Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory


1h 40m 1971

Brief Synopsis

A boy wins a tour of a famous, and deadly, chocolate factory.

Film Details

Also Known As
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
MPAA Rating
Genre
Family
Musical
Fantasy
Adaptation
Release Date
Jun 1971
Premiere Information
New York opening: 30 Jun 1971
Production Company
Quaker Oats Company; Wolper Pictures, Ltd.
Distribution Company
Paramount Pictures Corp.
Country
United States
Location
Bavaria Studios, Geiselgasteig, Germany; Munich, Germany; Geiselgasteig,Germany; Munich,Germany
Screenplay Information
Based on the book Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl (New York, 1964).

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 40m
Sound
Mono (Westrex Recording System)
Color
Color (Technicolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
1.85 : 1

Synopsis

Young Charlie Bucket lives with his hard-working mother and invalid grandparents, Joe, Josephine, George and Georgina, who, despite their poverty, dote on the good-natured Charlie. Grandpa Joe, Charlie's favorite, often spins tales about Willy Wonka, the reclusive chocolate maker who runs a huge factory nearby. One night, Grandpa Joe tells Charlie that Wonka, the most famous confectioner ever, was so angered by the theft of his secret formulas, especially by his rival, Oscar Slugworth, that he closed his factory. Years later, however, the facility suddenly began operating again, although no workers are ever seen entering or leaving. The next day, Charlie hears that Wonka has hidden Golden Tickets inside five chocolate bars, and that the lucky winners will receive a tour of the factory and a lifetime supply of chocolate. Grandpa Joe assures Charlie that he has as much chance of winning as anyone else, but as Wonka's announcement spreads, a global frenzy ensues. The first Golden Ticket is found in Germany by Augustus Gloop, a gluttonous, overweight youth. As the Gloop family is being interviewed, a menacing, scarred man whispers something to Augustus. Soon after, Charlie's family celebrates his birthday with a chocolate bar, and tries to hide their disappointment when he does not find a Golden Ticket. Meanwhile, in England, spoiled Veruca Salt is berating her father Henry for not making his employees work faster to locate a Golden Ticket for her, when suddenly one worker succeeds. As the worldwide search continues, Charlie learns that American Violet Beauregarde, who is obsessed with chewing gum, has found the third Golden Ticket. Soon after, another American, Mike Teevee, who watches television constantly, finds the fourth ticket. When it is announced that a millionaire has found the final ticket in Paraguay, Charlie is distraught. As he walks home from school, however, he finds a coin in the gutter, buys and eats one bar of chocolate, then buys another for Grandpa Joe. As he is leaving the shop, Charlie hears that the most recent ticket was a forgery, and so rips open his chocolate, finding the last Golden Ticket. Thrilled, Charlie runs home but on his way is stopped by the scarred man, who has visited all the winning children. Calling himself Slugworth, the man tells Charlie that he will pay him a fortune to steal one of Wonka's inventions, the Everlasting Gobstopper, a candy that can be sucked forever without growing smaller, but Charlie evades him and runs home to show his ticket to his delighted family. Reading the ticket, they discover that Charlie is allowed to bring one adult with him, and that the tour will be the following morning. Determined to accompany Charlie, Grandpa Joe staggers out of bed for the first time in twenty years. The next day, a cheering crowd waits for Wonka to appear. A hush falls when a lame, sullen-looking man limps toward them, but he falls into a somersault and, bounding up with a smile, welcomes the winners. Escorting them inside, Wonka has the children sign a gigantic, illegible contract, then leads them to the dazzling Chocolate Room, made of edible sweets. As the group gorges themselves, they notice a brown river flowing through the room, and Wonka explains that it is pure chocolate, mixed by a waterfall. They are then astonished to see, on the side of the river, little men with orange faces and green hair. Wonka tells his visitors that the men are Oompa-Loompas, and that he rescued them from the desolate Loompaland to live and work with him. Grandpa Joe is pleased that the mystery of the workers has been solved, while Veruca petulantly declares that she wants an Oompa-Loompa. The group then notices that Augustus is drinking from the river, and despite Wonka's warning that his chocolate