A Brief History of Time


1h 20m 1992
A Brief History of Time

Brief Synopsis

This shows Hawking's daily life as he deals with the ALS that renders him virtually immobile and unable to speak without the use of computer. Hawking's friends, family, former classmates and peers are interviewed about not only his theories but the man himself.

Film Details

Also Known As
Brief History of Time
MPAA Rating
Genre
Documentary
Biography
Interview
Release Date
1992
Production Company
Amblin Entertainment; Balsmeyer & Everett Inc; Looking Glass Studios; Rhythm & Hues Studios; Skywalker Sound; Sound One
Distribution Company
Triton Pictures; Channel 4; Paramount Home Media
Location
Goldcrest Eltree Studios, London, England, United Kingdom

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 20m

Synopsis

Based on Stephen Hawking's book "A Brief History of Time," film depicts Hawking's theories on the creation of the universe and examines some aspects of his courageous battle with Lou Gehrig's disease.

Crew

Bill Anderson

Editing

Ted Bafaloukos

Matte Drawings

Ted Bafaloukos

Production Designer

John Bailey

Other

John Bailey

Director Of Photography

Edward Barteski

Assistant Sound Editor

Robert Berman

Other

Gordon L Berry

Other

Suki Buchman

Music Editor

Brandon Carter

Other

Sidney Coleman

Science Advisor

Stefan Czapsky

Director Of Photography

Stefan Czapsky

Other

Dante Desole

Assistant Engineer (Music)

Norman Dix

Other

Angela Dryden

Other

Bob Edwards

Rerecording Mixer

Colin Ewing

Executive Producer (Anglia Television)

Gordon Freedman

Executive Producer

Brad Fuller

Editor

Philip Glass

Music

Isobel Hawking

Other

Mary Hawking

Other

Stephen Hawking

Book As Source Material ("A Brief History Of Time")

Stephen Hawking

Other

David Hickman

Producer

Shaista Hickman

Very Special Thanks

Bradford L Hohle

Dolby Stereo Consultant

David Hohmann

Graphics Coordinator

Scott Hollingsworth

Assistant Engineer (Music)

Janet Humphrey

Other

Christopher Isham

Other

Eliza Johnston

Assistant Editor

Rory Johnston

Executive Producer (Music)

Basil King

Other

Raymond Laflamme

Other

David Lee

Art Director

Julie Lindner

Assistant Sound Editor

Kurt Munkacsi

Music Producer

Don Page

Other

Eliza Paley

Sound Editor

Roger Penrose

Other

Derek Powney

Other

Michael Riesman

Music Conductor

Julian Rodd

Associate Editor

Jan Ruden

Assistant Producer

Lisa Schecter

Associate Editor

Dennis Sciama

Other

Steven Seidenberg

Assistant Producer

Maura Shea

Apprentice Editor

Julia Sheehan

Very Special Thanks

Charlie Silver

Consulting Editor

Mary Skinner

Other

Ira Spiegel

Sound Editor

Carolyn Stark

Apprentice Editor

John Taylor

Other

Randy Thom

Rerecording Mixer

Randy Thom

Sound Effects

Kip Thorne

Other

John Wheeler

Other

Brian Whitt

Other

Film Details

Also Known As
Brief History of Time
MPAA Rating
Genre
Documentary
Biography
Interview
Release Date
1992
Production Company
Amblin Entertainment; Balsmeyer & Everett Inc; Looking Glass Studios; Rhythm & Hues Studios; Skywalker Sound; Sound One
Distribution Company
Triton Pictures; Channel 4; Paramount Home Media
Location
Goldcrest Eltree Studios, London, England, United Kingdom

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 20m

Articles

A Brief History of Time -


Stephen Hawking was an intriguing figure. As a theoretical physicist he spent his life thinking about the farthest reaches of time and space, yet he suffered from Lou Gehrig's disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and lost the ability to move and speak. He remained hugely influential in his field, communicating his paradigm-changing ideas so effectively that his best-known book, A Brief History of Time, was translated into dozens of languages and sold more than ten million copies in the 20 years after it was published in 1988.

He even became a movie star of sorts when Errol Morris's documentary portrait of him premiered. Also titled A Brief History of Time (1991), it won the Filmmakers Trophy and shared the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival in 1992. Seated in his wheelchair and communicating through a computer-based vocal synthesizer, Hawking projects a paradoxical charisma all his own. He's the unmoving subject of a fast-moving motion picture and the first non-talking talking head in media history, as Morris has mischievously called him.

