Open City


1h 42m 1946
Open City

Brief Synopsis

Towards the end of WWII, Italian underground workers stand up to the Nazis.

Film Details

Also Known As
Rom öppen stad, Roma, citta aperta, Rome
Genre
Drama
War
Political
Foreign
Release Date
1946
Distribution Company
Leopardo Filmes
Location
Rome, Italy

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 42m
Sound
Mono
Color
Black and White
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
1.37 : 1

Synopsis

A fictionalized account of the resistance movement in Rome during World War II.

Film Details

Also Known As
Rom öppen stad, Roma, citta aperta, Rome
Genre
Drama
War
Political
Foreign
Release Date
1946
Distribution Company
Leopardo Filmes
Location
Rome, Italy

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 42m
Sound
Mono
Color
Black and White
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
1.37 : 1

Award Nominations

Best Writing, Screenplay

1947

Articles

Rome, Open City - Open City


Rome, Open City (1945) is considered by many the first, and an essential, film in the post-WWII genre known as Italian neorealism. It brought together some of the most important talents in Italian film culture including future film director Federico Fellini, who contributed to the screenplay; director Roberto Rossellini; and Anna Magnani, an actress who rose to international prominence playing the flawed but soulful Pina, who embarks on a new life with her fiance beneath the looming specter of Nazi forces occupying Rome.

Shot in the actual apartments and streets of a recently liberated Rome, Rome, Open City, like other neorealist films, was distinguished by an almost documentarian quality, an immediacy and sense of truth that made the film a box-office success in Italy, Europe and the United States. Rossellini's innovative film style was so new and naturalistic that some believed the events were filmed as they actually happened.

Rome, Open City centers on the efforts of the Nazi occupiers to capture a partisan leader, Giorgio Manfredi (Marcello Pagliero), who is assisted by a noble local priest, Don Pietro Pellegrini (Aldo Fabrizi). The efforts of the Resistance are set against the ordinary, daily struggles of the Italian people who storm a bakery to give bread to their starving children, or struggle with the moral uncertainties of wartime. Pina is one of those people, engaged to be married to the kind Francesco (Francesco Grandjacquet), a friend of Resistance fighter Manfredi. Pina is already pregnant with Francesco's child, and thus embodies some of the moral ambiguities of wartime as characters struggle to live a decent life despite enormous incentives to do otherwise. One of the characters who succumbs to the temptations offered during wartime is Manfredi's mistress Marina (Maria Michi), a beautiful but essentially shallow girl who ends up being led by Nazi agent Ingrid (Giovanna Galletti) to betray Manfredi.

Though noted for its exceptionally strong performances, especially by Magnani and Fabrizi, Rome, Open City has also been criticized for its blend of tragedy and comedy as well as for its melodramatic elements which some have considered out of character with the true essence of neorealism as later practiced by Luchino Visconti and Vittorio De Sica. Rossellini's use of emotionally manipulative dramatic effects was most obvious in his opposition of noble, morally upright Italians against often cartoonish Nazi villains, including the absurdly effete Major Bergmann (Harry Feist), who directs the torture of Resistance leaders while casually smoking a cigarette, and an outrageous, glamorous lesbian who uses drugs and fur coats to compel Marina to betray Manfredi.

Though the film received positive notice in a 1946 Variety review, the article did speculate, in an outlandish aside, about some of the potentially objectionable material for American audiences, including a premaritally pregnant Pina, references to cocaine, and the aforementioned "lesbo German spy." Though nothing is explicitly shown, Rossellini also so effectively evokes the horrors of Manfredi's torture by the Nazis, that the scene becomes one of the most sickening, disturbing moments in film history.

Neorealist films like Rome, Open City were important not only as a means of commemorating Italian struggle and sacrifice during the war -- they served an important function in resuscitating an Italian film industry suddenly threatened with the new dominion of Hollywood and other national cinemas in the postwar era.

