Jeremiah Johnson


1h 50m 1972
Jeremiah Johnson

Brief Synopsis

An ex-soldier moves to the Colorado wilderness but cannot escape civilization.

Film Details

Also Known As
Crow Killer, The Mountain Man, The Saga of Jeremiah Johnson, The Saga of Liver-Eating Jeremiah Johnson
MPAA Rating
Genre
Drama
Action
Adventure
Western
Release Date
Dec 1972
Premiere Information
World premiere at the Cannes Film Festival: 7 May 1972; Boise, ID opening: 2 Dec 1972; New York opening: 21 Dec 1972; Los Angeles opening: 22 Dec 1972
Production Company
Joe Wizan-Sanford Productions
Distribution Company
Warner Bros., Inc.
Country
United States
Location
Utah, USA; Ashley National Forest, Utah, United States; Ashley National Forest,, Utah, United States; Snow Canyon State Park, Utah, United States; Uinta National Forest, Utah, United States; Wasatch National Forest, Utah, United States; Zion National Park, Utah, United States
Screenplay Information
Based on the novel Mountain Man: A Novel of Male and Female in the Early American West by Vardis Fisher (New York, 1965) and the book Crow Killer; The Saga of Liver-Eating Johnson by Raymond W. Thorp and Robert Bunker (Bloomington, IN, 1958).

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 50m
Sound
70 mm 6-Track (70 mm prints), Mono (35 mm prints)
Color
Color (Technicolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
2.35 : 1