Hawking was a genius from the beginning. Born in Oxford, England, he was nicknamed Einstein in high school and entered the University of Oxford at age 17, breezing his way through science courses and alcoholic beverages with ease. At 21 he was diagnosed with ALS and given two to three years to live--a verdict he disproved by living to be 76 years old--and eventually he became known as a wild rider in his wheelchair, with a license plate reading "Stephen" on the back.

In the early part of his career, Hawking's attention was divided between subatomic particles and faraway galaxies: the unimaginably small and the unimaginably immense. Eventually he decided to concentrate on galaxies as a way of exploring questions about the origins of the cosmos. He also delved into quantum mechanics and particle theory, since the gigantic and the infinitesimal are intimately linked in modern science. Hawking's specialties ranged from black holes and supergravity to cosmological inflation and the ultimate fate of the universe. He wrote numerous books in addition to A Brief History of Time, and his media persona appeared everywhere from The Simpsons to Star Trek: The Next Generation and a couple of Pink Floyd songs.

Before becoming a filmmaker, Morris had been a Princeton graduate student studying the history and philosophy of science--without much success, he later admitted--and the physicist who standardized the term "black hole" had been one of his professors. The idea of a movie based on A Brief History of Time came from Steven Spielberg, who mentioned it to Morris because his company owned the rights to Hawking's book. Morris's interest in Hawking was grounded partly in his respect for the scientist's accomplishments, and also in his feeling that Hawking's field of expertise--the origin, evolution and ultimate demise of the physical universe--is a vastly magnified version of the course of every human life, including that of Hawking, who was persisting in his intellectual pursuits even as his body collapsed into itself like an earthbound black hole.

Straight-to-the-camera interviews are always the center of gravity in Morris's films, and this posed a special challenge where Hawking was concerned, since the rhythms of ordinary speech are impossible for someone who processes every word through a synthesizer. Morris solved this dilemma by presenting Hawking's words in voiceover, making the sound of his computer-generated speech an integral part of the soundtrack. Other interviews are done in Morris's usual style, offering the views of everyone from Hawking's mother to key colleagues in the astrophysics world.

Like all of Morris's films, A Brief History of Time is a work of art as well as a source of information. To exercise total control over the picture's visual qualities, he filmed most of it at London's venerable Elstree Studios, building an exact copy of Hawking's office right down to the Marilyn Monroe posters on the walls. Computer graphics showing equations, vectors, and graphs occasionally punctuate the action, but Morris used such devices as rarely as possible, fearing that too much technical data would crowd out the profound humanity that Hawking embodied for him. A Brief History of Time is what Morris calls "biography as dreamscape," imparting a subtle touch of surrealism to its real-life subject matter.

Reviews of Morris's film were good, although many critics contrasted their enjoyment of the documentary with their inability to fathom Hawking's physics. New York Times critic Vincent Canby thanked Morris for rescuing "everyone who feels somehow inadequate for failing to mush on to the last page" of Hawking's book, adding that the movie "has its impenetrable moments [but] is also something of a delight." Desson Howe began his Washington Post review by praising the film's "engrossing barrage of juxtapositions" and went on to call Hawking a "gnarled, witty and appealing" screen persona. Reviewing the film in The Christian Science Monitor, I described it as a "deliberately crafted artifact that addresses real people, events, and ideas within a carefully conceived framework of musical rhythms, painterly compositions and richly cinematic montage passages."

Morris's inspired directorial ideas are complemented by the expert camerawork of John Bailey and Stefan Czapsky; razor-sharp editing done by Brad Fuller; and haunting minimalist music by Philip Glass, fresh from the triumph of his score for Morris's previous picture, The Thin Blue Line (1988). Morris returned to the scientific world in his 1997 romp Fast, Cheap & Out of Control, then went in more political directions with such timely works as Mr. Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr. (1999), The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara (2003), The Unknown Known (2013), and the brilliant miniseries Wormwood (2017). Equations and all, A Brief History of Time stands with his most memorable and compelling achievements.