It was not only Rossellini's real locations and the grainy texture of his film that imparted realism to the project. Many of the events depicted in the film, from priest Don Pietro's execution by firing squad to pregnant Pina being gunned down by a Nazi soldier, were based on actual events various collaborators on the project witnessed or heard about during wartime. The terror of wartime was still so fresh on Italian minds, it invested their work on Open City with a raw, often painful intensity, as in the scene where Pina is murdered in front of her fiance and small son. As Magnani recalled, extras on the scene "actually turned white telling each other how much they resented the Nazis! This made me feel the anxiety I showed on the screen."

Producer/Director: Roberto Rossellini
Screenplay: Sergio Amidei, Federico Fellini and Roberto Rossellini (based on a story by Amidei and Alberto Consiglio)
Cinematography: Ubaldo Arata
Production Design: Rosario Megna
Music: Renzo Rossellini
Principal Cast: Anna Magnani (Pina), Aldo Fabrizi (Don Pietro Pellegrini), Marcello Pagliero (Giorgio Manfredi), Maria Michi (Marina), Harry Feist (Maj. Bergmann), Francesco Grandjacquet (Francesco), Giovanna Galletti (Ingrid).
BW-103m.

by Felicia Feaster
Rome, Open City - Open City

Rome, Open City - Open City

Rome, Open City (1945) is considered by many the first, and an essential, film in the post-WWII genre known as Italian neorealism. It brought together some of the most important talents in Italian film culture including future film director Federico Fellini, who contributed to the screenplay; director Roberto Rossellini; and Anna Magnani, an actress who rose to international prominence playing the flawed but soulful Pina, who embarks on a new life with her fiance beneath the looming specter of Nazi forces occupying Rome. Shot in the actual apartments and streets of a recently liberated Rome, Rome, Open City, like other neorealist films, was distinguished by an almost documentarian quality, an immediacy and sense of truth that made the film a box-office success in Italy, Europe and the United States. Rossellini's innovative film style was so new and naturalistic that some believed the events were filmed as they actually happened. Rome, Open City centers on the efforts of the Nazi occupiers to capture a partisan leader, Giorgio Manfredi (Marcello Pagliero), who is assisted by a noble local priest, Don Pietro Pellegrini (Aldo Fabrizi). The efforts of the Resistance are set against the ordinary, daily struggles of the Italian people who storm a bakery to give bread to their starving children, or struggle with the moral uncertainties of wartime. Pina is one of those people, engaged to be married to the kind Francesco (Francesco Grandjacquet), a friend of Resistance fighter Manfredi. Pina is already pregnant with Francesco's child, and thus embodies some of the moral ambiguities of wartime as characters struggle to live a decent life despite enormous incentives to do otherwise. One of the characters who succumbs to the temptations offered during wartime is Manfredi's mistress Marina (Maria Michi), a beautiful but essentially shallow girl who ends up being led by Nazi agent Ingrid (Giovanna Galletti) to betray Manfredi. Though noted for its exceptionally strong performances, especially by Magnani and Fabrizi, Rome, Open City has also been criticized for its blend of tragedy and comedy as well as for its melodramatic elements which some have considered out of character with the true essence of neorealism as later practiced by Luchino Visconti and Vittorio De Sica. Rossellini's use of emotionally manipulative dramatic effects was most obvious in his opposition of noble, morally upright Italians against often cartoonish Nazi villains, including the absurdly effete Major Bergmann (Harry Feist), who directs the torture of Resistance leaders while casually smoking a cigarette, and an outrageous, glamorous lesbian who uses drugs and fur coats to compel Marina to betray Manfredi. Though the film received positive notice in a 1946 Variety review, the article did speculate, in an outlandish aside, about some of the potentially objectionable material for American audiences, including a premaritally pregnant Pina, references to cocaine, and the aforementioned "lesbo German spy." Though nothing is explicitly shown, Rossellini also so effectively evokes the horrors of Manfredi's torture by the Nazis, that the scene becomes one of the most sickening, disturbing moments in film history. Neorealist films like Rome, Open City were important not only as a means of commemorating Italian struggle and sacrifice during the war -- they served an important function in resuscitating an Italian film industry suddenly threatened with the new dominion of Hollywood and other national cinemas in the postwar era. It was not only Rossellini's real locations and the grainy texture of his film that imparted realism to the project. Many of the events depicted in the film, from priest Don Pietro's execution by firing squad to pregnant Pina being gunned down by a Nazi soldier, were based on actual events various collaborators on the project witnessed or heard about during wartime. The terror of wartime was still so fresh on Italian minds, it invested their work on Open City with a raw, often painful intensity, as in the scene where Pina is murdered in front of her fiance and small son. As Magnani recalled, extras on the scene "actually turned white telling each other how much they resented the Nazis! This made me feel the anxiety I showed on the screen." Producer/Director: Roberto Rossellini Screenplay: Sergio Amidei, Federico Fellini and Roberto Rossellini (based on a story by Amidei and Alberto Consiglio) Cinematography: Ubaldo Arata Production Design: Rosario Megna Music: Renzo Rossellini Principal Cast: Anna Magnani (Pina), Aldo Fabrizi (Don Pietro Pellegrini), Marcello Pagliero (Giorgio Manfredi), Maria Michi (Marina), Harry Feist (Maj. Bergmann), Francesco Grandjacquet (Francesco), Giovanna Galletti (Ingrid). BW-103m. by Felicia Feaster

