Otto Preminger


Director, Producer
Otto Preminger

About

Also Known As
Otto Ludwig Preminger
Birth Place
Austria
Born
December 05, 1906
Died
April 23, 1986
Cause of Death
Cancer

Biography

Along with his fellow Austrian émigré Erich von Stroheim, Otto Preminger enjoyed a long reign in Hollywood as the quintessence of the dictatorial European auteur. With his theatre work in Vienna having attracted attention from Broadway and Tinseltown, Preminger sailed to America in 1935 to begin a long and often combative relationship with Twentieth Century Fox. Locking antlers with auto...

Photos & Videos

Anatomy of a Murder - Movie Poster
Exodus - Movie Poster
Daisy Kenyon - Movie Posters

Family & Companions

Marion Mill
Wife
Actor. Married in 1932; divorced in the late 1940s; hired Preminger to represent her in the only legal case he ever handled; Preminger then cast her in the stage production of "The Front Page" which he directed (1931); became a well-known New York and Hollywood hostess.
Gypsy Rose Lee
Companion
Ecdysiast, entertainer. Mother of Erik Lee Preminger.
Mary Gardner
Wife
Model. Married in 1951; divorced in 1958.
Dorothy Dandridge
Companion
Actor, singer.

Bibliography

"Preminger: An Autobiography"
Otto Preminger, Doubleday (1977)
"The Cinema of Otto Preminger"
Gerald Pratley (1971)
"All I Want is Everything"
Mariom Mill Preminger (1957)

Notes

Preminger's "narrative lines are strewn with deceptive counterpaths, shifting viewpoints, and ambiguous characters who perpetually slip out of static categories and moral definitions...Preminger frequently mystifies the spectator who is looking for a fixed moral reference."--Richard Roud ("Cinema": A Critical Dictionary")

Writing about Preminger's 20th Century-Fox film noir classics of the late 1940s, Jean-Pierre Coursodon wrote in "American Directors": [They are] "not only thematically similar, they look alike, and generate the same kind of atmosphere....The fluidity of the camerawork is the concrete expression of his attitutde to his material. The camera unobtrusively but relentlessly follows the characters around in medium shots and long boom or dolly shots, so as to integrate them to the surroundings. Preminger's vision is a global one, he strives to capture the whole, not details--hence the paucity of close-up and reaction shots in his films....This stylistic option is consistent with Preminger's unfailingly objective attitude toward characters and situations....If the harmony of form and content, expression and intention, is the mark of 'classic' art, Preminger is one of the great classics of the American film."

Biography

Along with his fellow Austrian émigré Erich von Stroheim, Otto Preminger enjoyed a long reign in Hollywood as the quintessence of the dictatorial European auteur. With his theatre work in Vienna having attracted attention from Broadway and Tinseltown, Preminger sailed to America in 1935 to begin a long and often combative relationship with Twentieth Century Fox. Locking antlers with autocratic studio head Darryl F. Zanuck, Preminger churned out several forgettable films before fleeing to New York. Again, the maverick director's stage work drew critical huzzahs and a return ticket to Hollywood. This time Preminger scored with the proto-noir "Laura" (1944), which netted him an Oscar nomination. A string of stylish thrillers, including "Black Angel" (1945) and "Where the Sidewalk Ends" (1950), established him as a world-class filmmaker while his reputation as an on-set tyrant was solidified by his performance as a Nazi prison camp commandant in Billy Wilder's "Stalag 17" (1950). A controversial figure for his taboo-shattering films "The Man with the Golden Arm" (1955), "Anatomy of a Murder" (1959) and "Advise and Consent" (1962), Preminger's industry stock tumbled with the failure of subsequent projects. Branded as aging and out of touch, his later films, including "Hurry Sundown" (1967), "Skidoo" (1968) and "Rosebud" (1968), were met with open critical hostility. Dead in 1986 from the ravages of Alzheimer's disease, Preminger's legacy endured, due to the legend of his larger-than-life personality, his unforgettable physical presence, and a super-sized ego that earned him the nickname Otto the Ogre.

