The Trial


1h 58m 1963
The Trial

Brief Synopsis

In this adaptation of Kafka's classic, a man in a nameless country stands trial for an unnamed crime.

Film Details

Also Known As
Der Prozess, Il processo, Le Procès
Genre
Drama
Political
Foreign
Adaptation
Release Date
Jan 1963
Premiere Information
New York opening: 20 Feb 1963
Production Company
FI. C. IT.; Hisa--Film; Paris Europa Production
Distribution Company
Astor Pictures
Country
France
Location
Paris, France; Zagreb, Yugoslavia
Screenplay Information
Based on the novel Der Prozess by Franz Kafka (Berlin, 1925).

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 58m
Sound
Mono (Ortiphone) (source format), Mono (Westrex Recording System) (re-recording)
Color
Black and White
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
1.66 : 1

Synopsis

Joseph K, a young bank clerk, is awakened by a police inspector and two detectives who place him under arrest. Although he has committed no crime and has no idea of the charges, he finds himself being discussed and scorned by his neighbors, all of whom seem to know the details of his case. Eventually K is led through a labyrinth of corridors and taken before an examining magistrate, but he still cannot learn why he is under suspicion. His uncle, who somehow knows about his forthcoming trial, takes him to a bedridden advocate, Hastler, who agrees to act as his defense attorney. While the advocate rambles on about legal problems, K allows himself to be seduced by the man's nurse and mistress, Leni, a nymphomaniac irresistibly drawn to condemned men. After dismissing the advocate because of his delay in getting on with the case, K encounters a priest who tells him an allegorical tale of a man who waited all his life at the door of The Law but died without gaining admittance. Then, early one morning, K is accosted by two executioners who lead him to a quarry at the edge of town. When he defiantly maintains his innocence and laughs hysterically at his tormentors, they toss two sticks of dynamite into the pit. Following the explosion, a tiny cloud rises from the quarry.

Crew

Tommaso Albinoni

Music leitmotif: "adagio"

Alexandre Alexeieff

Pin-screen images

Denise Baby

Special Effects Editor

Sophie Becker

1st & 2nd Assistant Director

Emile Blonde

Assistant prod Manager

Jean Bourlier

Assistant art Director

Jacques Brizzio

Assistant art Director

Madame Brunet

Wardrobe mistress

Sonia Bunodière

Prod Secretary

Adolphe Charlet

Camera

Jean Charpentier

Set Dresser

Roger Corbeau

Stills

Francine Coureau

Set Dresser

Chantal Delattre

Assistant film Editor

Louis Dor

Makeup

Philippe Dubail

2nd Assistant prod Manager

Max Dulac

1st Assistant photographer

Henri Dutrannoy

Administration

Robert Florat

Associate Producer

Robert Florat

Prod Supervisor

Robert Fraisse

2nd Assistant photographer

Louis Germain

2nd loc Manager

Marie-josé Kling

Screenplay girl

André Labussière

Scenic artist

Paul Laffargue

Assistant to the prod

Daniel Laguille

Props master

Yves Laplanche

Producer

Jacques Lebreton

Sound mix

Jean Ledrut

Music comp & Arrangements

Urbain Loiseau

Sound Assistant

Guy Maillet

Sound Assistant

Jean Mandaroux

Art Director

Yvonne Martin

Film Editor

Guy Maugin

Loc Manager

Marc Maurette

Assistant Director

Fritz Muller

Assistant film Editor

Jacques D' Ovidio

Assistant art Director

Claire Parker

Pin-screen images

André Pierdel

Props master

Jacques Pignier

Production Manager

Gisène Pillet-collet

Prod Secretary

Gérard Pollicand

Assistant film Editor

Edmond Richard

Director of Photography

Alexander Salkind

Producer

Miguel Salkind

Producer

Paul Seban

Assistant Director

Claudie Thary

Wardrobe mistress

Hélène Thibault

Wardrobe

Pierre Tyberghein

Assistant art Director

Guy Villette

Sound Engineer

Film Details

Also Known As
Der Prozess, Il processo, Le Procès
Genre
Drama
Political
Foreign
Adaptation
Release Date
Jan 1963
Premiere Information
New York opening: 20 Feb 1963
Production Company
FI. C. IT.; Hisa--Film; Paris Europa Production
Distribution Company
Astor Pictures
Country
France
Location
Paris, France; Zagreb, Yugoslavia
Screenplay Information
Based on the novel Der Prozess by Franz Kafka (Berlin, 1925).