ROME, OPEN CITY, PAISAN and GERMANY YEAR ZERO - Roberto Rossellini's War Trilogy on DVD


Italian Neorealism is probably the most influential film movement since the end of World War II. The fighting wasn't even finished when Roberto Rossellini began filming the essential drama of the Italian war experience, Rome Open City. Made with scavenged B&W stock, some of it stolen from American newsreel cameramen, Rossellini's story of Italians caught up in the ruthless occupation made a powerful statement.

The term Italian Neorealism is now equally associated with Vittorio De Sica's Bicycle Thieves and Umberto D. Later analysis has nominated De Sica's wartime The Children are Watching Us (1944) and Luchino Visconti's Ossessione (1943) as prototype forerunners for the style. To paraphrase a dozen film school classes, Italian Neorealism ran counter to Mussolini's glossy escapist "white telephone" dramas. Filmed outside the studio environment, often with non-actors, they attempted to reflect the human condition as experienced by the common man on the street. Poverty, despair and other social ills were presented in an unflinching manner.

Previously a director of short subjects and features (some with pro-fascist themes), Rossellini quickly earned international acclaim. For its 500th spine number the Criterion Collection has assembled a box set of his war-era films called Roberto Rossellini's War Trilogy. It's a very welcome release, as quality presentations of these films have long eluded collectors.

Rome, Open City (Roma, città aperta) is Neorealist mainly in spirit. The depiction of German troops and fascist Italian police arresting civilians must have been a shock to Roman audiences that had just spent five years under wartime terror and twenty-five under fascist rule. The images have a gritty, unpolished look, some of which is attributable to the mismatched film stock that was used. Rossellini used German prisoners to play "themselves", but only a few of the speaking parts are filled by non-professionals. The two most important roles went to well-known film personalities associated with comedy. Legends about Rossellini filming secretly while Rome was still occupied are not true. The director says that filming was begun as soon as the city was liberated; others report that the start of production was in January of 1945, half a year later.

The script acknowledges the role of Fascist collaborators in the arrest and torture of the mostly communist resistance. The Germans are portrayed much the same as those in a Hollywood anti-Nazi film. The SS commandant is determined to arrest resistance leader Manfredi (Marcello Pagliero). Ingrid (Giovanna Galletti), a predatory lesbian agent in the pay of the SS, has located Manfredi's girlfriend Marina (Maria Michi), a dissolute Italian showgirl. Ingrid plies the thoughtless Marina with cocaine and expensive furs. The ensuing wave of arrests swallows up the film's romantic working couple, Pina and Francesco (Anna Magnani & Francesco Grandjacquet). She's a widow pregnant with Francesco's child and preparing for her wedding day; warm hearted priest Don Pietro (Aldo Fabrizi) has agreed to give them a church wedding. Pina's son Marcello (Vito Annichiarico) belongs to a gang of pre-teen saboteurs. Marina's betrayal results in grief for the apolitical Pina as well as the active resistance partisans.