must remain untouched, Augustus leans over so far that he falls in. Augustus, who cannot swim, flounders before being sucked up into one of the giant tubes that transport the chocolate. Although Augustus' bulk initially blocks the tube, the pressure builds until he is shot up the tube like a bullet through a gun, and Wonka then orders an Oompa-Loompa to take Mrs. Gloop to the fudge room before Augustus is boiled. Continuing their tour, the eccentric Wonka leads his guests onto the Wonkatania , a paddle-boat that floats through a frightening tunnel. They stop at the Inventing Room, where they are amazed by Wonka's bizarre machines, including one that makes Everlasting Gobstoppers. After making the children promise that they will never give away the Gobstoppers, Wonka gives one to each of them, then exhibits his new creation, which makes chewing gum that tastes like a three-course meal. Despite Wonka's caution that the gum has not been perfected, Violet thrusts it into her mouth. She raves about the taste of the soup and main course, but when she gets to the dessert¿blueberry pie with cream¿she turns blue and inflates into a giant blueberry. Signaling to the Oompa-Loompas, Wonka instructs them to roll Violet to the juicing room before she explodes. As the tour progresses, Grandpa Joe and Charlie sneak off into a room containing Fizzy Lifting Drinks. After taking a sip of the liquid, which is so bubbly that it lifts them into the air, they float giddily until they realize that they are nearing the giant, razor-sharp ceiling fan. Terrified, Grandpa Joe accidentally burps and begins to descend. He tells Charlie to belch and after the pair reaches safety, they pledge to keep their feet on the ground and rejoin the others. Wonka is exhibiting his giant, temperamental geese, which lay golden eggs for Easter, when Veruca demands that her father buy one for her. Wonka refuses Mr. Salt's offer, sending Veruca into a fury that ends when she jumps on the "eggdicator," which judges whether the eggs are good or bad. Declaring her a "bad egg," the eggdicator sends Veruca plunging through a chute to the furnace, and a horrified Salt follows her. Musing that the Salts have a fifty-fifty chance because the furnace is lit only every other day, Wonka sends some Oompa-Loompas after them. Wonka then escorts his remaining guests onto his Wonkamobile, a strange vehicle that runs on carbonated liquids. After a messy ride, they emerge clean and enter the Television Room, where Wonka is perfecting a method of sending chocolates via television. Mike disparages Wonka's idea until the Oompa-Loompas transmit a giant chocolate bar that materializes as a normal-sized bar in a screen across the room. Mike then asks if a human can be sent by the machinery, and Wonka theorizes that although dangerous, it might be possible. Ignoring his warning, Mike turns on the device and disappears. Mike emerges "completely unharmed," according to Wonka, although Mrs. Teevee grows faint at the sight of her doll-sized son, as the television device always shrinks the objects it broadcasts. After Mrs. Teevee puts Mike in her purse, the Oompa-Loompas take her to the taffy-pulling machine to stretch Mike back to his original size. With the others gone, Wonka bids farewell to Grandpa Joe and Charlie and retreats to his office. Baffled by Wonka's brusqueness, the pair enter and, when Grandpa Joe asks about Charlie's lifetime supply of chocolate, the enraged Wonka yells that because they "stole" Fizzy Lifting Drinks, they broke the contract signed by Charlie and therefore he will receive nothing. Equally furious, Grandpa Joe storms out, telling Charlie that they will get even by selling the Everlasting Gobstopper to Slugworth. Charlie pulls away, however, and places the candy on Wonka's desk. Impressed by Charlie's honesty, Wonka embraces the boy, telling him that he has won, then introduces him to his employee, Mr. Wilkinson, who was impersonating Slugworth to test the children. Wonka then ushers Charlie and Grandpa Joe into his glass "Wonkavator," an elevator that can go any direction, and asks Charlie to push the red button. The elevator gathers speed until it breaks through the building's glass roof and spins high above the town. Delighted, Charlie tells Wonka that the chocolate factory is the most wonderful place in the world. Wonka then calmly explains to Charlie that he is giving the factory to him, as he needs a successor he can trust to run the operation his way and care for the Oompa-Loompas. Assuring Charlie that his family can live with him, Wonka hugs the boy and reminds him that the man who got everything he always wanted lived happily ever after.