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 58m
Sound
Mono (Ortiphone) (source format), Mono (Westrex Recording System) (re-recording)
Color
Black and White
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
1.66 : 1

Articles

The Trial


You wouldn't think that the existential and often ambiguous dream-fiction of Austrian novelist Franz Kafka would translate easily to the screen but that hasn't stopped filmmakers from attempting to visually recreate his troubling tales about modern man. Since the early sixties, there have been more than twenty film adaptations based on his novels and stories and even a few original concoctions, such as Steven Soderbergh's bizarre black comedy, Kafka (1991) and the amusing spoof, Franz Kafka's It's a Wonderful Life (1993), which won an Oscar in the short subjects category. Actor/director Maximilian Schell filmed a version of The Castle in 1968 and there have been movie versions of Metamorphosis, Amerika, and The Penal Colony. Without a doubt, one of the most successful adaptations of a Kafka novel is The Trial (1963) a.k.a. Le Proces, directed by Orson Welles. No less visually stunning than Welles' masterpiece, Citizen Kane (1941), The Trial depicts the nightmarish existence of Joseph K (Anthony Perkins), a clerk who is accused of an unspecified crime, and then begins an elaborate search for justice within a labyrinth of office buildings populated by dehumanized bureaucrats.

The film project began with the father-son producing team of Michel and Alexander Salkind who first worked with Welles on their production of Austerlitz (1960), a historic epic directed by Abel Gance. A few years later, when they offered Welles a part in Taras Bulba (1962), their discussions led to an offer for Welles to direct a literary classic from a list of over a hundred titles. In This is Orson Welles by Peter Bogdanovich (HarperPerennial), Welles said, "They had Kafka's The Trial on the list, and I said I wanted to do The Castle because I liked it better, but they persuaded me to do The Trial. I had to do a book - couldn't make them do an original....They thought The Trial was public domain, and then had to pay for it - but that's another story."

Like most films Welles directed after he fled the studio system in Hollywood, The Trial encountered numerous production problems. Filming was scheduled to begin in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, but was soon abandoned for lack of funds. Welles recalled, "I spent months designing the sets for all the interiors. We were going to shoot the actual big office and the streets of Prague and Zagreb for the last walk with the murderers. And during the time we were in Zagreb, my sets were to be built in the studios. The art director who was to realize my designs had made all the blueprints, everything was ready to go, and, the night before we were to leave for Yugoslavia, Mr. Salkind....said there was no money to build any sets of any kind." But what appeared to be a huge setback for the film turned out to be a lucky break for the director. Welles said that "I was living here (in Paris), at the Hotel Meurisse - it was late at night - wandering around in the sitting room, trying to figure out how to shoot without sets, this story in particular. And the moon is a very important thing for me, and I looked out of the window and saw two full moons. And then I realized that they were the two clock faces of the Gare d'Orsay glowing in the night, and it was really a sign. I went down at four in the morning and got in a taxi and went to the Gare d'Orsay and went in. And from four in the morning until dawn, I wandered around the deserted old railway station and found everything I needed for the picture."

While securing the once famous French train station as the main set was a coup for Welles, there were other production headaches. For a sequence filmed on Mount Vesuvius near Naples, Anthony Perkins and Welles almost tumbled into the crater trying to get a shot. Scheduling restrictions and lack of money also played havoc with Welles' preferred choice of players and when he couldn't find a suitable actor to play Hassler, the defense attorney, he took on the role himself. He also had to loop the dialogue, music, and sound effects for the entire film in post-production.

After a less than favorable opening at the Venice Film Festival in 1962, The Trial has since grown in stature among film scholars over the years and even the director admitted that it "is the best film I ever made." Anthony Perkins, once considered an odd choice as Joseph K, is perfect in the role, conveying the character's paranoia and mounting desperation. In preparation for the part, Perkins was given some artistic motivation by Welles: "You are pinned to the wall with a thumbtack, you are like a sick moth." Throughout the film, Welles stays remarkably faithful to Kafka's novel with a few exceptions, such as the climax that ends with a nuclear explosion instead of a stabbing. Yet, in the end, Welles differs from Kafka in how he views Joseph K: "He is a little bureaucrat. I consider him guilty....He belongs to a guilty society; he collaborates with it."