Otto Ludwig Preminger was born in a German-speaking conclave of Wiznitz, Poland (later the Ukraine) on Dec. 5, 1905. His father, Markus Preminger, was a Galician Jew who had been appointed as a public prosecutor by Austro-Hungarian emperor Franz Josef I. With the political upheavals that lead ultimately to the onset of World War I, the Preminger family relocated to Graz, Austria, where Markus accepted the position of the imperial Attorney General, and ultimately to Vienna, seat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Despite experiencing rampant anti-Semitism in the adopted city, the Preminger family prospered and Otto and his younger brother Ingo received an excellent Catholic education which included the study of Hebrew and Jewish history. The Preminger household was marked by erudition and high culture. In later life, Otto Preminger would adopt an aristocratic attitude and claim Vienna as his birthplace. With Germany's defeat at the end of the First World War and the dissolution of the Empire, Markus Preminger went into private practice and the family was able to move into an exclusive section of Vienna.

Preminger attended the theatre three or four times a week, often skipping school to read plays in the library. The diagnosis of a heart murmur kept him out of sports, enabling his reclusive passions. He would ultimately conduct his own play readings, reserving the choicest roles for himself, and made his amateur theatrical debut in an open-air production of Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream" in 1922. Despite taking up the study of law to please his father, Preminger apprenticed himself to theatre manager Max Reinhardt and made his professional debut in a production of Carlo Goldoni's "The Servant of Two Masters" in 1924. His journeyman years as an actor took him to Prague in Czechoslovakia and Zurich in Switzerland. Suffering early from baldness, he changed his focus to directing. As a director-manager back in Austria, he founded a theatre company and converted a former opera house into a performance space dubbed the New Vienna Playhouse. Ripples from the crash of the American stock market in 1929 dealt crippling blows to Preminger's enterprises, but he rebounded by taking an executive position with Max Reinhardt's company the following year. In 1931, Preminger was given the opportunity to direct his first film, "Die Grosse Liebe" ("The Great Love"), which proved a modest success.

He was being courted to travel to Broadway with a successful German play when he was introduced to producer Joseph Schenck, cofounder of the newly minted Twentieth Century Fox film studio in Hollywood. Despite the fact that Preminger spoke no English, he was offered a studio contract and first class passage to America. After staging the Edward Wooll drama "Libel" on Broadway in December 1935, Preminger traveled to Hollywood in early 1936. Heralded by his new employers as one of Europe's most distinguished directors, Preminger was feted by the likes of Gary Cooper, Joan Crawford, Greta Garbo, Mary Pickford and Charlie Chaplin. By this time, he had adopted the habit of shaving his head, which would become, along with his notoriously volatile temper, a career trademark. Despite the faith Fox had placed in its newest acquisition, Preminger was allowed to do little more than observe other directors for more than a year. He made his English-language directorial debut with the forgettable musical comedy "Under Your Spell" (1936), a vehicle for opera singer Lawrence Tibbett. Grateful for the work but uninterested in the material, Preminger nonetheless delivered the picture under budget and ahead of schedule.

The economy with which Preminger delivered his assignment prompted studio head Darryl F. Zanuck to offer him the A-list project "Nancy Steele is Missing," to star Academy Award winner Wallace Beery. When Beery refused to work with the foreigner (the film was made in 1937 by George Marshall, with Victor McLachlan in the lead), Preminger was bumped to the B unit. His feature work remained unremarkable through the expiration of his Fox contract in 1938, by which time he had fallen out with Zanuck. Returning to New York, he directed a successful revival of Sutton Vane's "Outward Bound" and oversaw John Barrymore's Broadway comeback in "My Dear Children." Preminger also made his Broadway acting debut as a sinister German consul in Clare Booth's "Margin for Error." The comedy ran for nearly a year, during which time Preminger lectured on acting and directing at Yale University. Alternating directing for the stage with performing, Preminger made his feature film acting debut as a sympathetic Nazi officer in "The Pied Piper" (1942).