Film Details

Also Known As
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
MPAA Rating
Genre
Family
Musical
Fantasy
Adaptation
Release Date
Jun 1971
Premiere Information
New York opening: 30 Jun 1971
Production Company
Quaker Oats Company; Wolper Pictures, Ltd.
Distribution Company
Paramount Pictures Corp.
Country
United States
Location
Bavaria Studios, Geiselgasteig, Germany; Munich, Germany; Geiselgasteig,Germany; Munich,Germany
Screenplay Information
Based on the book Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl (New York, 1964).

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 40m
Sound
Mono (Westrex Recording System)
Color
Color (Technicolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
1.85 : 1

Award Nominations

Best Score

1971

Articles

Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory - Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory

June 29th, Atlanta's Piedmont Park

Once upon a time Quaker Oats decided to get into the movie business. It was a short-lived venture but out of it emerged a strange and unusual children's film. In it, five children win special tickets entitling them to a lifetime supply of candy and a personal tour of the mysterious Willy Wonka Chocolate Factory. Inside, scores of green-haired midget workers called Oompa-Loompas operate the bizarre machinery that creates "Everlasting Gobstoppers" and other Wonka treats. Kids that don't abide by the rules of this private tour, however, get more than they bargained for in Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (1971), a live-action fantasy reminiscent of a Grimm's fairy tale. The film is directed by Mel Stuart, stars Gene Wilder as the unpredictable title character, and is based on the popular children's book by Roald Dahl. At the time, Quaker Oats produced a line of branded chocolate bars (Willy Wonka's Super Skrunch Bar and others) to capitalize on the film's release but the candy sold poorly and was soon discontinued. Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory, on the other hand, has gone on to become a cult film whose audiences continue to grow with the passing years.

Roald Dahl, whose previous work as a screenwriter includes The Night Digger (1971), a psychological thriller about a spinster and her blind mother who shelter a serial killer from the police, also wrote the screenplay for Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory which was based on his 1964 children's novel, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Besides the title change, other plot details didn't survive the translation from Dahl's book to the screen like the original concept of the Oompa-Loompas. In the book, they were pygmies from Africa who lived on a diet of caterpillars. (In response to charges of racism by various book critics, they were changed to little white-faced men with long flowing beards in the 1973 edition of the book). In the film, they are dwarf-like creatures with green faces and red hair who function as a Greek chorus, chanting the lyrics of Leslie Bricusse and Anthony Newley (which received an Oscar nomination for Best Score.)

Probably the single most compelling aspect of Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory is Gene Wilder's enigmatic performance. In an interview with the actor quoted in Cult Movies 2 by Danny Peary, Wilder said, "We all grew up on movies with scenes where the actor is lying and you know he's lying, but he wants to make sure you know it's a lie, and so he overacts and all but winks at you, and everybody in the world except for the girl he's talking to knows he's lying. I want to do the opposite. To really lie, and fool the audience...I wanted people to wonder if Willy Wonka was telling the truth so that you wouldn't really know until the end of the picture what Willy's motivations were."