Producer: Alexander Salkind, Michael Salkind
Director: Orson Welles
Screenplay: Orson Welles, based on the novel by Franz Kafka
Art Direction: Jean Mandaroux
Cinematography: Edmond Richard
Costume Design: Helen Thibault
Film Editing: Orson Welles, Yvonne Martin, Fritz Muller
Original Music: Jean Ledrut
Principal Cast: Anthony Perkins (Joseph K.), Jeanne Moreau (Miss Burstner), Romy Schneider (Leni), Elsa Martinelli (Hilda), Suzanne Flon (Miss Pittl), Akim Tamiroff (Bloch), Michael Lonsdale (priest), Thomas Holtzmann (Bert), Jess Hahn (Second Assistant Inspector), Orson Welles (Albert Hassler).
BW-120m. Letterboxed.

by Jeff Stafford

The Trial

The Trial

You wouldn't think that the existential and often ambiguous dream-fiction of Austrian novelist Franz Kafka would translate easily to the screen but that hasn't stopped filmmakers from attempting to visually recreate his troubling tales about modern man. Since the early sixties, there have been more than twenty film adaptations based on his novels and stories and even a few original concoctions, such as Steven Soderbergh's bizarre black comedy, Kafka (1991) and the amusing spoof, Franz Kafka's It's a Wonderful Life (1993), which won an Oscar in the short subjects category. Actor/director Maximilian Schell filmed a version of The Castle in 1968 and there have been movie versions of Metamorphosis, Amerika, and The Penal Colony. Without a doubt, one of the most successful adaptations of a Kafka novel is The Trial (1963) a.k.a. Le Proces, directed by Orson Welles. No less visually stunning than Welles' masterpiece, Citizen Kane (1941), The Trial depicts the nightmarish existence of Joseph K (Anthony Perkins), a clerk who is accused of an unspecified crime, and then begins an elaborate search for justice within a labyrinth of office buildings populated by dehumanized bureaucrats. The film project began with the father-son producing team of Michel and Alexander Salkind who first worked with Welles on their production of Austerlitz (1960), a historic epic directed by Abel Gance. A few years later, when they offered Welles a part in Taras Bulba (1962), their discussions led to an offer for Welles to direct a literary classic from a list of over a hundred titles. In This is Orson Welles by Peter Bogdanovich (HarperPerennial), Welles said, "They had Kafka's The Trial on the list, and I said I wanted to do The Castle because I liked it better, but they persuaded me to do The Trial. I had to do a book - couldn't make them do an original....They thought The Trial was public domain, and then had to pay for it - but that's another story." Like most films Welles directed after he fled the studio system in Hollywood, The Trial encountered numerous production problems. Filming was scheduled to begin in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, but was soon abandoned for lack of funds. Welles recalled, "I spent months designing the sets for all the interiors. We were going to shoot the actual big office and the streets of Prague and Zagreb for the last walk with the murderers. And during the time we were in Zagreb, my sets were to be built in the studios. The art director who was to realize my designs had made all the blueprints, everything was ready to go, and, the night before we were to leave for Yugoslavia, Mr. Salkind....said there was no money to build any sets of any kind." But what appeared to be a huge setback for the film turned out to be a lucky break for the director. Welles said that "I was living here (in Paris), at the Hotel Meurisse - it was late at night - wandering around in the sitting room, trying to figure out how to shoot without sets, this story in particular. And the moon is a very important thing for me, and I looked out of the window and saw two full moons. And then I realized that they were the two clock faces of the Gare d'Orsay glowing in the night, and it was really a sign. I went down at four in the morning and got in a taxi and went to the Gare d'Orsay and went in. And from four in the morning until dawn, I wandered around the deserted old railway station and found everything I needed for the picture." While securing the once famous French train station as the main set was a coup for Welles, there were other production headaches. For a sequence filmed on Mount Vesuvius near Naples, Anthony Perkins and Welles almost tumbled into the crater trying to get a shot. Scheduling restrictions and lack of money also played havoc with Welles' preferred choice of players and when he couldn't find a suitable actor to play Hassler, the defense attorney, he took on the role himself. He also had to loop the dialogue, music, and sound effects for the entire film in post-production. After a less than favorable opening at the Venice Film Festival in 1962, The Trial has since grown in stature among film scholars over the years and even the director admitted that it "is the best film I ever made." Anthony Perkins, once considered an odd choice as Joseph K, is perfect in the role, conveying the character's paranoia and mounting desperation. In preparation for the part, Perkins was given some artistic motivation by Welles: "You are pinned to the wall with a thumbtack, you are like a sick moth." Throughout the film, Welles stays remarkably faithful to Kafka's novel with a few exceptions, such as the climax that ends with a nuclear explosion instead of a stabbing. Yet, in the end, Welles differs from Kafka in how he views Joseph K: "He is a little bureaucrat. I consider him guilty....He belongs to a guilty society; he collaborates with it." Producer: Alexander Salkind, Michael Salkind Director: Orson Welles Screenplay: Orson Welles, based on the novel by Franz Kafka Art Direction: Jean Mandaroux Cinematography: Edmond Richard Costume Design: Helen Thibault Film Editing: Orson Welles, Yvonne Martin, Fritz Muller Original Music: Jean Ledrut Principal Cast: Anthony Perkins (Joseph K.), Jeanne Moreau (Miss Burstner), Romy Schneider (Leni), Elsa Martinelli (Hilda), Suzanne Flon (Miss Pittl), Akim Tamiroff (Bloch), Michael Lonsdale (priest), Thomas Holtzmann (Bert), Jess Hahn (Second Assistant Inspector), Orson Welles (Albert Hassler). BW-120m. Letterboxed. by Jeff Stafford