Director: Errol Morris
Producer: David Hickman
Screenplay: Stephen Hawking, based on his book
Cinematographers: John Bailey, Stefan Czapsky
Film Editing: Brad Fuller
Art Direction: David Lee
Production Design: Ted Bafaloukos Music: Philip Glass
With: Stephen Hawking, Isobel Hawking, Dennis Sciama, Roger Penrose, John Wheeler (themselves)
Color-80m.

by David Sterritt
A Brief History Of Time -

A Brief History of Time -

Stephen Hawking was an intriguing figure. As a theoretical physicist he spent his life thinking about the farthest reaches of time and space, yet he suffered from Lou Gehrig's disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and lost the ability to move and speak. He remained hugely influential in his field, communicating his paradigm-changing ideas so effectively that his best-known book, A Brief History of Time, was translated into dozens of languages and sold more than ten million copies in the 20 years after it was published in 1988. He even became a movie star of sorts when Errol Morris's documentary portrait of him premiered. Also titled A Brief History of Time (1991), it won the Filmmakers Trophy and shared the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival in 1992. Seated in his wheelchair and communicating through a computer-based vocal synthesizer, Hawking projects a paradoxical charisma all his own. He's the unmoving subject of a fast-moving motion picture and the first non-talking talking head in media history, as Morris has mischievously called him. Hawking was a genius from the beginning. Born in Oxford, England, he was nicknamed Einstein in high school and entered the University of Oxford at age 17, breezing his way through science courses and alcoholic beverages with ease. At 21 he was diagnosed with ALS and given two to three years to live--a verdict he disproved by living to be 76 years old--and eventually he became known as a wild rider in his wheelchair, with a license plate reading "Stephen" on the back. In the early part of his career, Hawking's attention was divided between subatomic particles and faraway galaxies: the unimaginably small and the unimaginably immense. Eventually he decided to concentrate on galaxies as a way of exploring questions about the origins of the cosmos. He also delved into quantum mechanics and particle theory, since the gigantic and the infinitesimal are intimately linked in modern science. Hawking's specialties ranged from black holes and supergravity to cosmological inflation and the ultimate fate of the universe. He wrote numerous books in addition to A Brief History of Time, and his media persona appeared everywhere from The Simpsons to Star Trek: The Next Generation and a couple of Pink Floyd songs. Before becoming a filmmaker, Morris had been a Princeton graduate student studying the history and philosophy of science--without much success, he later admitted--and the physicist who standardized the term "black hole" had been one of his professors. The idea of a movie based on A Brief History of Time came from Steven Spielberg, who mentioned it to Morris because his company owned the rights to Hawking's book. Morris's interest in Hawking was grounded partly in his respect for the scientist's accomplishments, and also in his feeling that Hawking's field of expertise--the origin, evolution and ultimate demise of the physical universe--is a vastly magnified version of the course of every human life, including that of Hawking, who was persisting in his intellectual pursuits even as his body collapsed into itself like an earthbound black hole. Straight-to-the-camera interviews are always the center of gravity in Morris's films, and this posed a special challenge where Hawking was concerned, since the rhythms of ordinary speech are impossible for someone who processes every word through a synthesizer. Morris solved this dilemma by presenting Hawking's words in voiceover, making the sound of his computer-generated speech an integral part of the soundtrack. Other interviews are done in Morris's usual style, offering the views of everyone from Hawking's mother to key colleagues in the astrophysics world. Like all of Morris's films, A Brief History of Time is a work of art as well as a source of information. To exercise total control over the picture's visual qualities, he filmed most of it at London's venerable Elstree Studios, building an exact copy of Hawking's office right down to the Marilyn Monroe posters on the walls. Computer graphics showing equations, vectors, and graphs occasionally punctuate the action, but Morris used such devices as rarely as possible, fearing that too much technical data would crowd out the profound humanity that Hawking embodied for him. A Brief History of Time is what Morris calls "biography as dreamscape," imparting a subtle touch of surrealism to its real-life subject matter. Reviews of Morris's film were good, although many critics contrasted their enjoyment of the documentary with their inability to fathom Hawking's physics. New York Times critic Vincent Canby thanked Morris for rescuing "everyone who feels somehow inadequate for failing to mush on to the last page" of Hawking's book, adding that the movie "has its impenetrable moments [but] is also something of a delight." Desson Howe began his Washington Post review by praising the film's "engrossing barrage of juxtapositions" and went on to call Hawking a "gnarled, witty and appealing" screen persona. Reviewing the film in The Christian Science Monitor, I described it as a "deliberately crafted artifact that addresses real people, events, and ideas within a carefully conceived framework of musical rhythms, painterly compositions and richly cinematic montage passages." Morris's inspired directorial ideas are complemented by the expert camerawork of John Bailey and Stefan Czapsky; razor-sharp editing done by Brad Fuller; and haunting minimalist music by Philip Glass, fresh from the triumph of his score for Morris's previous picture, The Thin Blue Line (1988). Morris returned to the scientific world in his 1997 romp Fast, Cheap & Out of Control, then went in more political directions with such timely works as Mr. Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr. (1999), The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara (2003), The Unknown Known (2013), and the brilliant miniseries Wormwood (2017). Equations and all, A Brief History of Time stands with his most memorable and compelling achievements. Director: Errol Morris Producer: David Hickman Screenplay: Stephen Hawking, based on his book Cinematographers: John Bailey, Stefan Czapsky Film Editing: Brad Fuller Art Direction: David Lee Production Design: Ted Bafaloukos Music: Philip Glass With: Stephen Hawking, Isobel Hawking, Dennis Sciama, Roger Penrose, John Wheeler (themselves) Color-80m. by David Sterritt