When the film was released, it received mixed notices that alternated from high praise - Roger Ebert called it "probably the best film of its sort since The Wizard of Oz [1939]" to total put-down; The New York Times proclaimed it to be "tedious and stagy with little sparkle and precious little humor." The main criticism though was reserved for the Leslie Bricusse/Anthony Newley/Walter Scharf music score, which many found to be downright annoying. Ironically enough, that was the one category that succeeded in winning an Oscar nomination and "Candyman," the opening theme song, went on to become a top forty smash single as recorded by Sammy Davis, Jr. What many critics failed to realize though was how the Willy Wonka score was heavily influenced by the sounds of the psychedelic sixties. Only New Times, a Los Angeles publication, seemed to pick up on this, stating, "it's easy to project that the weirder, effects-and-synth-laden tunes powering the foam-spewing "Wonkamobile," "The Bubble Machine," "Wonkavision," and the Venus-bound "Wonkavator" are musical re-creations of hallucinogenic drug trips. Gene Wilder as Wonka even does a rap on "The Wondrous Boat Ride" that's equal parts Tim Leary, Ken Kesey, and Alan Watts. "There's no earthly way of knowing/Which direction we are going," Wilder chants when Charlie and the others enter a tunnel illuminated by explosions of color to rival the Joshua Light Show. "Is it raining? Is it snowing? Is a hurricane a-blowing?" These lyrics echo John Lennon's Watts-inspired "Rain," and the music is just as twisted. The tune and the bad trip end abruptly when everyone emerges from the dark and mysterious passageway into a vivid, candy-colored wonderland. Talk about your evoking your spiritual rebirth and the journey toward the white light."

Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory was certainly an unlikely film project for Mel Stuart who specialized in light comedies like If It's Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium (1969), starring Suzanne Pleshette, and I Love My Wife (1970) with Elliott Gould. He also directed the Oscar® nominated documentary covering President Kennedy's assassination, Four Days in November (1964), but Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory is the film for which Stuart will be remembered.

Producer: Stan Margulies, David L. Wolper
Director: Mel Stuart
Screenplay: Roald Dahl
Cinematography: Arthur Ibbetson
Film Editing: David Saxon
Art Direction: Harper Goff
Music: Anthony Newley, Leslie Bricusse
Cast: Gene Wilder (Willy Wonka), Jack Albertson (Grandpa Joe), Peter Ostrum (Charlie), Roy Kinnear (Mr. Salt), Julie Dawn Cole (Veruca Salt), Aubrey Woods (Bill).
C-100m. Letterboxed.

by Jeff Stafford

Willy Wonka And The Chocolate Factory  - Willy Wonka And The Chocolate Factory  
June 29Th, Atlanta's Piedmont Park

Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory - Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory June 29th, Atlanta's Piedmont Park