The Trial


You wouldn't think that the existential and often ambiguous dream-fiction of Austrian novelist Franz Kafka would translate easily to the screen but that hasn't stopped filmmakers from attempting to visually recreate his troubling tales about modern man. Since the early sixties, there have been more than twenty film adaptations based on his novels and stories and even a few original concoctions, such as Steven Soderbergh's bizarre black comedy, Kafka (1991) and the amusing spoof, Franz Kafka's It's a Wonderful Life (1993), which won an Oscar in the short subjects category. Actor/director Maximilian Schell filmed a version of The Castle in 1968 and there have been movie versions of Metamorphosis, Amerika, and The Penal Colony. Without a doubt, one of the most successful adaptations of a Kafka novel is The Trial (1963) a.k.a. Le Proces, directed by Orson Welles. No less visually stunning than Welles' masterpiece, Citizen Kane (1941), The Trial depicts the nightmarish existence of Joseph K (Anthony Perkins), a clerk who is accused of an unspecified crime, and then begins an elaborate search for justice within a labyrinth of office buildings populated by dehumanized bureaucrats. A special letterboxed edition of The Trial, transferred from a pristine original 35mm negative, is now available on DVD from Image Entertainment, distributors of the Milestone Collection.

The film project began with the father-son producing team of Michel and Alexander Salkind who first worked with Welles on their production of Austerlitz (1960), a historic epic directed by Abel Gance. A few years later, when they offered Welles a part in Taras Bulba (1962), their discussions led to an offer for Welles to direct a literary classic from a list of over a hundred titles. In This is Orson Welles by Peter Bogdanovich (HarperPerennial), Welles said, "They had Kafka's The Trial on the list, and I said I wanted to do The Castle because I liked it better, but they persuaded me to do The Trial. I had to do a book - couldn't make them do an original....They thought The Trial was public domain, and then had to pay for it - but that's another story."

Like most films Welles directed after he fled the studio system in Hollywood, The Trial encountered numerous production problems. Filming was scheduled to begin in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, but was soon abandoned for lack of funds. Welles recalled, "I spent months designing the sets for all the interiors. We were going to shoot the actual big office and the streets of Prague and Zagreb for the last walk with the murderers. And during the time we were in Zagreb, my sets were to be built in the studios. The art director who was to realize my designs had made all the blueprints, everything was ready to go, and, the night before we were to leave for Yugoslavia, Mr. Salkind....said there was no money to build any sets of any kind." But what appeared to be a huge setback for the film turned out to be a lucky break for the director. Welles said that "I was living here (in Paris), at the Hotel Meurisse - it was late at night - wandering around in the sitting room, trying to figure out how to shoot without sets, this story in particular. And the moon is a very important thing for me, and I looked out of the window and saw two full moons. And then I realized that they were the two clock faces of the Gare d'Orsay glowing in the night, and it was really a sign. I went down at four in the morning and got in a taxi and went to the Gare d'Orsay and went in. And from four in the morning until dawn, I wandered around the deserted old railway station and found everything I needed for the picture."