Open City is traditionally scripted, but its subject matter is very daring. Actors recite fairly crude position speeches, as when the anguished Don Pietro curses the Germans: cue audience approval. A drunken German officer pointedly condemns his superior's vile methods, already shown in a graphic torture scene. In one shot a man's chest, scorched with a blowtorch, actually burns for a second. The movie spells out how easily the corrupt Marina is manipulated; the perverted Ingrid is rewarded with money and sex. Rossellini expresses his country's mixed feelings toward the U.S. with a sly aside: when asked if the Americans really exist, Anna Magnani's Pina points to a bombed building.

Rossellini's most pure Neorealist movie is the impassioned, bleak Paisan (Paisà), a collection of brief sketches that follow the Allied advance northward, starting with Sicily. Many of the performers are first-time actors. Each freestanding little drama ends on a note of irony, if not outright tragedy, although one chapter in a monastery is lighter in tone. Between each episode is a buffer montage of newsreel footage.

Paisan has a much more authentic feel than Open City. The loose form offers a variety of viewpoints and the moral lessons are often conveyed through visuals. Each episode carries a potent emotional kick. Americans landing in Sicily enlist a frightened young woman (Carmela Sazio) as a guide. A black G.I. in Naples (Dots Johnson) chases down a scavenging local kid who steals his shoes. Screenwriters Sergio Amedei and Federico Fellini advance each story just far enough to hit an emotional nerve, without spilling over into outright sentimentalism.

Some of the episodes involve misunderstandings between the Italians and their liberators. Maria Michi returns for a romantic piece set in Rome about a young woman who has turned to prostitution. Harriet White Medin, a USO performer who jumped ship to join Rossellini's movie troupe, plays an American nurse who crosses enemy lines in Florence. The young Giulieta Masina (The Nights of Cabiria) makes a brief appearance in a scene on a stairwell. William Tubbs (The Wages of Fear) is a chaplain who tries to explain his tolerance of Protestants and Jews to a group of Catholic monks.

Paisan concludes with an uncompromising look at guerilla warfare. American OSS agents and Italian partisans fight a losing skirmish against Germans in the Po Valley, a marshland with few hiding places. The American officers use crude Italian to communicate with their comrades. Rossellini pushes the episode forward without sentiment or "style", and the underdog raiders are soon routed. The bleak finale, contrasted with a voiceover announcing the soon-to-come victory, puts glamorous depictions of war to shame.

Germany Year Zero (Germania anno zero) sees Rossellini capping his trilogy with a story from the enemy's point of view. The result is a much more obvious message movie. Caught in the war's aftermath is Edmund (Edmund Meschke), a small boy in the ruins of Berlin. His sick father can't work so he tries unsuccessfully to fit into the black-market netherworld of have-nots, thieves and scammers. Unfortunately, Edmund falls under the influence of his ex- teacher, a bitter philosopher (and possible pedophile) who fills the boy's head with the fatalistic idea that the weak (like Edmund's father) must be killed to make room for the strong. Cheated and misled, Edmund takes some tragic actions.

Filmed in the German ruins, Germany Year Zero has convincing settings but manages little relief from its one note of despair. Although Rossellini's handling of non-pro actors is better than ever, his story's profoundly negative ending is far too easy to predict. Rossellini's picture makes an interesting comparison with Fred Zinnemann's superficially similar, more accessible The Search. Both films are blunt about the effects of the war on children.