Synopsis

In the early 1800s, young, adventurous Jeremiah Johnson desires to live in the mountains of Utah. Hoping to live by trapping big game, Jeremiah struggles to master mountain life, battling freezing temperatures and a challenging terrain. One day, as he attempts to catch fish with his bare hands, Jeremiah turns to see an Indian watching him contemptuously. Although Jeremiah fears for his life, the Indian leaves silently. Soon after, he comes across the frozen corpse of Hatchet Jack, who has left a will pinned to his jacket bequeathing his first-class rifle to its next finder. Despite the rifle's superior aim and accuracy, Jeremiah still labors to survive. One day, a man approaches him with his gun drawn. Introducing himself as Chris "Bear Claw" Lapp, the grizzled older man complains that Jeremiah is ruining his bear hunt by moving through the woods too loudly. Inviting Jeremiah to his cabin for food, Bear Claw traps him inside with a grizzly to test the younger man's mettle. Impressed with his abilities, Bear Claw allows him to share his food and shelter, and over the next weeks teaches Jeremiah invaluable survival skills. One day, Jeremiah uses Bear Claw's coaching to kill an elk. While they are returning home through Crow Indian territory, they are stopped by tribe members led by Paints His Shirt Red, whom Bear Claw identifies as a mighty warrior. Despite the fact that Bear Claw speaks the Crow language, the Indians are threatening until Jeremiah offers the freshly killed elk, earning Paints His Shirt Red's grudging respect. Soon after, Jeremiah prepares to go out on his own, bidding goodbye to an unsentimental Bear Claw. Over the next months, he trades with Paints His Shirt Red and other tribes. Along his wanderings, he comes across a homestead where three sons lay dead in the field, recently killed by Indians. The mother, driven insane by grief, draws her rifle upon spotting him, but he calms her and helps to bury the boys. Returning to the cabin hours later, Jeremiah finds another young son alive, struck mute from the horrors he has witnessed. That night, as the mother screams in agony by the graves, Jeremiah tends to the boy and cooks them dinner. The next morning when he offers to take the pair to the ferry, the mother refuses to leave but insists that he take the boy with him. Although Jeremiah is loath to take him, he cannot leave the child behind, and so travels on with him, naming him Caleb. One day soon after, they spot a man buried up to his neck in the sandy dunes. The voluble man introduces himself as trapper Del Gue, who has shaved his head to save himself from scalping. Eager to retrieve his stolen horse and gun from the Blackfoot Indians who attacked him, Del Gue asks Jeremiah to help him, and they soon track the Indians to their camp. Unwilling to fight them, Jeremiah insists they wait until the men are asleep. They creep into the camp at night, but upon waking one man, Del Gue shoots all three and steals their collection of scalps. Furious, Jeremiah returns to Caleb, who is silently weeping in fear for Jeremiah's life. The next day, another band of Indians surround them, but although Jeremiah and Caleb are fearful, they are peaceful Flatheads who have heard of the murder of the Blackfeet and assume Jeremiah is a powerful warrior. They are welcomed to the tribe by the chief, Two-Tongues Lebeaux, who is Christian and French-speaking. During their conference, Jeremiah misguidedly offers the Blackfeet horses and scalps, not realizing that now the chief is honor-bound to offer an ever better gift in return. When the chief gives Jeremiah his daughter, Swan, Del Gue informs the trapper that he must marry the girl or insult the tribe. Now saddled with a wife and child, neither of whom can communicate with him, Jeremiah is annoyed, but cares for the pair as they travel on together uneasily. It takes many days for Jeremiah and Swan, a devout Christian, to trust each other, but she is impressed by his ability to provide for them. While hunting, he spots an ideal site to build a house, and as they work together to erect a log cabin, the three grow into a close and loving family. Months later, a cavalry patrol appears, led by Lt. Mulvey and Reverend Lundquist, who are trying to rescue a homesteading wagon train that has broken down in the mountains, stranding the families. Mulvey asks Jeremiah to lead them through the mountains, and although Jeremiah is reluctant to leave Swan and Caleb, the reverend sanctimoniously induces him to help save the settlers. When the group comes upon a Crow burial ground at the pass, Jeremiah informs them they must bypass the burial ground and head east to the next pass, despite the time this will add to their trip. While the reverend sneers that Jeremiah cares more about the "savages" than the settlers, the lieutenant, knowing that the delay will imperil the settlers, determines to go on without Jeremiah's help, forcing Jeremiah, who realizes Mulvey cannot survive without his leadership, to go along. As soon as they spot the wagons, however, Jeremiah turns back. Returning through the burial ground, he senses a disturbance and races home to find Swan and Caleb brutally murdered by vengeful Crow. Sick with grief, Jeremiah covers the bodies and burns the cabin down. For months he wanders aimlessly, killing any Crow he catches sight of, and in response the Crow determine to kill him, attacking continuously, one at a time. One day, he meets up with Del Gue, and that night when Jeremiah is once again attacked, the other trapper suggests that he leave the mountain. Now a true mountain man, Jeremiah refuses. Later, he once again comes upon Caleb's mother's house, and finds her dead and settlers inhabiting the cabin. They show him a monument the Crow have erected to Jeremiah on the property, and although Jeremiah assumes it is a grave, the father informs him it is more of a testament to his might. He spends years alone, scrabbling for existence and moving farther and farther up the mountain to escape the Crow. One day, Bear Claw finds him and greets him as if no time has passed. Realizing Jeremiah is lost and lonely, Bear Claw speaks to him gently and wishes him well. Soon after, Jeremiah meets Paints His Shirt Red. The two foes face each other, but soon the Indian raises his hand in a gesture of peace and respect. Jeremiah silently returns the salute.

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Movie Clip

Trailer

Hosted Intro

Film Details

Also Known As
Crow Killer, The Mountain Man, The Saga of Jeremiah Johnson, The Saga of Liver-Eating Jeremiah Johnson
MPAA Rating
Genre
Drama
Action
Adventure
Western
Release Date
Dec 1972
Premiere Information
World premiere at the Cannes Film Festival: 7 May 1972; Boise, ID opening: 2 Dec 1972; New York opening: 21 Dec 1972; Los Angeles opening: 22 Dec 1972
Production Company
Joe Wizan-Sanford Productions
Distribution Company
Warner Bros., Inc.
Country
United States
Location
Utah, USA; Ashley National Forest, Utah, United States; Ashley National Forest,, Utah, United States; Snow Canyon State Park, Utah, United States; Uinta National Forest, Utah, United States; Wasatch National Forest, Utah, United States; Zion National Park, Utah, United States
Screenplay Information
Based on the novel Mountain Man: A Novel of Male and Female in the Early American West by Vardis Fisher (New York, 1965) and the book Crow Killer; The Saga of Liver-Eating Johnson by Raymond W. Thorp and Robert Bunker (Bloomington, IN, 1958).