A Brief History of Time on Blu-ray


Errol Morris is known for insightful documentaries that frequently draw large mainstream audiences, as with 2014's The Unknown Known. Gates of Heaven begins by inviting us to laugh at bereaved pet owners mourning their animal 'children', but soon slides into serious musings about the nature of human loneliness. The Thin Blue Line is famous for convincing us of a convicted prisoner's innocence; it eventually lead to man's release. Morris's 1991 A Brief History of Time takes a look at the remarkable Stephen Hawking, the celebrity astrophysicist responsible for several major theoretical breakthroughs despite living with an almost totally debilitating affliction. Instead of offering a biographical study or providing a lecture about theoretical discoveries, Morris blends the two to produce a portrait of a man who didn't begin to achieve until he had lost most of his physical freedom.

Stephen Hawking would pose a challenge to any filmmaker, as he does not speak and is restricted to a motorized wheelchair. He has almost no control over anything except a clicker he holds in one hand. Various experts have customized a computer system allowing him to write, and to speak with an electronic voice. The personal computer arrived just in time to permit the brilliant Hawking to continue to communicate with the outside world. Otherwise he'd be a prisoner of a non-responsive body.

Director Morris does go into Stephen Hawking's personal story, as family members, friends and colleagues discuss his upbringing and college career. Hawking was brilliant but often bored, and didn't take his studies very seriously even when he found that he could swiftly solve complex math problems far more quickly than his fellow students. Hawking didn't begin his conceptual journey of discovery until after his handicap struck. He chose to apply himself to astrophysics and cosmology because Albert Einstein had already proposed theories that bound together time, space, and movement. With his electronic voice, Hawking's explains why his investigation took various paths, and how he reacted to the theories of his contemporaries, etc.

We hear testimony about Hawking's investigations from peer astrophysicists, who also remark on his personality and character. One of these gentlemen is the theoretician that coined the term "black hole". Hawking decided to apply the theory of black holes to the problem of the creation and destruction of the universe. We do learn a few things about the function of black holes, mainly what happens to matter that is drawn into one. We gain an appreciation of the questions Hawking and his cohorts are pursuing when they describe something called 'the singularity', in which matter is compressed into an infinitely small point, but of infinite mass. Morris brings in a few clips from Disney's underachieving The Black Hole, in which Hollywood actors talk about the theoretical phenomenon as if it were an unknowable religious experience. We viewers of A Brief History of Time identify with them.

At one point Hawking explains that he prefers to describe his theories in graphics because he conceptualizes better with images than with pure mathematics. The drawings illustrating his theories are so advanced as to be meaningless to most of us. That most of what he studies does not lend itself to simplification is an understatement: Hawking considers elusive ideas like "imaginary time" to be elementary concepts. Actually, one phenomenon theorized, discarded and then re-theorized by Stephen Hawking does communicate well. The gravitation of black holes interrupts the mutual creation-destruction cycle of paired matter and anti-matter particles (stop laughing, particle physicists) leaving orphaned bits of matter and anti-matter to speed off into space. Thus 'Hawking Radiation' shows that some matter does escape from black holes.

The more we contemplate Stephen Hawking's personal situation, the more it seems to be a microcosm for the universal human condition of our relationship with the cosmos. The motor neuron disease that put Hawking into a wheelchair also focused his thoughts on scientific pursuit. It's as if the daunting physical restrictions caused his mind to expand, a thought echoed by more than one of his peers. Hawking defines his function as the asking of 'giant' questions: "Where did the universe come from and where is it going? " "If it had a beginning, what was there before?" "What is time, and why can't we remember things in the future the way we remember things in the past?" One half expects Hawking, as have many scientists, to advance a firm atheistic philosophy. He instead comes forward with a statement that the discovery of a unified scientific theory "for everything" would bring science and religion together. The discovery of a complete theory "would be the ultimate triumph of human reason--for then we should know the mind of God."