Criterion's 3-Disc set of Roberto Rossellini's War Trilogy presents good transfers of films rarely seen in anything better than ragged, sometimes incomplete dupes with inaudible soundtracks. Rome, Open City and Germany Year Zero are in good condition; Paisan is by far the improved although some passages are still worn and scratched. Germany Year Zero finally appears here with its original German dialogue track. In Paisan, it's amusing to hear Rossellini's American non-actors: their appropriately awkward accents don't match the too-perfect grammar in the dialogue provided by the Italians. One obvious jump cut in Paisan arouses our attention: it occurs in the middle of a speech about religious tolerance, and we can't help but wonder what might have been excised.

Disc producer Johanna Schiller has assembled a mountain of fascinating extras. Among the associates and experts contributing to the new interview pieces is Roberto Rossellini's daughter Isabella. Filmed interviews with spouse Ingrid Bergman help illuminate the director's fascinating career, through the 1950s to his self-banishment to television projects in his later years.

Introductions by the director accompany each film; they're from a 1965 French TV presentation. Roma carries a commentary by Peter Bondanella. In addition to the lengthy documentaries Once Upon a time ... (2006) and Roberto Rossellini (Carlo Lizzani, 2001), shorter featurettes cover Rossellini's Rome locations and offer visual essays by Tag Gallagher and Thomas Meder. A videotaped lecture and a podium discussion are also included, as well as an Italian credit sequence for Germany Year Zero.

The set definitely does not lack for expert critical comment and opinion. A 44-page insert booklet has essays by James Quandt, Irene Bignardi, Colin MacCabe and Jonathan Rosenbaum. Seeing the films before sampling the extras is a recommended choice, as the video pieces are loaded with visual spoilers. The most famous shot from Rome, Open City must be repeated five times in various featurettes.

For more information about Roberto Rossellini's War Trilogy, visit The Criterion Collection. To order Roberto Rossellini's War Trilogy, go to TCM Shopping.

by Glenn Erickson

ROME, OPEN CITY, PAISAN and GERMANY YEAR ZERO - Roberto Rossellini's War Trilogy on DVD