Once upon a time Quaker Oats decided to get into the movie business. It was a short-lived venture but out of it emerged a strange and unusual children's film. In it, five children win special tickets entitling them to a lifetime supply of candy and a personal tour of the mysterious Willy Wonka Chocolate Factory. Inside, scores of green-haired midget workers called Oompa-Loompas operate the bizarre machinery that creates "Everlasting Gobstoppers" and other Wonka treats. Kids that don't abide by the rules of this private tour, however, get more than they bargained for in Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (1971), a live-action fantasy reminiscent of a Grimm's fairy tale. The film is directed by Mel Stuart, stars Gene Wilder as the unpredictable title character, and is based on the popular children's book by Roald Dahl. At the time, Quaker Oats produced a line of branded chocolate bars (Willy Wonka's Super Skrunch Bar and others) to capitalize on the film's release but the candy sold poorly and was soon discontinued. Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory, on the other hand, has gone on to become a cult film whose audiences continue to grow with the passing years. Roald Dahl, whose previous work as a screenwriter includes The Night Digger (1971), a psychological thriller about a spinster and her blind mother who shelter a serial killer from the police, also wrote the screenplay for Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory which was based on his 1964 children's novel, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Besides the title change, other plot details didn't survive the translation from Dahl's book to the screen like the original concept of the Oompa-Loompas. In the book, they were pygmies from Africa who lived on a diet of caterpillars. (In response to charges of racism by various book critics, they were changed to little white-faced men with long flowing beards in the 1973 edition of the book). In the film, they are dwarf-like creatures with green faces and red hair who function as a Greek chorus, chanting the lyrics of Leslie Bricusse and Anthony Newley (which received an Oscar nomination for Best Score.) Probably the single most compelling aspect of Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory is Gene Wilder's enigmatic performance. In an interview with the actor quoted in Cult Movies 2 by Danny Peary, Wilder said, "We all grew up on movies with scenes where the actor is lying and you know he's lying, but he wants to make sure you know it's a lie, and so he overacts and all but winks at you, and everybody in the world except for the girl he's talking to knows he's lying. I want to do the opposite. To really lie, and fool the audience...I wanted people to wonder if Willy Wonka was telling the truth so that you wouldn't really know until the end of the picture what Willy's motivations were." When the film was released, it received mixed notices that alternated from high praise - Roger Ebert called it "probably the best film of its sort since The Wizard of Oz [1939]" to total put-down; The New York Times proclaimed it to be "tedious and stagy with little sparkle and precious little humor." The main criticism though was reserved for the Leslie Bricusse/Anthony Newley/Walter Scharf music score, which many found to be downright annoying. Ironically enough, that was the one category that succeeded in winning an Oscar nomination and "Candyman," the opening theme song, went on to become a top forty smash single as recorded by Sammy Davis, Jr. What many critics failed to realize though was how the Willy Wonka score was heavily influenced by the sounds of the psychedelic sixties. Only New Times, a Los Angeles publication, seemed to pick up on this, stating, "it's easy to project that the weirder, effects-and-synth-laden tunes powering the foam-spewing "Wonkamobile," "The Bubble Machine," "Wonkavision," and the Venus-bound "Wonkavator" are musical re-creations of hallucinogenic drug trips. Gene Wilder as Wonka even does a rap on "The Wondrous Boat Ride" that's equal parts Tim Leary, Ken Kesey, and Alan Watts. "There's no earthly way of knowing/Which direction we are going," Wilder chants when Charlie and the others enter a tunnel illuminated by explosions of color to rival the Joshua Light Show. "Is it raining? Is it snowing? Is a hurricane a-blowing?" These lyrics echo John Lennon's Watts-inspired "Rain," and the music is just as twisted. The tune and the bad trip end abruptly when everyone emerges from the dark and mysterious passageway into a vivid, candy-colored wonderland. Talk about your evoking your spiritual rebirth and the journey toward the white light." Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory was certainly an unlikely film project for Mel Stuart who specialized in light comedies like If It's Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium (1969), starring Suzanne Pleshette, and I Love My Wife (1970) with Elliott Gould. He also directed the Oscar® nominated documentary covering President Kennedy's assassination, Four Days in November (1964), but Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory is the film for which Stuart will be remembered. Producer: Stan Margulies, David L. Wolper Director: Mel Stuart Screenplay: Roald Dahl Cinematography: Arthur Ibbetson Film Editing: David Saxon Art Direction: Harper Goff Music: Anthony Newley, Leslie Bricusse Cast: Gene Wilder (Willy Wonka), Jack Albertson (Grandpa Joe), Peter Ostrum (Charlie), Roy Kinnear (Mr. Salt), Julie Dawn Cole (Veruca Salt), Aubrey Woods (Bill). C-100m. Letterboxed. by Jeff Stafford

Quotes

Don't talk to me about contracts, Wonka, I use them myself. They're strictly for suckers.
- Sam Beauregarde
Don't you know what this is?
- Willy Wonka
By gum, it's gum.
- Violet Beauregarde
Wrong. It's the most fabulous sensational gum in the whole world.
- Willy Wonka
What's so fab about it?
- Violet Beauregarde
This little piece of gum is a three course dinner.
- Willy Wonka
I'm sorry, but all questions must be submitted in writing.
- Willy Wonka
Well they can't be real people.
- Violet
Well of course they're real people.
- Willy Wonka
Stuff and nonsense.
- Mr. Salt
No, Oompa Loompas.
- Willy Wonka
Oompa Loompas?
- The Group
Invention, my dear friends, is 93% perspiration, 6% electricity, 4% evaporation, and 2% butterscotch ripple.
- Willy Wonka
That's 105 percent.
- Mrs. Teevee

Trivia

As the group is about to enter the "nerve center" of the factory, Wonka plays a "musical combination" on the door. Mrs. TeeVee says "Rachmaninoff," but the score is really from Mozart's "Marriage of Figaro."