Errol Morris mostly uses simple graphics to energize the screen, without trying to dazzle us with big numbers or "gee whiz" science fiction visuals. The film also has a sense of humor. As if to 'break the ice', the initial question of 'which came first, the chicken or the egg?' gives us a giant chicken head floating in a field of stars. Hawking is naturally seen only in his wheelchair, his hand using a simple clicking switch to write. Yet the picture isn't a portrait of an invalid and we aren't given a rundown on his daily care. An interviewee does tell us that Hawking drives his motorized wheelchair to his Cambridge office every day, accompanied by a nurse. We understand why this man is considered a scientific superstar and an invaluable human resource. A Brief History of Time will definitely motivate viewers to seek out more information about Stephen Hawking and his discoveries, and to learn what has transpired since Morris's film and the present.

Criterion's Dual-Format Blu-ray + DVD of A Brief History of Time is a tidy little documentary put together with Errol Morris's simple yet persuasive progression of clean visuals. The interview subjects are photographed against a variety of backgrounds. If the interviews are stylized, it's that most of them speak with the same slightly muted enthusiasm - they know that the man they admire is a unique phenomenon. The audio is crisp and clear. Hawking's robotic voice is somehow soothing, not sinister.

The extras are short and sweet. In one video interview director of photography John Bailey remembers his experiences working with Stephen Hawking, and trying to find a proper visual approach for this unusual movie. Errol Morris talks about the challenges of adapting Hawking's book into something more interesting than an illustrated lecture. Morris had a college background in science, which kept him from feeling totally overwhelmed by Hawking's theoretical work. The insert pamphlet contains an essay by David Sterritt and two Stephen Hawking book excerpts. In one Hawking notes a pattern used by almost every review of his book. Having written my review before reading the excerpt, I'm amused to find that my attempt to fathom A Brief History of Time follows this template very closely.