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 50m
Sound
70 mm 6-Track (70 mm prints), Mono (35 mm prints)
Color
Color (Technicolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
2.35 : 1

Articles

Jeremiah Johnson


With a story that both mythologized man-in-nature and shed a somewhat harsh light on the "Manifest Destiny" that drove white people across the continent taking land from the Indians, Jeremiah Johnson (1972) was perfectly in sync with the prevailing counter-cultural attitudes of the time. The film's environmental themes (close to the heart of star Robert Redford) and its anti-establishment, Thoreau-like message struck a chord with audiences and made this a hit, another worthy entry in the Vietnam-era cycle of Westerns - among them Arthur Penn's Little Big Man (1970) and Robert Altman's McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971) - that were critical of civilization's negative effect on the wilderness.

Redford and Sydney Pollack became close friends when they appeared together in War Hunt (1962). Pollack first directed Redford in This Property Is Condemned (1966), and since that time the two had been looking for another property on which to collaborate. Pollack wanted Redford for his film Castle Keep (1969), but the actor passed on it. Redford, in turn, hoped Pollack would direct him in The Candidate (1972), but the director wasn't very interested in the project. Finally they settled on this script, purportedly based on the life of a real trapper known as "Liver-Eatin' Johnson," so called because of the way he disposed of his victims. The screenplay, based on both a novel and a story, was adapted by Edward Anhalt and John Milius, who later wrote Apocalypse Now (1979) and directed Conan the Barbarian (1982).

In this adaptation, Johnson moves into the Rocky Mountains in 1830 to escape civilization. After learning survival techniques from a grizzled old trapper, he heads deeper into the wilderness, encountering a settlement that has been wiped out by marauding Indians, leaving only a deranged woman and her son alive. Johnson takes the boy under his wing, and the two rescue another trapper, who slips some Indian scalps into Johnson's saddlebag when he sees Indians approaching. The friendly tribe, however, hails Johnson as a hero for having taken the scalps of their enemies and presents him with a bride. For a time it seems as if Johnson will settle into some semblance of a home life with his adopted son and wife, but when he is forced to escort a cavalry unit across sacred Crow burial grounds, the Crow take their revenge by killing the woman and boy. Consumed by hatred for the tribe, Johnson becomes a vengeful killer, picking off the Crow one by one. Finally weary of years of killing, he rides off farther into the Canadian wilderness after a last encounter that demonstrates a grudging respect the Crow have gained for their mountain-man enemy.

After advancing Redford $200,000 for the picture, Warner Bros. panicked over the cost and informed Pollack he would have to shoot it all on the back lot. But the director and star insisted it could only be shot on location in Zion National Park, Utah (near Redford's Sundance home). The studio finally agreed when Pollack guaranteed to shoot it in Utah for the same cost as a backlot production. That put severe budget constraints on the project, leaving them no amenities (such as dressing rooms, wardrobe, or even a bathroom for much of the shoot). Pollack finally had to mortgage his home to complete the picture.

Money wasn't the only problem, however. The harsh mountain conditions and uncooperative weather nearly brought them to disaster time after time. Heavy snows prevented riding horses, so they improvised by laying a thousand yards of chain link fence on top of the snow and covering it with white material so the horses wouldn't sink into the heavy drifts. Even worse, the director and star felt their script still needed work and weren't sure how to pull all the narrative threads together. The biggest problem was that in the original story, the Crow attack against Johnson's family was unmotivated. True to the spirit of the times and their own consciences, Redford and Pollack agonized over how to motivate Johnson's killing spree without having it seem as if the Indians were merely savages who asked for it. Finally, Anhalt came up with the idea of having Johnson unwillingly violate the burial ground.

Redford had at least one moment of fear for his life while filming. Near the end of production, with only Redford, Pollack and a helicopter pilot remaining of the 70-person crew, the director decided he needed one last shot of Johnson, photographed from high above, as a tiny figure disappearing across a field of snow. They dropped Redford off high in the mountains and while he was walking, the copter disappeared (having to return to base for more film). Redford had no idea what happened. Turning his fear into a spiritual experience, he lay down in the snow and waited, savoring "the soundlessness of every moment - nothing but an occasional echo over the tip of a glacier."

