Masamichi Satoh and Osami Furuya Art Directors: Jack Martin Smith, Richard Day, Yoshiro Muraki and Taizo Kawashima Film Editors: James E. Newcom, Pembroke J. Herring and Inoue Chikaya Music: Jerry Goldsmith Special Photography Effects: L. B. Abbott and Art Cruickshank Technical Advisors for Japanese sequences: Kameo Sonokawa, Kuranoshuke Isoda; Shizuo Takada and Tsuyoshi Saka Air Operators: Lieutenant Colonel Arthur P. Wildern (Retired), Commander USN George Watkins, Jack Canary Cast: Martin Balsam (Adm. Husband E. Kimmel), So Yamamura (Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto), Jason Robards, Jr. (Gen. Walter C. Short), Joseph Cotten (Henry L. Stimson), Tatsuya Mihashi (Comdr. Minoru Genda), E. G. Marshall (Lieut. Col. Rufus S. Bratton), Takahiro Tamura (Lieutenant Commander Fuchida), James Whitmore (Adm. William F. Halsey), Eijiro Tono (Adm. Chuichi Nagumo), Wesley Addy (Lieut. Comdr. Alwin D. Kramer), Shogo Shimada (Ambassador Kichisaburo Nomura), Frank Aletter (Lieutenant Commander Thomas), Koreya Senda (Prince Fumimaro Konoye), Leon Ames (Frank Knox), Junya Usami (Adm. Zengo Yoshida), Richard Anderson (Capt. John Earle), Kazuo Kitamura (Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka), Keith Andes (Gen. George C. Marshall), Edward Andrews (Adm. Harold R. Stark), Neville Brand (Lieutenant Kaminsky), Leora Dana (Mrs. Kramer), Asao Uchida (Gen. Hideki Tojo). C-143m. Letterboxed. by James Steffen Sources: Tora! Tora! Tora! 2-disc Special Edition DVD. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2006. "Fatigue Halts Film Director." Los Angeles Times, December 27, 1968, p.F8. Dallos, Robert E. "Young Zanuck Out in Studio Shakeup" Los Angeles Times, December 30, 1970, p.A1. Diehl, Digby. "'Tora! Tora! Tora!' Shows Both Sides of Pearl Harbor, 1941." Los Angeles Times, April 20, 1969, p.W20. Fradkin, Philip. "'Mistake' Told in Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor." Los Angeles Times, September 2, 1968, p.3. Thomas, Kevin. "Dec. 7, 1941: It Happens Again in 'Tora! Tora! Tora!'" Los Angeles Times, August 25, 1968, p.C1.

Keith Andes (1920-2005)


Keith Andes, the tall, raw-boned actor who had a notable career in film, television and stage, died on November 11 at his home in Canyon Country, California. He was 85. His death was ruled a suicide by the Los Angeles County coroner's office. He had been suffering for years with bladder cancer.

Born John Charles Andes on July 12, 1920, in Ocean City, New Jersey, Keith been began performing in his teens for school productions and for local radio stations in his hometown. After he graduated with a B.A. in education from Temple University in 1943, he pursued a stage career in earnest, and in 1947 scored a triumph in the Broadway musical The Chocolate Soldier, where he won a Theatre World Award for his performance. That same year, he made his film debut as one of Loretta Young's brothers in The Farmer's Daughter (1947). Although his film career never quite took off, one could certainly envy him for playing opposite two of the hottest blonde bombshells of their generation: first with Marilyn Monroe Clash by Night (1952); and then Jayne Mansfield in The Girl Most Likely (1957).

If Andes lacked the star power to be a consistent Hollywood lead, he certainly had no problems with television. Here, his stalwart presence and commanding baritone made him more than servicable for television through three decades: (Goodyear Theatre, Playhouse 90, The Ford Television Theatre); '60s: (Perry Mason, The Rifleman, Star Trek, The Outer Limits, Glynis); and '70s (Cannon, The Streets of San Francisco).