After a less than favorable opening at the Venice Film Festival in 1962, The Trial has since grown in stature among film scholars over the years and even the director admitted that it "is the best film I ever made." Anthony Perkins, once considered an odd choice as Joseph K, is perfect in the role, conveying the character's paranoia and mounting desperation. In preparation for the part, Perkins was given some artistic motivation by Welles: "You are pinned to the wall with a thumbtack, you are like a sick moth." Throughout the film, Welles stays remarkably faithful to Kafka's novel with a few exceptions, such as the climax that ends with a nuclear explosion instead of a stabbing. Yet, in the end, Welles differs from Kafka in how he views Joseph K: "He is a little bureaucrat. I consider him guilty....He belongs to a guilty society; he collaborates with it."

The Image DVD of The Trial also includes a striking teaser trailer of the film, composed of film stills and dramatic excerpts from the movie which are accompanied by a music score mixture of classical and bebop jazz. The other extra is the alternate opening of The Trial, designed specifically for U.S. television by Desilu Studios, which is rendered completely as black and white film stills; it's quite artful and was probably influenced to some degree by Chris Marker's famous short, La Jetee (1962).

For more information about The Trial, visit Milestone Films. To purchase The Trial, visit TCM's Online Store.

The Trial

You wouldn't think that the existential and often ambiguous dream-fiction of Austrian novelist Franz Kafka would translate easily to the screen but that hasn't stopped filmmakers from attempting to visually recreate his troubling tales about modern man. Since the early sixties, there have been more than twenty film adaptations based on his novels and stories and even a few original concoctions, such as Steven Soderbergh's bizarre black comedy, Kafka (1991) and the amusing spoof, Franz Kafka's It's a Wonderful Life (1993), which won an Oscar in the short subjects category. Actor/director Maximilian Schell filmed a version of The Castle in 1968 and there have been movie versions of Metamorphosis, Amerika, and The Penal Colony. Without a doubt, one of the most successful adaptations of a Kafka novel is The Trial (1963) a.k.a. Le Proces, directed by Orson Welles. No less visually stunning than Welles' masterpiece, Citizen Kane (1941), The Trial depicts the nightmarish existence of Joseph K (Anthony Perkins), a clerk who is accused of an unspecified crime, and then begins an elaborate search for justice within a labyrinth of office buildings populated by dehumanized bureaucrats. A special letterboxed edition of The Trial, transferred from a pristine original 35mm negative, is now available on DVD from Image Entertainment, distributors of the Milestone Collection. The film project began with the father-son producing team of Michel and Alexander Salkind who first worked with Welles on their production of Austerlitz (1960), a historic epic directed by Abel Gance. A few years later, when they offered Welles a part in Taras Bulba (1962), their discussions led to an offer for Welles to direct a literary classic from a list of over a hundred titles. In This is Orson Welles by Peter Bogdanovich (HarperPerennial), Welles said, "They had Kafka's The Trial on the list, and I said I wanted to do The Castle because I liked it better, but they persuaded me to do The Trial. I had to do a book - couldn't make them do an original....They thought The Trial was public domain, and then had to pay for it - but that's another story." Like most films Welles directed after he fled the studio system in Hollywood, The Trial encountered numerous production problems. Filming was scheduled to begin in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, but was soon abandoned for lack of funds. Welles recalled, "I spent months designing the sets for all the interiors. We were going to shoot the actual big office and the streets of Prague and Zagreb for the last walk with the murderers. And during the time we were in Zagreb, my sets were to be built in the studios. The art director who was to realize my designs had made all the blueprints, everything was ready to go, and, the night before we were to leave for Yugoslavia, Mr. Salkind....said there was no money to build any sets of any kind." But what appeared to be a huge setback for the film turned out to be a lucky break for the director. Welles said that "I was living here (in Paris), at the Hotel Meurisse - it was late at night - wandering around in the sitting room, trying to figure out how to shoot without sets, this story in particular. And the moon is a very important thing for me, and I looked out of the window and saw two full moons. And then I realized that they were the two clock faces of the Gare d'Orsay glowing in the night, and it was really a sign. I went down at four in the morning and got in a taxi and went to the Gare d'Orsay and went in. And from four in the morning until dawn, I wandered around the deserted old railway station and found everything I needed for the picture." After a less than favorable opening at the Venice Film Festival in 1962, The Trial has since grown in stature among film scholars over the years and even the director admitted that it "is the best film I ever made." Anthony Perkins, once considered an odd choice as Joseph K, is perfect in the role, conveying the character's paranoia and mounting desperation. In preparation for the part, Perkins was given some artistic motivation by Welles: "You are pinned to the wall with a thumbtack, you are like a sick moth." Throughout the film, Welles stays remarkably faithful to Kafka's novel with a few exceptions, such as the climax that ends with a nuclear explosion instead of a stabbing. Yet, in the end, Welles differs from Kafka in how he views Joseph K: "He is a little bureaucrat. I consider him guilty....He belongs to a guilty society; he collaborates with it." The Image DVD of The Trial also includes a striking teaser trailer of the film, composed of film stills and dramatic excerpts from the movie which are accompanied by a music score mixture of classical and bebop jazz. The other extra is the alternate opening of The Trial, designed specifically for U.S. television by Desilu Studios, which is rendered completely as black and white film stills; it's quite artful and was probably influenced to some degree by Chris Marker's famous short, La Jetee (1962). For more information about The Trial, visit Milestone Films. To purchase The Trial, visit TCM's Online Store.