The film was made before The Candidate but held up until the second picture could be released to take advantage of election-year publicity. Upon Jeremiah Johnson's release, Warner Bros. did little to promote it, but Redford broke his own rule and traveled extensively to generate interest in what he considered one of his favorite projects. The tactic paid off; the film got mostly rave reviews and earned more than $22 million in the U.S. and Canada alone. Redford and Pollack went on to make five more pictures together.

Director: Sydney Pollack
Producer: Joe Wizan
Screenplay: Edward Anhalt, John Milius, based on a novel by Vardis Fisher and a story by Raymond W. Thorp and Robert Bunker
Cinematography: Duke Callaghan
Editing: Thomas Stanford
Art Direction: Ted Haworth
Original Music: Tim McIntire, John Rubinstein
Cast: Robert Redford (Jeremiah Johnson), Will Geer (Bear Claw Chris Rapp), Delle Bolton (Swan), Josh Albee (Caleb), Allyn Ann McLerie (Deranged Woman).
C-116m. Letterboxed. Closed Captioning.

by Rob Nixon
Jeremiah Johnson

Jeremiah Johnson

With a story that both mythologized man-in-nature and shed a somewhat harsh light on the "Manifest Destiny" that drove white people across the continent taking land from the Indians, Jeremiah Johnson (1972) was perfectly in sync with the prevailing counter-cultural attitudes of the time. The film's environmental themes (close to the heart of star Robert Redford) and its anti-establishment, Thoreau-like message struck a chord with audiences and made this a hit, another worthy entry in the Vietnam-era cycle of Westerns - among them Arthur Penn's Little Big Man (1970) and Robert Altman's McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971) - that were critical of civilization's negative effect on the wilderness. Redford and Sydney Pollack became close friends when they appeared together in War Hunt (1962). Pollack first directed Redford in This Property Is Condemned (1966), and since that time the two had been looking for another property on which to collaborate. Pollack wanted Redford for his film Castle Keep (1969), but the actor passed on it. Redford, in turn, hoped Pollack would direct him in The Candidate (1972), but the director wasn't very interested in the project. Finally they settled on this script, purportedly based on the life of a real trapper known as "Liver-Eatin' Johnson," so called because of the way he disposed of his victims. The screenplay, based on both a novel and a story, was adapted by Edward Anhalt and John Milius, who later wrote Apocalypse Now (1979) and directed Conan the Barbarian (1982). In this adaptation, Johnson moves into the Rocky Mountains in 1830 to escape civilization. After learning survival techniques from a grizzled old trapper, he heads deeper into the wilderness, encountering a settlement that has been wiped out by marauding Indians, leaving only a deranged woman and her son alive. Johnson takes the boy under his wing, and the two rescue another trapper, who slips some Indian scalps into Johnson's saddlebag when he sees Indians approaching. The friendly tribe, however, hails Johnson as a hero for having taken the scalps of their enemies and presents him with a bride. For a time it seems as if Johnson will settle into some semblance of a home life with his adopted son and wife, but when he is forced to escort a cavalry unit across sacred Crow burial grounds, the Crow take their revenge by killing the woman and boy. Consumed by hatred for the tribe, Johnson becomes a vengeful killer, picking off the Crow one by one. Finally weary of years of killing, he rides off farther into the Canadian wilderness after a last encounter that demonstrates a grudging respect the Crow have gained for their mountain-man enemy. After advancing Redford $200,000 for the picture, Warner Bros. panicked over the cost and informed Pollack he would have to shoot it all on the back lot. But the director and star insisted it could only be shot on location in Zion National Park, Utah (near Redford's Sundance home). The studio finally agreed when Pollack guaranteed to shoot it in Utah for the same cost as a backlot production. That put severe budget constraints on the project, leaving them no amenities (such as dressing rooms, wardrobe, or even a bathroom for much of the shoot). Pollack finally had to mortgage his home to complete the picture. Money wasn't the only problem, however. The harsh mountain conditions and uncooperative weather nearly brought them to disaster time after time. Heavy snows prevented riding horses, so they improvised by laying a thousand yards of chain link fence on top of the snow and covering it with white material so the horses wouldn't sink into the heavy drifts. Even worse, the director and star felt their script still needed work and weren't sure how to pull all the narrative threads together. The biggest problem was that in the original story, the Crow attack against Johnson's family was unmotivated. True to the spirit of the times and their own consciences, Redford and Pollack agonized over how to motivate Johnson's killing spree without having it seem as if the Indians were merely savages who asked for it. Finally, Anhalt came up with the idea of having Johnson unwillingly violate the burial ground. Redford had at least one moment of fear for his life while filming. Near the end of production, with only Redford, Pollack and a helicopter pilot remaining of the 70-person crew, the director decided he needed one last shot of Johnson, photographed from high above, as a tiny figure disappearing across a field of snow. They dropped Redford off high in the mountains and while he was walking, the copter disappeared (having to return to base for more film). Redford had no idea what happened. Turning his fear into a spiritual experience, he lay down in the snow and waited, savoring "the soundlessness of every moment - nothing but an occasional echo over the tip of a glacier." The film was made before The Candidate but held up until the second picture could be released to take advantage of election-year publicity. Upon Jeremiah Johnson's release, Warner Bros. did little to promote it, but Redford broke his own rule and traveled extensively to generate interest in what he considered one of his favorite projects. The tactic paid off; the film got mostly rave reviews and earned more than $22 million in the U.S. and Canada alone. Redford and Pollack went on to make five more pictures together. Director: Sydney Pollack Producer: Joe Wizan Screenplay: Edward Anhalt, John Milius, based on a novel by Vardis Fisher and a story by Raymond W. Thorp and Robert Bunker Cinematography: Duke Callaghan Editing: Thomas Stanford Art Direction: Ted Haworth Original Music: Tim McIntire, John Rubinstein Cast: Robert Redford (Jeremiah Johnson), Will Geer (Bear Claw Chris Rapp), Delle Bolton (Swan), Josh Albee (Caleb), Allyn Ann McLerie (Deranged Woman). C-116m. Letterboxed. Closed Captioning. by Rob Nixon