Though he had reservations about playing another German villain, Preminger agreed to reprise his Broadway role in Fox's big screen adaptation of "Margin for Error" (1943) with the caveat that he be allowed to direct. Though Ernst Lubitsch had first been offered the director's chair, Preminger countered that he would direct the film for free. The studio was sufficiently pleased with Preminger's dailies to offer him a seven-year contract before principal photography had even been completed. The émigré knew his fortunes had reversed themselves when he attained American citizenship in August of that year. On the hunt for a new project, Preminger picked a novel by Vera Casparay, a murder mystery set within Manhattan's fashionable high society. Though initially assigned as a mere producer on "Laura" (1944), Preminger soon replaced director Rouben Mamoulian, with whom he had frequently found himself at odds. Starting from scratch with a new cinematographer, Preminger coaxed star-making performances out of relative newcomers Gene Tierney and Dana Andrews and theatre actors Clifton Webb and Vincent Price, while earning an Academy Award nomination for Best Director. "Laura" (1944) would remain one of Preminger's tentpole achievements, a tartly-scripted whodunit distinguished by the chiaroscuro style of postwar filmmaking that French critics would dub film noir. Though he would direct a variety of films in the ensuing years, crime thrillers such as "Fallen Angel" (1945), "Whirlpool" (1949) and "Where the Sidewalk Ends" (1950) were his most distinctive accomplishments.

In 1944, Preminger fathered a child, Erik, from his short-lived affair with stripper Gypsy Rose Lee. Father and son would not meet until 1966. For director Billy Wilder, Preminger again donned the uniform of a Gestapo officer to play a concentration camp commandant in "Stalag 17" (1950). Though "The 13th Letter" (1951), his English language remake of the French hit "Le Corbeau" (1943), proved a box office disappointment, Preminger scored with the comedy "The Moon is Blue" (1953), starring William Holden and David Niven. Made after Hollywood's abandonment of the censorious Production Code, the film was a cause célèbre for its frank language and was banned in Boston. "River of No Return" (1954) paired Marilyn Monroe with Robert Mitchum and was a rare Preminger film to go over-budget and over-schedule; the film's success with moviegoers turned what had been a mere contractual obligation into another career win for Preminger. During the making of "Carmen Jones" (1954), Preminger began a love affair with his African-American star Dorothy Dandridge, which lasted for four tumultuous years.

Though filmed entirely on the backlot, Preminger's "The Man with the Golden Arm" (1955) furthered the filmmaker's interest in exploring taboo themes - in this case, drug addiction. Preminger's track record was hit-and-miss during this period. Though "Saint Joan" (1957) was critically reviled, the courtroom drama "Anatomy of a Murder" (1959) was widely considered one of his best. After tackling the subject of homosexuality in the political drama "Advise and Consent" (1962), Preminger's star wattage began to dim. The nearly three-hour "The Cardinal" (1963) was pilloried by critics as overlong and underwhelming and was remembered principally for the rancorous professional relationship Preminger shared with leading man Tom Tryon. Although he received another Academy Award nomination for Best Director, he also earned the whispered-industry nickname of Otto the Ogre. Though a hit in England where it was made, the mystery "Bunny Lake is Missing" (1965) was a box office failure in America. Worse yet, Preminger's Southern melodrama "Hurry Sundown" (1967) and his zany drug farce "Skidoo" (1968) were met with hostility by critics and indifference by moviegoers. During this time, he poked fun at his dictatorial image by playing the Teutonic supervillain Mr. Freeze on the hit TV series "Batman" (ABC, 1966-68), but as a filmmaker he was regarded at that time as out of touch. Preminger capped his career with the international thrillers "Rosebud" (1975) and "The Human Factor" (1979). Injuries sustained in a 1980 traffic accident hastened his physical decline. Plagued by mini strokes and the onset of Alzheimer's disease, Otto Preminger spent his final year in a wheelchair before passing away on April 23, 1986, at the age of 80.