The combination to the first door in the chocloate factory is 99-44/100% pure, which was an ad slogan for Ivory Soap.

The picture held up by the Paraguyan newscaster announcing the finder of the last golden ticket is of Nazi henchman Martin Bormann.

The Tinker quotes from the poem "The Fairies" by William Allingham.

The quote, "We are the music-makers... " is from Arthur O'Shaughnessy's "Ode," which also gave us the phrase "movers and shakers." The quotes "Where is fancy bred... " and "So shines a good deed... " are Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice."

Notes

The working title of this film was Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, the title of Roald Dahl's best-selling children's novel. Although studio publicity stated that the title "was changed to put emphasis on the eccentric central character of Willy Wonka," a September 1, 1970 Los Angeles Examiner article claimed that the change occurred due to "pressure from black groups" because "'Charlie' is a black label used for white men" and the film's "association with chocolate touched off the protests." In his 2002 book on the making of the film, director Mel Stuart confirmed the article's assertion and noted that, due to concerns raised by African-American actors, he also suggested changing the appearance of the Oompa-Loompas from the African pygmies that they had been in the original illustrations in Dahl's book to the film's distinctive green-and-orange coloring.
       In the film's opening cast credits, Peter Ostrum is listed last with the credit "and introducing Peter Ostrum as Charlie." After the disappearance of each child in the film, the Oompa-Loompas sing a song disparaging the child's character flaw, such as being greedy or watching too much television. In the film, when it is announced that the fifth ticket has been found by a millionaire in Paraguay, a picture of Nazi Martin Bormann (who was rumored to have fled to South America) is shown. The character of "Willy Wonka" frequently quotes or paraphrases William Shakespeare and other writers, such as his comment on Charlie's honesty: "So shines a good deed in a weary world," which is from Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice.
       The film is generally faithful to Dahl's book, with several notable exceptions, such as the elimination of the character of Charlie's father and allowing the children to bring only one guardian to the factory instead of two, which cut down on the number of actors required. Although "Oscar Slugworth," Everlasting Gobstobbers and Fizzy Lifting Drinks are briefly mentioned in the book, the filmmakers decided to expand upon them for the picture in order to have a villain and more of a test of Charlie's character, according to modern interviews. In the book, "Veruca Salt" is pushed down to the furnace by walnut-cracking squirrels rather than falling to her fate after encountering giant geese that lay golden eggs. When Daily Variety announced in July 1969 that producer David L. Wolper had purchased the rights to Dahl's book for $500,000, it was reported that Dahl would receive a portion of the film's profits in addition to writing the screenplay.
       On August 13, 1969, Variety announced that Wolper had struck a deal with Quaker Oats Company for the food manufacturer to finance two feature films and several television programs, with the first project to be Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. The article noted that the projects were to be family-oriented and would be widely advertised by Quaker. In addition, because Wolper would obtain complete production monies from the start, he would be "in a good position for a preferred distribution deal." Wolper commented that his company would also retain the music and subsidiary rights to the joint projects, while Quaker would control the merchandising rights. In modern interviews, Wolper and Stuart have stated that the reason Quaker wanted to enter the motion picture business was to promote a new candy bar, and the pair, who were already considering filming Dahl's book, suggested it as the perfect vehicle. After the announcement of the deal, there was much speculation in contemporary sources that it would lead to new sources of corporate financing for Hollywood films.
       A 2001 DVD documentary made to celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of the film's release featured extensive interviews with contributing writer David Seltzer, who was frequently on the set during production and contributed a great deal to the script. The picture marked the fiction feature film debut of Seltzer, who previously had worked only on documentaries for Wolper. Stuart has reported that Bob Kaufman also wrote gags for the film, mostly dealing with the comic interludes surrounding the search for the Golden Tickets.