Quotes

I'm sorry.
- Joseph K.
You're sorry, you're sorry, you're sorry. You always keep saying that. Who gives a damn?
- Miss Burstner
I know. I'm s ...
- Joseph K.
What's the big joke?
- Miss Burstner
I almost said it again. You're right, of course. You're perfectly right.
- Joseph K.
All these fancy electronics, they're all right in their place, but not for anything practical.
- Uncle Max
You're supposed to be able to tell from a man's face and from the line of his lips, especially, how his case is going to turn out.
- Bloch
So?
- Joseph K.
So the people are saying that from the expression on your lips, they could tell that you'll be found guilty, yes, in the very near future.
- Bloch
It's true, you know. Accused men are attractive. Not that being accused makes any immediate change in a man's personal appearance. But if you've got the right eye for these things, you can pick out an accused man in the largest crowd. It's just something about them, something attractive.
- Hastler
To be in chains is sometimes safer than to be free.
- Hastler

Trivia

Orson Welles changed the ending (in the novel the lying K is killed with the knife) because he did not want to show that a Jew is killed like this after the holocaust.

Welles originally wanted Jackie Gleason to play the advocate. Welles was going to play the priest, which would have made the fable in the beginning be further justified.

Orson Welles called "The Trial" his best film.

Welles reportedly dubbed a few lines of Anthony Perkins' dialogue. Perkins later said he could never figure out which lines they were.

The scene of K's office was filmed in the Paris train station, Gare d'Orsay, shortly after it was closed and before it became an art museum.

It has been reported that Welles dubbed eleven voices in the movie.

Notes

Location scenes filmed in Paris and Zagreb. Opened in Paris in December 1962 as Le procès; running time: 120 min; in West Germany as Der Prozess in April 1963; running time: 118 min; in Rome in September 1963 as Il processo; running time: 100 min. Scenes featuring Van Doude and Katina Paxinou do not appear in U. S. release print.

Miscellaneous Notes

Welles has been quoted as saying that "The Trial" is the best film he ever made.

Released in United States December 1999

Released in United States Winter February 20, 1963

Re-released in United States June 23, 2000

Re-released in United States on Video September 29, 1998

Re-released as "Collector's Widescreen Edition (letterboxed)" in USA on video September 29, 1998.

Released in United States Winter February 20, 1963

Released in United States December 1999 (Shown in Los Angeles (Nuart) December 17-21, 1999.)

Re-released in United States on Video September 29, 1998 (Collector's Widescreen Edition/letterboxed)

Re-released in United States June 23, 2000 (Film Forum; New York City)