Quotes

Do you know where I can find beaver, bear, and other critters that are worth cash money when skint?
- Jeremiah Johnson
Where you headed?
- Jeremiah Johnson
Same place you are, Jeremiah: hell, in the end.
- Del Gue
Won't he see my feet?
- Jeremiah Johnson
Elk don't know how many feet a horse has!
- Bear Claw Chris Lapp
I, Hatchet Jack, being of sound mind and broke legs, do leaveth my rifle to the next thing who finds it, Lord hope he be a white man. It is a good rifle, and killeth the bear that killeth me. Anyway, I am dead. Sincerley, Hatchet Jack.
- Hatchet Jack
Indians put you here?
- Jeremiah Johnson
Well, it weren't Mormons. Blackfoot name of Mad Wolf; nice enough fellow, don't talk a whole hell of a lot.
- Del Gue
Why'd you shave your head?
- Jeremiah Johnson
Mad wolf, like most Indians, figures this scalp is no fit trophy for a man's lodge. That's not the first time I've saved my life in such a manner. Name's Del Gue. With an E.
- Del Gue

Trivia

Based upon a real-life trapper Joe Johnston, nicknamed "Crow Killer" and "Liver Eatin' Johnston".

The Italian release title of the film was called "Red Crow You Will Not Have My Scalp".