Andes made his last notable screen appearance in the Al Pacino vehicle And Justice For All (1979), before falling into semi-retirement and doing occassional voice work. He is survived by two sons, Mark, Matt; and three grandchildren.

by Michael T. Toole

Keith Andes (1920-2005)

Keith Andes, the tall, raw-boned actor who had a notable career in film, television and stage, died on November 11 at his home in Canyon Country, California. He was 85. His death was ruled a suicide by the Los Angeles County coroner's office. He had been suffering for years with bladder cancer. Born John Charles Andes on July 12, 1920, in Ocean City, New Jersey, Keith been began performing in his teens for school productions and for local radio stations in his hometown. After he graduated with a B.A. in education from Temple University in 1943, he pursued a stage career in earnest, and in 1947 scored a triumph in the Broadway musical The Chocolate Soldier, where he won a Theatre World Award for his performance. That same year, he made his film debut as one of Loretta Young's brothers in The Farmer's Daughter (1947). Although his film career never quite took off, one could certainly envy him for playing opposite two of the hottest blonde bombshells of their generation: first with Marilyn Monroe Clash by Night (1952); and then Jayne Mansfield in The Girl Most Likely (1957). If Andes lacked the star power to be a consistent Hollywood lead, he certainly had no problems with television. Here, his stalwart presence and commanding baritone made him more than servicable for television through three decades: (Goodyear Theatre, Playhouse 90, The Ford Television Theatre); '60s: (Perry Mason, The Rifleman, Star Trek, The Outer Limits, Glynis); and '70s (Cannon, The Streets of San Francisco). Andes made his last notable screen appearance in the Al Pacino vehicle And Justice For All (1979), before falling into semi-retirement and doing occassional voice work. He is survived by two sons, Mark, Matt; and three grandchildren. by Michael T. Toole

Quotes

I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve.
- Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
Well, you can tell Lt. Dickinson from me, he couldn't hit a bull in the butt with a bass fiddle.
- Admiral William F. Halsey
Wildlife Preservation Society!
- Lt General Walter C Short
Sir, this is Private Elliot at Opana Point. There's a large formation of planes coming in from the north - 140 miles, 3 degrees east.
- Pvt. Elliot
Yeah? Well... Don't worry about it.
- Lt. Tyler

Trivia

The Japanese section of the film was originally to be directed by Akira Kurosawa.

Actor Jason Robards was actually present at the bombing of Pearl Harbor on the 7th of December, 1941.

When Japanese characters in the film refer to the date of the attack, they are actually saying "December 8," which is technically correct, as Japan is a day ahead of the U.S.; however, it is translated as "December 7" in the subtitles to avoid confusing U.S. audiences.

The U.S. Navy's Office of Information was inundated with complaints from U.S. citizens when the military agreed to allow active U.S. servicepersons to participate in the recreation of the attack on Pearl Harbor, which some viewed as glorifying Japanese aggression and showing Americans as unprepared.

The P-40 crashing in the flight line was an unplanned accident - it was a life-sized mockup powered by a gasoline engine turning the propeller and steered by using the wheel brakes, just like real airplanes, but was specifically designed not to fly. The aircraft shown was loaded with explosives which were to be detonated by radio control at a specific point down the runway. Stunt actors were strategically located and rehearsed in which way to run. However shortly after the plane began taxiing down the runway it did begin to lift off the ground and turn to the left. The left turn would have taken it into a group of other mockups which had also been wired with explosives, but weren't scheduled to be destroyed until later. The explosives in the first P-40 were detonated on the spot in order to keep it from destroying the other planes, so the explosion occurred in a location the stunt men weren't prepared for. When it looks like they were running for their lives, they really were. This special effect was filmed with multiple camera so that it could be reused in other shots in the film, as were all the major special effects.

Notes

Location scenes filmed in Hawaii. Subtitles are used in the Japanese sequences.

Miscellaneous Notes

Released in United States on Video May 25, 1989

Released in United States September 1970

Released in United States Winter January 1, 1970

Akira Kurosawa replaced as director of Japanese sequences by Toshio Madusa and Kinji Fukasaku in early stages of shooting.

Released in United States Winter January 1, 1970

Released in United States on Video May 25, 1989

Released in United States September 1970