By Richard Harland Smith

Filmography

 

Director (Feature Film)

The Human Factor (1980)
Director
Rosebud (1975)
Director
Such Good Friends (1971)
Director
Tell Me That You Love Me, Junie Moon (1970)
Director
Skidoo (1968)
Director
Hurry Sundown (1967)
Director
In Harm's Way (1965)
Director
Bunny Lake Is Missing (1965)
Director
The Cardinal (1963)
Director
Advise & Consent (1962)
Director
Exodus (1960)
Director
Anatomy of a Murder (1959)
Director
Porgy and Bess (1959)
Director
Bonjour Tristesse (1958)
Director
Saint Joan (1957)
Director
The Man with the Golden Arm (1956)
Director
The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell (1955)
Director
Carmen Jones (1955)
Director
River of No Return (1954)
Director
The Moon Is Blue (1953)
Director
Angel Face (1953)
Director
The 13th Letter (1951)
Director
Where the Sidewalk Ends (1950)
Director
Whirlpool (1949)
Director
The Fan (1949)
Director
That Lady in Ermine (1948)
Fill-In Director
Daisy Kenyon (1947)
Director
Forever Amber (1947)
Director
Centennial Summer (1946)
Director
A Royal Scandal (1945)
Director
Fallen Angel (1945)
Director
In the Meantime, Darling (1944)
Director
Laura (1944)
Director
Margin for Error (1943)
Director
Kidnapped (1938)
Director
Danger - Love at Work (1937)
Director
Under Your Spell (1936)
Director
Die Grosse Liebe (1932)
Director

Cast (Feature Film)

Hollywood On Trial (1976)
Himself
Stalag 17 (1953)
Oberst von Scherbach
Where Do We Go from Here? (1945)
General Rahl
Margin for Error (1943)
Karl Baumer
They Got Me Covered (1943)
[Otto] Fauscheim
The Pied Piper (1942)
Major Diessen

Producer (Feature Film)

The Human Factor (1980)
Producer
Rosebud (1975)
Producer
Such Good Friends (1971)
Producer
Tell Me That You Love Me, Junie Moon (1970)
Producer
Skidoo (1968)
Producer
Hurry Sundown (1967)
Presented By
Hurry Sundown (1967)
Producer
Bunny Lake Is Missing (1965)
Presented By
In Harm's Way (1965)
Producer
Bunny Lake Is Missing (1965)
Producer
The Cardinal (1963)
Producer
Advise & Consent (1962)
Presented By
Advise & Consent (1962)
Producer
Exodus (1960)
Presented By
Exodus (1960)
Producer
Anatomy of a Murder (1959)
Producer
Anatomy of a Murder (1959)
Presented By
Bonjour Tristesse (1958)
Presented By
Bonjour Tristesse (1958)
Producer
Saint Joan (1957)
Presented By
Saint Joan (1957)
Producer
The Man with the Golden Arm (1956)
Presented By
The Man with the Golden Arm (1956)
Producer
Carmen Jones (1955)
Producer
Angel Face (1953)
Producer
The Moon Is Blue (1953)
Presented By
The Moon Is Blue (1953)
Producer
The 13th Letter (1951)
Producer
Where the Sidewalk Ends (1950)
Producer
Whirlpool (1949)
Producer
The Fan (1949)
Producer
That Lady in Ermine (1948)
Fill-in prod
Daisy Kenyon (1947)
Producer
Centennial Summer (1946)
Producer
Fallen Angel (1945)
Producer
In the Meantime, Darling (1944)
Producer
Laura (1944)
Producer

Production Companies (Feature Film)

Tell Me That You Love Me, Junie Moon (1970)
Company
Skidoo (1968)
Company
Carmen Jones (1955)
Company

Misc. Crew (Feature Film)

Hollywood On Trial (1976)
Other

Director (Special)

Tonight at 8:30 (1954)
Director

Cast (Special)

Preminger -- Anatomy of a Filmmaker (1996)
Himself
Rickles (1975)

Producer (Special)

Tonight at 8:30 (1954)
Producer

Cast (TV Mini-Series)