Notes

The working titles for the film were Crow Killer, The Mountain Man, The Saga of Jeremiah Johnson and The Saga of Liver-Eating Johnson. The closing credits acknowledge the governor of Utah, the United States Department of the Interior, The National Park Service and The Bureau of Land Management for granting the filmmakers access to the Uinta National Forest, Wasatch National Forest, Ashley National Forest, Zion National Park and Snow Canyon State Park. Mike Moder's credit reads: "Asst. director & 2nd unit director." The film begins with a voice-over narrator describing "Jeremiah Johnson" as a young, adventurous mountain man.
       The character of Jeremiah Johnson was based largely on the man born John Garrison, who later changed his named John Johnston. Garrison (1824-1900) lived in the Rocky Mountains in Montana and Wyoming after deserting from the Navy. During the Civil War, he joined the Army but then returned to the West, working as a trader and trapper and finally attempting to start a Wild West show with Calamity Jane. After some months in the Old Soldiers Home in Sawtelle, now part of Los Angeles, he died penniless. Johnston spawned and perpetuated myriad myths about his life. Although he later denied it, historical sources state that he married a Flathead Indian woman, and after her murder at the hands of Crow Indians, spent years fighting and killing more than three hundred Crow warriors before eventually reconciling with the tribe. Accounts of his murderous ways and propensity for eating his victims' livers abound and earned him the nicknames "Crow Killer" and "Liver-Eatin' Johnston."
       Jeremiah Johnson combines many details of Johnston's legend with general facts about the life of mountain men in the early 19th century. The filmmakers gleaned information from two sources: Raymond W. Thorp and Robert Bunker's biographical book Crow Killer; The Saga of Liver-Eating Johnson, and Vardis Fisher's novel Mountain Man: A Novel of Male and Female in the Early American West, which relates the fictional story of fur trapper Sam Minard, who marries an Indian woman, and Kate Bowden, who is driven insane after witnessing Indians murdering her husband and children.
       In April 1968, Daily Variety announced that producer Sidney Beckerman had acquired the film rights to Thorp and Bunker's book. By May 1970, as noted in Hollywood Reporter, the book was acquired by Warner Bros., where John Milius was assigned to write the screen adaptation. At that time, Daily Variety noted that Francis Ford Coppola was set to direct the film.
       The following information was taken from modern sources: Redford first became interested in the project and, along with Sydney Pollack, bought Milius' script. Pollack and Redford had met when both acted in the 1962 film War Hunt, Redford's feature film debut (see below), and Pollack previously had directed Redford in This Property Is Condemned (1966, see below). Redford later went on to star in several more Pollack films, including 1973's The Way We Were (see below) and 1985's Out of Africa. Both men lived in Utah and were attracted to the mountain man mythology as well as the story's Utah location. Concerned about the expense of shooting on location, however, Warner Bros. restricted the film's budget to the cost of shooting on the studio lot, forcing Pollack to put up his own money to finance the production in Utah. The director stated in a June 1979 letter to the editor of Los Angeles Times that the film cost $3.1 million. In addition to problems caused by inclement weather, Pollack and Redford struggled with the story and began filming with an unfinished script. Although legend stated that the Indian attack on Johnston's family was arbitrary, Pollack and co-writer Edward Anhalt posed the attack in the film as revenge for Johnson desecrating the Crow burial ground, hence providing Johnson with a motivation for becoming the "Crow killer."
       In August 1970, as noted in Daily Variety, the American Indian Movement charged that the film, then in pre-production, possibly was exploiting Indians and withdrew its cooperation in helping to find an actress to play "Swan." That article named Otoe Indian Francine Scott as a technical advisor, but she is not listed in any other source. The technical advisor listed onscreen, John Arlee, was a Flathead Indian from Montana. The film marked the first motion picture score for actor-composer John Rubinstein, son of the famed pianist Arthur Rubinstein. Modern sources state that future country music singer Tanya Tucker made her debut in Jeremiah Johnson playing "Qualen's daughter."
       Filmfacts stated that, despite the fact that Jeremiah Johnson was shot before Redford's 1972 film The Candidate, Warner Bros. distributed The Candidate first to coincide with the 1972 elections. As noted in an April 1972 Daily Variety article, before its release, Jeremiah Johnson was labeled unacceptable by the American Humane Society because three animals were killed during production. When the film was shown in competition at the Cannes Film Festival on May 7, 1972, Pollack was nominated for a Golden Palm award. The American premiere in Boise, ID on December 2, 1972 benefited the Vardis Fisher Memorial Fund, which presented young authors with cash awards and scholarships.
       The financially successful film received mostly positive reviews. However, as part of a scathing critique, New Yorker reviewer Pauline Kael stated that at the end of the film Redford's character greeted the character of "Paints His Shirt Red" with an obscene gesture with his middle finger. No such gesture was seen in the print viewed. Redford remarked in a modern source that the gesture was completely misinterpreted and that Kael's comments seemed to him to be "farfetched and personal beyond the limits of responsible criticism." Redford has described Jeremiah Johnson as his favorite of his own films.
       As noted in an August 2005 Los Angeles Times feature, in 1974 Johnston's remains were moved from Los Angeles to Cody, WY at the behest of a class of seventh-grade students in Lancaster, CA, who petitioned legislators and Veterans Affairs Administration officials for permission. Contemporary sources reported that Redford and Pollack attended the reburial ceremony.

Miscellaneous Notes

Released in United States Winter January 1, 1972

Released in United States Winter January 1, 1972