Italian Neorealism is probably the most influential film movement since the end of World War II. The fighting wasn't even finished when Roberto Rossellini began filming the essential drama of the Italian war experience, Rome Open City. Made with scavenged B&W stock, some of it stolen from American newsreel cameramen, Rossellini's story of Italians caught up in the ruthless occupation made a powerful statement. The term Italian Neorealism is now equally associated with Vittorio De Sica's Bicycle Thieves and Umberto D. Later analysis has nominated De Sica's wartime The Children are Watching Us (1944) and Luchino Visconti's Ossessione (1943) as prototype forerunners for the style. To paraphrase a dozen film school classes, Italian Neorealism ran counter to Mussolini's glossy escapist "white telephone" dramas. Filmed outside the studio environment, often with non-actors, they attempted to reflect the human condition as experienced by the common man on the street. Poverty, despair and other social ills were presented in an unflinching manner. Previously a director of short subjects and features (some with pro-fascist themes), Rossellini quickly earned international acclaim. For its 500th spine number the Criterion Collection has assembled a box set of his war-era films called Roberto Rossellini's War Trilogy. It's a very welcome release, as quality presentations of these films have long eluded collectors. Rome, Open City (Roma, città aperta) is Neorealist mainly in spirit. The depiction of German troops and fascist Italian police arresting civilians must have been a shock to Roman audiences that had just spent five years under wartime terror and twenty-five under fascist rule. The images have a gritty, unpolished look, some of which is attributable to the mismatched film stock that was used. Rossellini used German prisoners to play "themselves", but only a few of the speaking parts are filled by non-professionals. The two most important roles went to well-known film personalities associated with comedy. Legends about Rossellini filming secretly while Rome was still occupied are not true. The director says that filming was begun as soon as the city was liberated; others report that the start of production was in January of 1945, half a year later. The script acknowledges the role of Fascist collaborators in the arrest and torture of the mostly communist resistance. The Germans are portrayed much the same as those in a Hollywood anti-Nazi film. The SS commandant is determined to arrest resistance leader Manfredi (Marcello Pagliero). Ingrid (Giovanna Galletti), a predatory lesbian agent in the pay of the SS, has located Manfredi's girlfriend Marina (Maria Michi), a dissolute Italian showgirl. Ingrid plies the thoughtless Marina with cocaine and expensive furs. The ensuing wave of arrests swallows up the film's romantic working couple, Pina and Francesco (Anna Magnani & Francesco Grandjacquet). She's a widow pregnant with Francesco's child and preparing for her wedding day; warm hearted priest Don Pietro (Aldo Fabrizi) has agreed to give them a church wedding. Pina's son Marcello (Vito Annichiarico) belongs to a gang of pre-teen saboteurs. Marina's betrayal results in grief for the apolitical Pina as well as the active resistance partisans. Open City is traditionally scripted, but its subject matter is very daring. Actors recite fairly crude position speeches, as when the anguished Don Pietro curses the Germans: cue audience approval. A drunken German officer pointedly condemns his superior's vile methods, already shown in a graphic torture scene. In one shot a man's chest, scorched with a blowtorch, actually burns for a second. The movie spells out how easily the corrupt Marina is manipulated; the perverted Ingrid is rewarded with money and sex. Rossellini expresses his country's mixed feelings toward the U.S. with a sly aside: when asked if the Americans really exist, Anna Magnani's Pina points to a bombed building. Rossellini's most pure Neorealist movie is the impassioned, bleak Paisan (Paisà), a collection of brief sketches that follow the Allied advance northward, starting with Sicily. Many of the performers are first-time actors. Each freestanding little drama ends on a note of irony, if not outright tragedy, although one chapter in a monastery is lighter in tone. Between each episode is a buffer montage of newsreel footage. Paisan has a much more authentic feel than Open City. The loose form offers a variety of viewpoints and the moral lessons are often conveyed through visuals. Each episode carries a potent emotional kick. Americans landing in Sicily enlist a frightened young woman (Carmela Sazio) as a guide. A black G.I. in Naples (Dots Johnson) chases down a scavenging local kid who steals his shoes. Screenwriters Sergio Amedei and Federico Fellini advance each story just far enough to hit an emotional nerve, without spilling over into outright sentimentalism. Some of the episodes involve misunderstandings between the Italians and their liberators. Maria Michi returns for a romantic piece set in Rome about a young woman who has turned to prostitution. Harriet White Medin, a USO performer who jumped ship to join Rossellini's movie troupe, plays an American nurse who crosses enemy lines in Florence. The young Giulieta Masina (The Nights of Cabiria) makes a brief appearance in a scene on a stairwell. William Tubbs (The Wages of Fear) is a chaplain who tries to explain his tolerance of Protestants and Jews to a group of Catholic monks. Paisan concludes with an uncompromising look at guerilla warfare. American OSS agents and Italian partisans fight a losing skirmish against Germans in the Po Valley, a marshland with few hiding places. The American officers use crude Italian to communicate with their comrades. Rossellini pushes the episode forward without sentiment or "style", and the underdog raiders are soon routed. The bleak finale, contrasted with a voiceover announcing the soon-to-come victory, puts glamorous depictions of war to shame. Germany Year Zero (Germania anno zero) sees Rossellini capping his trilogy with a story from the enemy's point of view. The result is a much more obvious message movie. Caught in the war's aftermath is Edmund (Edmund Meschke), a small boy in the ruins of Berlin. His sick father can't work so he tries unsuccessfully to fit into the black-market netherworld of have-nots, thieves and scammers. Unfortunately, Edmund falls under the influence of his ex- teacher, a bitter philosopher (and possible pedophile) who fills the boy's head with the fatalistic idea that the weak (like Edmund's father) must be killed to make room for the strong. Cheated and misled, Edmund takes some tragic actions. Filmed in the German ruins, Germany Year Zero has convincing settings but manages little relief from its one note of despair. Although Rossellini's handling of non-pro actors is better than ever, his story's profoundly negative ending is far too easy to predict. Rossellini's picture makes an interesting comparison with Fred Zinnemann's superficially similar, more accessible The Search. Both films are blunt about the effects of the war on children. Criterion's 3-Disc set of Roberto Rossellini's War Trilogy presents good transfers of films rarely seen in anything better than ragged, sometimes incomplete dupes with inaudible soundtracks. Rome, Open City and Germany Year Zero are in good condition; Paisan is by far the improved although some passages are still worn and scratched. Germany Year Zero finally appears here with its original German dialogue track. In Paisan, it's amusing to hear Rossellini's American non-actors: their appropriately awkward accents don't match the too-perfect grammar in the dialogue provided by the Italians. One obvious jump cut in Paisan arouses our attention: it occurs in the middle of a speech about religious tolerance, and we can't help but wonder what might have been excised. Disc producer Johanna Schiller has assembled a mountain of fascinating extras. Among the associates and experts contributing to the new interview pieces is Roberto Rossellini's daughter Isabella. Filmed interviews with spouse Ingrid Bergman help illuminate the director's fascinating career, through the 1950s to his self-banishment to television projects in his later years. Introductions by the director accompany each film; they're from a 1965 French TV presentation. Roma carries a commentary by Peter Bondanella. In addition to the lengthy documentaries Once Upon a time ... (2006) and Roberto Rossellini (Carlo Lizzani, 2001), shorter featurettes cover Rossellini's Rome locations and offer visual essays by Tag Gallagher and Thomas Meder. A videotaped lecture and a podium discussion are also included, as well as an Italian credit sequence for Germany Year Zero. The set definitely does not lack for expert critical comment and opinion. A 44-page insert booklet has essays by James Quandt, Irene Bignardi, Colin MacCabe and Jonathan Rosenbaum. Seeing the films before sampling the extras is a recommended choice, as the video pieces are loaded with visual spoilers. The most famous shot from Rome, Open City must be repeated five times in various featurettes. For more information about Roberto Rossellini's War Trilogy, visit The Criterion Collection. To order Roberto Rossellini's War Trilogy, go to TCM Shopping. by Glenn Erickson