The Hobbit (1977)
Voice

Life Events

1925

Joined German theater in Aussig (now in Czechoslavakia) where he also made his directorial debut with a production of Klabund's "Kreiderkreis/The Chalk Circle"

1931

Returned to the Josefstadt as an assistant director

1931

Handled only law case, a breach-of-contract suit brought by a nightclub owner against actress Marion Mill (whom he represented), Preminger then cast Mill in "The Front Page" which he was directing and married her the following year

1931

Directed first film, "Die Grosse Liebe/The Great Love"

1932

Took over as director of the Josefstadt when Reinhardt went into semi-retirement

1935

Invited by Joseph M Schenck to work for his newly merged 20th Century-Fox in Hollywood

1935

Directed first Broadway play, "Libel"

1936

Directed first Hollywood film, "Under Your Spell"

1941

Made Broadway acting debut (replacing another actor) in Clare Boothe Luce's play, "Margin for Error" (also directed)

1942

Returned to Hollywood as an actor, playing a Nazi officer in "The Pied Piper"

1943

Hired to recreate his role in "Margin for Error" in film version, Preminger offered to direct and star for only an actor's fee; resulted in a contract with 20th Century-Fox to act, direct and produce

1944

Hired as producer, he also replaced Rouben Mamoulian as director on film noir classic "Laura"

1951

Returned to the Broadway stage to direct "Four Twelves Are Forty-Eight" and "The Moon Is Blue"

1953

Became an independent producer; first film project, "The Moon Is Blue" became first film refused Production Code seal of approval when Preminger refused to delete the words "virgin" "pregnant", "mistress" and "seduction" from the script of the film

1979

Directed last film, "The Human Factor"

Photo Collections

Anatomy of a Murder - Movie Poster
Here is the American one-sheet movie poster designed by Saul Bass for Otto Preminger's Anatomy of a Murder (1950). One-sheets measured 27x41 inches, and were the poster style most commonly used in theaters.
Exodus - Movie Poster
Here is the American one-sheet movie poster (designed by Saul Bass) for Exodus (1960), produced and directed by Otto Preminger. One-sheets measured 27x41 inches, and were the poster style most commonly used in theaters.
Daisy Kenyon - Movie Posters
Here are a few original-release movie posters for Twentieth Century Fox's Daisy Kenyon (1947), starring Joan Crawford, Henry Fonda, and Dana Andrews.