       According to modern sources, Joel Grey was the leading contender for the role of Wonka before it was offered to Gene Wilder, and Jim Backus was considered for "Sam Beauregarde." Jean Stapleton was offered the part of "Mrs. Teevee," but turned it down to appear in the pilot for the television series All in the Family. According to modern interviews with Stuart, the man with a centipede crawling on his face, briefly seen in the tunnel sequence, is producer-director Walon Green. Stuart's children, Peter and Madeline, appear in the film as schoolmates of "Charlie Bucket." Bobby Roe, who served as Peter Ostrum's stand-in and played "Peter Goff," was the son of assistant director Jack Roe.
       According to modern sources, Wolper approached first Richard Rodgers, then Henry Mancini to write the film's songs, but both demurred. Wolper then hired the songwriting team of Anthony Newley and Leslie Bricusse, who had scored several successful theatrical musicals and written a number of hit songs. Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory marked their first collaboration for motion pictures, although previously they had worked in the film industry separately. Modern sources also note that Newley wanted to play the part of "Bill," the candy store owner who sings "Candy Man," but Stuart, afraid that his strong personality would overshadow the production, dissuaded him. Another modern source states that Sammy Davis, Jr., who had a big hit with his recording of the number, also was interested in playing the part. The song eventually became a popular part of both Davis' and Newley's nightclub acts.
       The exact titles of the songs vary in contemporary and modern sources, with "Candy Man" sometimes referred to as "The Candy Man" or "Willy Wonka, the Candy Man," while the Oompa-Loompa song, "Doma Loompa Doompa Dee Do," is more commonly called "Oompa-Loompa-Doompa-Dee-Do," or some variation thereof. According to modern sources, the voice of Diana Sowle was dubbed by Diana Lee. Stuart related in his book that when the film is shown in television, he often instructs that her song, "Cheer Up Charlie," be cut in order to fit time constraints.
       According to contemporary sources, the majority of the film was shot on location in Munich and at Bavaria Studios in Geiselgasteig, Germany. Modern sources report that the exterior of the defunct Munich Gas Works, redecorated by production designer Harper Goff, was used for the exterior of Wonka's factory, and the town of Nordlingen was used for the overhead shots when Wonka, Charlie and "Grandpa Joe" fly in the glass elevator. In an April 1971 interview published in Los Angeles Times, Stuart stated that they shot in Germany in order to find "fairy-tale interiors with fairy-tale exteriors...[with] marvelous enchanted forests and fantastic Old World city streets." In modern sources, Stuart emphasized that he did not want the location of Charlie's home and Wonka's factory to be easily identifiable. In the DVD documentary, several members of the cast commented that their reactions upon entering the Chocolate Room for the first time were real, as they had not been allowed to see the set until then. Although the Chocolate Room was a full, "practical" set with no false walls, the chocolate river was made from water, chocolate powder and various chemicals.
       The filming of the picture in Germany caused much controversy at the time, with members of the cameraman's branch of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE) accusing Wolper and Quaker of contributing to the then serious problem of "runaway" productions, as reported in August and September 1970 and September 1971 trade papers. Wolper noted in a September 1970 Daily Variety article that he picked Bavaria as the location site for the film because "We needed storybook locations because it's a fantasy." In a September 7, 1971 Daily Variety article, Wolper denied the charge that he was going to produce another film in Germany for Quaker, as had been alleged, and maintained that the union was wrong in its assertion that the picture's interiors could have been shot at a Hollywood studio because "less than 65% of the picture was filmed indoors...it was vital that [the] interiors be shot near the actual locations or we would not have been able to make the picture at all." Union leaders threatened to picket the film and Quaker Oats, according to the articles, but it has not been determined what action, if any, was taken.