By Glenn Erickson

A Brief History of Time on Blu-ray

Errol Morris is known for insightful documentaries that frequently draw large mainstream audiences, as with 2014's The Unknown Known. Gates of Heaven begins by inviting us to laugh at bereaved pet owners mourning their animal 'children', but soon slides into serious musings about the nature of human loneliness. The Thin Blue Line is famous for convincing us of a convicted prisoner's innocence; it eventually lead to man's release. Morris's 1991 A Brief History of Time takes a look at the remarkable Stephen Hawking, the celebrity astrophysicist responsible for several major theoretical breakthroughs despite living with an almost totally debilitating affliction. Instead of offering a biographical study or providing a lecture about theoretical discoveries, Morris blends the two to produce a portrait of a man who didn't begin to achieve until he had lost most of his physical freedom. Stephen Hawking would pose a challenge to any filmmaker, as he does not speak and is restricted to a motorized wheelchair. He has almost no control over anything except a clicker he holds in one hand. Various experts have customized a computer system allowing him to write, and to speak with an electronic voice. The personal computer arrived just in time to permit the brilliant Hawking to continue to communicate with the outside world. Otherwise he'd be a prisoner of a non-responsive body. Director Morris does go into Stephen Hawking's personal story, as family members, friends and colleagues discuss his upbringing and college career. Hawking was brilliant but often bored, and didn't take his studies very seriously even when he found that he could swiftly solve complex math problems far more quickly than his fellow students. Hawking didn't begin his conceptual journey of discovery until after his handicap struck. He chose to apply himself to astrophysics and cosmology because Albert Einstein had already proposed theories that bound together time, space, and movement. With his electronic voice, Hawking's explains why his investigation took various paths, and how he reacted to the theories of his contemporaries, etc. We hear testimony about Hawking's investigations from peer astrophysicists, who also remark on his personality and character. One of these gentlemen is the theoretician that coined the term "black hole". Hawking decided to apply the theory of black holes to the problem of the creation and destruction of the universe. We do learn a few things about the function of black holes, mainly what happens to matter that is drawn into one. We gain an appreciation of the questions Hawking and his cohorts are pursuing when they describe something called 'the singularity', in which matter is compressed into an infinitely small point, but of infinite mass. Morris brings in a few clips from Disney's underachieving The Black Hole, in which Hollywood actors talk about the theoretical phenomenon as if it were an unknowable religious experience. We viewers of A Brief History of Time identify with them. At one point Hawking explains that he prefers to describe his theories in graphics because he conceptualizes better with images than with pure mathematics. The drawings illustrating his theories are so advanced as to be meaningless to most of us. That most of what he studies does not lend itself to simplification is an understatement: Hawking considers elusive ideas like "imaginary time" to be elementary concepts. Actually, one phenomenon theorized, discarded and then re-theorized by Stephen Hawking does communicate well. The gravitation of black holes interrupts the mutual creation-destruction cycle of paired matter and anti-matter particles (stop laughing, particle physicists) leaving orphaned bits of matter and anti-matter to speed off into space. Thus 'Hawking Radiation' shows that some matter does escape from black holes. The more we contemplate Stephen Hawking's personal situation, the more it seems to be a microcosm for the universal human condition of our relationship with the cosmos. The motor neuron disease that put Hawking into a wheelchair also focused his thoughts on scientific pursuit. It's as if the daunting physical restrictions caused his mind to expand, a thought echoed by more than one of his peers. Hawking defines his function as the asking of 'giant' questions: "Where did the universe come from and where is it going? " "If it had a beginning, what was there before?" "What is time, and why can't we remember things in the future the way we remember things in the past?" One half expects Hawking, as have many scientists, to advance a firm atheistic philosophy. He instead comes forward with a statement that the discovery of a unified scientific theory "for everything" would bring science and religion together. The discovery of a complete theory "would be the ultimate triumph of human reason--for then we should know the mind of God." Errol Morris mostly uses simple graphics to energize the screen, without trying to dazzle us with big numbers or "gee whiz" science fiction visuals. The film also has a sense of humor. As if to 'break the ice', the initial question of 'which came first, the chicken or the egg?' gives us a giant chicken head floating in a field of stars. Hawking is naturally seen only in his wheelchair, his hand using a simple clicking switch to write. Yet the picture isn't a portrait of an invalid and we aren't given a rundown on his daily care. An interviewee does tell us that Hawking drives his motorized wheelchair to his Cambridge office every day, accompanied by a nurse. We understand why this man is considered a scientific superstar and an invaluable human resource. A Brief History of Time will definitely motivate viewers to seek out more information about Stephen Hawking and his discoveries, and to learn what has transpired since Morris's film and the present. Criterion's Dual-Format Blu-ray + DVD of A Brief History of Time is a tidy little documentary put together with Errol Morris's simple yet persuasive progression of clean visuals. The interview subjects are photographed against a variety of backgrounds. If the interviews are stylized, it's that most of them speak with the same slightly muted enthusiasm - they know that the man they admire is a unique phenomenon. The audio is crisp and clear. Hawking's robotic voice is somehow soothing, not sinister. The extras are short and sweet. In one video interview director of photography John Bailey remembers his experiences working with Stephen Hawking, and trying to find a proper visual approach for this unusual movie. Errol Morris talks about the challenges of adapting Hawking's book into something more interesting than an illustrated lecture. Morris had a college background in science, which kept him from feeling totally overwhelmed by Hawking's theoretical work. The insert pamphlet contains an essay by David Sterritt and two Stephen Hawking book excerpts. In one Hawking notes a pattern used by almost every review of his book. Having written my review before reading the excerpt, I'm amused to find that my attempt to fathom A Brief History of Time follows this template very closely. By Glenn Erickson

Quotes

Trivia

Miscellaneous Notes

Co-winner of the Grand Jury Prize and Filmmakers' Trophy at the 1992 Sundance Film Festival.

Winner of the Best Documentary Prize at the 1992 Seattle International Film Festival.

Released in United States Summer August 21, 1992

Released in United States on Video April 28, 1993

Released in United States 1992

Released in United States January 1992

Shown at Seattle International Film Festival May 14-June 7, 1992.

Began shooting February 26, 1990.

Completed shooting April 1990.

Stephen Hawking, a physicist at Cambridge University, has amoyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is wheelchair bound, and cannot speak. He communicates by typing his thoughts into a computer terminal that speaks for him.

Released in United States Summer August 21, 1992

Released in United States on Video April 28, 1993

Released in United States 1992 (Shown at Seattle International Film Festival May 14-June 7, 1992.)

Released in United States January 1992 (Shown at Sundance Film Festival in Park City, Utah January 16-26, 1992.)