Videos

Movie Clip

Forever Amber (1947) - I Make No Claim On Your Freedom In London to petition king Charles Stuart for privateering ships, noblemen Bruce (Cornel Wilde) and Harry (Richard Greene) are irritated to discover the impetuous Puritan girl they met in the countryside (Linda Darnell, the title character) in their rooms, in the extravagant Technicolor historical melodrama Forever Amber, 1947.
Forever Amber (1947) - Never Lead With The Ace Queen Summoned late at night to Whitehall by the king Charles Stuart (George Sanders), Carlton (Cornel Wilde), with sidekick Harry (Richard Greene), infers that the monarch has chosen to grant him the ships he wants, to keep him away from his own paramour Barbara (Natalie Draper), with whom he plays Piquet, in Otto Preminger’s Forever Amber, 1947.
Forever Amber (1947) - You Didn't Tell Me You Had An Uncle Clever shooting by director Otto Preminger, as Linda Darnell (title character) is now a London actress, pursued by wealthy Radcliffe (Richard Haydn), attended by her fellow former prisoner Nan (Jessica Tandy), thrilled to see old pal Harry (Richard Greene), who upsets her current sponsor Morgan (Glenn Langan), in Forever Amber, 1947.
Forever Amber (1947) - England Is Aflame Producer Darryl Zanuck and director Otto Preminger attempt the rare double-prologue, leading to the rural Puritan household of Leo G. Carroll, and top-billed Linda Darnell as the already rebellious title character, in the multi-million dollar 20th Century-Fox production from the Kathleen Winsor novel, Forever Amber, 1947.
Forever Amber (1947) - Both Alike In Dignity Now in London in her first fancy frock, Amber (Linda Darnell) is now involved with nobleman Bruce (Cornel Wilde), and with pal Harry (Richard Greene) they attend Shakespeare, where they spy Natalie Draper as Barbara, and see an opportunity to solicit King Charles (George Sanders) for ships, and fail badly, in Darryl F. Zanuck’s Forever Amber1947.
Angel Face (1953) - My Little Plot Didn't Succeed We infer here that wealthy mysterious Diane (Jean Simmons), who may have tried to gas her rich stepmother, took it upon herself to invite Mary (Mona Freeman) to lunch, explaining how she diverted her ambulance driver boyfriend (Robert Mitchum) the night before, with mixed results, in Otto Preminger’s Angel Face, 1953.
Angel Face (1953) - I Told Her About Last Night Maybe failed-murderess Diane (Jean Simmons) again finds Frank (Robert Mitchum) at the diner, explaining that she's now told his girlfriend that she wants to donate to his business start-up fund, in Otto Preminger's Angel Face, 1953.
Angel Face (1953) - Guilty On All Four Counts Not-seen stepdaughter Diane (Jean Simmons, title character) is the subject, as Catherine (Barbara O'Neil) hears out chauffeur Frank (Robert Mitchum) on his business idea, then chastises her father, also the spendthrift husband, Charles (Herbert Marshall) in Otto Preminger's Angel Face, 1953.
Angel Face (1953) - Let's Just Say It's The Altitude Robert Mitchum (as chauffeur Frank) is comfortable explaining why he's leaving, even as he grabs tempestuous heroine Diane (Jean Simmons) by her Angel Face, 1953, directed by Otto Preminger.
Where The Sidewalk Ends (1950) - I'm Getting Richer Consulting with just-demoted cop Dixon (Dana Andrews) and Klein (Bert Freed) ex-con Willie (Don Appell) leads us to the casino run by Scalise (Gary Merrill), where Texan Morrison (Harry von Zell), is entertained by Morgan (Gene Tierney) and her almost-ex husband Paine (Craig Stevens), in Otto Preminger's Where The Sidewalk Ends, 1950.
Where The Sidewalk Ends (1950) - Worst Food In Town Cop Dixon (Dana Andrews) with witness Morgan (Gene Tierney), getting acquainted at the restaurant run by Martha (Ruth Donnelly), then taking a call from colleagues (Bert Freed, Karl Malden), in Otto Preminger's Where The Sidewalk Ends, 1950.
Where The Sidewalk Ends (1950) - Sinking Pretty Low Bruised model Morgan (Gene Tierney) at work with a designer (Tierney's husband Oleg Cassini!), with a friend (Peggy O'Connor), then visited by cops Dixon (Dana Andrews) and Klein (Bert Freed), in Otto Preminger's Where The Sidewalk Ends, 1950.

Trailer

Stalag 17 -- (Re-issue Trailer) He's a cynic but is he a traitor? William Holden won a Best Actor award as the hard-boiled POW running scams in Billy Wilder's Stalag 17 (1953).
Laura - (Re-issue Trailer) A police detective (Dana Andrews) falls in love with the woman (Gene Tierney) whose murder he's investigating in Laura (1944), directed by Otto Preminger.
Man With The Golden Arm, The - (Original Trailer) A junkie (Frank Sinatra) must face his true self to kick his drug addiction in Otto Preminger's groundbreaking movie, The Man With The Golden Arm (1955).
Moon is Blue, The - (Original Trailer) Two womanizers (William Holden, David Niven) fall for a woman determined to keep her virginity in The Moon is Blue (1953).
Exodus - (Textless trailer) Paul Newman and Eva Marie Saint lead an all-star cast in Otto Preminger's epic about the formation of the modern state of Israel, Exodus (1960).
Daisy Kenyon - (Original Trailer) On the rebound from a married man, Joan Crawford marries a veteran, just as her lover becomes available in Otto Preminger's Daisy Kenyon (1947).
Cardinal, The - (Original Trailer) A Boston priest deals with illicit love, racism and war as he rises in the church in Otto Preminger's The Cardinal (1963).
Bunny Lake Is Missing - (Original Trailer) A distraught mother searches for her semmingly non-existant daughter, bringing her sanity into question in Otto Preminger's Bunny Lake Is Missing (1965).
Bonjour Tristesse - (Original Trailer) A jealous teenage girl (Jean Seberg) plots to end the remarriage of her father (David Niven) in Otto Preminger's Bonjour Tristesse (1958).
Anatomy Of A Murder - (Original Trailer) Small-town lawyer James Stewart gets the case of a lifetime when a military man avenges an attack on his wife in Otto Preminger's Anatomy Of A Murder (1959).
Angel Face - (Original Trailer) Jean Simmons goes to the dark side playing an unscrupulous woman who murders her loved ones for profit in Otto Preminger's Angel Face (1952).
River of No Return - (Original Trailer) A frontier farmer takes off with his son and a saloon singer after the man who stole his rifle and his horse in River of No Return (1954).