Quotes

Then I'll tell you who he is. He's subversive,he's fought with the Reds in Spain. His life is dedicated to fighting society, religion. He is an atheist...your enemy...
- Major Bergman
I am Catholic priest. I believe that who fights for justice and truth walks in the path of God and the paths of God are infinitive
- Don Pietro
I've a man who must talk before dawn and a priest who is parying for him. He'll talk
- Major Bergman
And if not?
- Hartman
Ridicilous.
- Major Bergman
And if not?
- Hartman
Then it would mean an Italian is worth as much as a German. It would mean there is no difference in the blood of a slave race and a master race. And no reason for this war.
- Major Bergman

Trivia

Rossellini used real Nazi POW's as extras for added realistic effect.

Miscellaneous Notes

Released in United States March 1975

Released in United States August 10, 1990

Released in United States December 1990

Released in United States 1995

Released in United States October 2006

Shown at Cairo International Film Festival December 3-16, 1990.

Shown at New York Film Festival (Rossellini War Trilogy) September 29 - October 15, 1995.

Shown at Rome Film Festival (Special Event) October 13-21, 2006.

Released in United States Spring March 1946

Released in United States March 1975 (Shown at FILMEX: Los Angeles International Film Exposition (3-day Roberto Rossellini Retrospective) March 13-26, 1975.)

Released in United States August 10, 1990 (Shown in New York City (Lincoln Center) as part of series "A Roman Holiday" August 10, 1990.)

Released in United States October 2006 (Shown at Rome Film Festival (Special Event) October 13-21, 2006.)

Released in United States 1995 (Shown at New York Film Festival (Rossellini War Trilogy) September 29 - October 15, 1995.)

Released in United States December 1990 (Shown at Cairo International Film Festival December 3-16, 1990.)

Released in United States Spring March 1946