       Some parts of the film were shot at the Paramount Studios in Los Angeles, according to contemporary news items, after the conclusion of principal photography in Germany. In his book, Stuart noted that the Los Angeles filming mostly consisted of the comic interludes. The film's final budget had been set by Quaker as $2.9 million, and the worldwide distribution rights were acquired by Paramount before production began. In an April 1971 Los Angeles Times article, it was reported that "the normal distribution fees (generally anywhere from 30 to 40% of a picture's gross) will be notably less than had Paramount itself financed the film." Modern sources add that Paramount retained distribution rights to the picture for seven years, and that later in the 1970s, Wolper engineered the sale of the film to Warner Bros., at which he was then a corporate director.
       Modern sources add the following actors to the cast: Rudy Borgstaller, George Claydon, Malcolm Dixon, Ismed Hassan, Norman McGlen, Angelo Muscat, Pepe Poupee and Albert Wilkinson (Oompa-Loompas); Pat Coombs (Henrietta Salt); Frank Delfino (Auctioneer); Stephen Dunne (Stanley Kael); Shin Hamano (Japanese candy store owner); Gloria Manon (Mrs. Cruthers); Ed Peck (FBI agent); and Clete Roberts (First newscaster). The following crew members are also added by modern sources: (London casting dir) Boaty Baker; (Sound Editing) Roger Sword; and (Craft service) Marci Sperling. Stuart noted in his book that the elaborate calligraphy for Wonka's contract with the children was written by Nancy Wynands, the wife of construction manager Hendrik G. Wynands.
       Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory received an Oscar Nomination for Best Music Score, and Wilder was nominated for a Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture Actor-Musical/Comedy. An April 1971 Variety news item, commenting on the picture's recent sneak previews, noted that the filmmakers were contemplating making a sequel, but it was never produced. According to modern sources, the sequel plans were quashed by Dahl, who was chagrined by Seltzer's changes to his screenplay for Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory.
       The picture marked the screen debut and only film of Peter Ostrum, who had previously appeared only in amateur theater. The filmmakers have commented in modern sources that they interviewed hundreds of boys before hiring Ostrum, who was finalized for the part only a few days before principal photography began. The other child actors had more experience, particularly on television, and continued to act for a varying number of years after the release of the film, although by adulthood, only Julie Dawn Cole and Paris Themmen were still pursuing the profession.
       Although the film was only moderately successful at the time of its release, with the songs in particular being criticized by contemporary reviewers, it has become highly popular over the years due to television broadcasts and releases on video, laser disc and DVD. In 1996, the picture had a limited theatrical re-release to celebrate its twenty-fifth anniversary. The phrase "Golden Ticket" has become part of popular vernacular, and Golden Tickets used in the film have become highly prized by movie memorabilia collectors. Two musical groups, Veruca Salt and Vermiscious K., took their names from the character Veruca Salt and the "rotten Vermiscious Knids" who menaced the Oompa-Loompas in Loompaland.
       Modern sources note that the Wonka candy bar created by Quaker, which was the company's main reason for investing in the film, was never successfully manufactured. Quaker's projected additional collaborations with Wolper were also never realized. In the late 1990s, Nestlé licensed the Wonka name from Dahl's widow Felicity and began producing a successful line of Wonka candies. In 2003, an exhibition of memorabilia from and about the film was exhibited at the David L. Wolper Center at the University of Southern California.
       Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator, Dahl's sequel to the book, was published in 1972, and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory was adapted as a children's play by schoolteacher Richard R. George and published with an introduction by Dahl in 1976. In 2005, Warner Bros. released another motion picture based on Dahl's book, with Felicity Dahl serving as one of the executive producers. Entitled Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory, it was directed by Tim Burton and starred Johnny Depp as Wonka and Freddy Highmore as Charlie.

Miscellaneous Notes

Wilder received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Motion Picture Actor-Musical/Comedy.

Released in United States Summer June 30, 1971

Re-released in United States May 17, 1996

Re-released in United States on Video October 1, 1996

Based on the Roald Dahl book "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" (New York, 1964).

Screen debut and only film for Peter Ostrum.

Formerly distributed by Paramount Pictures.

Released in United States Summer June 30, 1971

Re-released in United States May 17, 1996

Re-released in United States on Video October 1, 1996 (25th Anniversary Special Edition)