Family

Markus Preminger
Father
Lawyer. Chief prosecutor for the Austro-Hungarian Empire and then for the imperial army.
Josepha Preminger
Mother
Daughter of a lumberyard owner.
Ingo Preminger
Brother
Producer. Born c. 1910.
Erik Lee Preminger
Son
Writer, associate producer. Born c. 1945; mother, Gypsy Rose Lee; Preminger learned that Erik Kirkland was his son in 1971 and officially adopted him; worked for Preminger as a writer and associate producer.
Mark Preminger
Son
Born in 1960; twin of Victoria; mother, Patricia Hope Bryce.
Victoria Preminger
Daughter
Born 1960; twin of Mark; mother, Patricia Hope Bryce.

Companions

Marion Mill
Wife
Actor. Married in 1932; divorced in the late 1940s; hired Preminger to represent her in the only legal case he ever handled; Preminger then cast her in the stage production of "The Front Page" which he directed (1931); became a well-known New York and Hollywood hostess.
Gypsy Rose Lee
Companion
Ecdysiast, entertainer. Mother of Erik Lee Preminger.
Mary Gardner
Wife
Model. Married in 1951; divorced in 1958.
Dorothy Dandridge
Companion
Actor, singer.
Patricia Hope Bryce
Wife
Fashion coordinator. Married in 1958; was fashion coordinator on Preminger's film "Bonjour Tristesse" (1957); mother of Preminger's twin son and daughter.

Bibliography

"Preminger: An Autobiography"
Otto Preminger, Doubleday (1977)
"The Cinema of Otto Preminger"
Gerald Pratley (1971)
"All I Want is Everything"
Mariom Mill Preminger (1957)

Notes

Preminger's "narrative lines are strewn with deceptive counterpaths, shifting viewpoints, and ambiguous characters who perpetually slip out of static categories and moral definitions...Preminger frequently mystifies the spectator who is looking for a fixed moral reference."--Richard Roud ("Cinema": A Critical Dictionary")

Writing about Preminger's 20th Century-Fox film noir classics of the late 1940s, Jean-Pierre Coursodon wrote in "American Directors": [They are] "not only thematically similar, they look alike, and generate the same kind of atmosphere....The fluidity of the camerawork is the concrete expression of his attitutde to his material. The camera unobtrusively but relentlessly follows the characters around in medium shots and long boom or dolly shots, so as to integrate them to the surroundings. Preminger's vision is a global one, he strives to capture the whole, not details--hence the paucity of close-up and reaction shots in his films....This stylistic option is consistent with Preminger's unfailingly objective attitude toward characters and situations....If the harmony of form and content, expression and intention, is the mark of 'classic' art, Preminger is one of the great classics of the American film."

In his autobiography, Preminger explains the discrepancy in his birth date and place: "One set of documents lists Vienna as my birthplace but another set...places my birth at my great-grandfather's farm some distance away. One records that I was born on the fifth of December, 1906, the other exactly one year earlier."