The Alamo


3h 10m 1960
The Alamo

Brief Synopsis

Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie join the fight for Texas' independence from Mexico.

Film Details

Genre
Historical
War
Western
Release Date
Oct 27, 1960
Premiere Information
World premiere in San Antonio, TX: 24 Oct 1960; Los Angeles and New York openings: 26 Oct 1960
Production Company
Batjac Productions, Inc.; The Alamo Company
Distribution Company
United Artists Corp.
Country
United States
Location
Brackettville, Texas, United States; Fort Clark, Texas, United States

Technical Specs

Duration
3h 10m
Sound
70 mm 6-Track
Color
Color (Technicolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
2.20 : 1

Synopsis

In 1836, Texas is part of Mexico, and the settlers of that region are discontent with the tyrannical rule of Gen. Santa Anna. As Gen. Sam Houston hastens to assemble a Texan army, Santa Anna is heading north with several thousand soldiers to defeat the rebellion. To gain more time, Houston orders Col. William Barret Travis to take command of the Alamo, a fort in a crumbling mission near the village of San Antonio de Bexar, through which Santa Anna's men must pass. Houston hopes that Travis and his twenty-seven "regular" army men will stall the enemy for as long as possible with the assistance of rancher Col. James Bowie and his three hundred Texas volunteers. The hard-drinking and independent Bowie, who has extensive landholdings to protect, and the aristocratic and arrogant Travis are a poorly matched team and antagonism between the two officers quickly grows. Although Juan Seguin, a respected community leader, reports that Santa Anna is closer than they realize, Travis refutes the information and repeatedly lies to the men about the danger of their situation. Believing that most men have no capacity to act for reasons of honor, Travis tells his confidant, Capt. Almeron Dickinson, that the men would desert their posts if they knew the truth. Meanwhile, Col. David Crockett, a former senator, and his rowdy, but loyal Tennessee backwoods sharpshooters, arrive in Bexar and head straight for the cantina. Travis seeks out Davy, and is surprised to learn that the reputed "illiterate country bumpkin" is an eloquent, deep thinker and is sensitive to the Texans' plight. Aware that Santa Anna's regime forbids Texans economic rights, Davy has also guessed the unpublicized plans to create a Republic of Texas. Unknown to his men, who think they are out for adventure, Davy has brought them to Bexar to investigate the situation and possibly convince them to join the fight. Davy soon falls in love with Flaca, a Mexican woman whose family was killed by Santa Anna and who is being pressured to marry Emil Sande, a local merchant who has curried favor with the Mexican general. Although she refuses Davy's gallant offer of help, she tells him about the cache of ammunition Emil has hidden for Santa Anna in the basement of the village church. During the night Davy, Bowie and their men find the supplies. When Emil discovers Davy and the others and tries to kill them, Davy throws Bowie's knife at Emil, killing him. Davy and Flaca enjoy a brief romance, but Davy sends her north to safety, realizing they may never see each other again. Travis keeps up the morale in the fort by reporting that Capt. Jim Fannin is on his way to the Alamo with more soldiers. Believing that staying cornered inside the fort is suicide, Bowie unsuccessfully tries to convince both Travis and, later, Davy that the best way to defend the Alamo is by a "cut, slash and run" approach out in the open. Davy convinces his men to fight for the Alamo by reading them a letter, purportedly written by Santa Anna, ordering the Tennesseeans to leave. Offended, the men stubbornly refuse to take orders from the Mexican general and vow to stay, after which Davy admits that he wrote the letter himself, but it is what Santa Anna would want. Soon after, a courier from Santa Anna arrives outside the fort, and from there, proclaims a message ordering the "occupiers" of the fort to relinquish all ammunition and leave. Before the courier can finish the message, Travis uses his glowing cigar to light the cannon. Startled by the cannon fire, the Mexican halts his reading and retreats in a dignified manner. Dryly, Bowie comments to Davy that Travis "knows the short way to start a war." Although Mexican soldiers are taking positions in front of the fort, Travis predicts that fighting will not begin until Santa Anna, the heavy artillery and food wagons arrive, which will take several days. Believing the situation is hopeless, Bowie decides to leave with his men. However, when Capt. James Butler Bonham arrives from another camp, reporting that Fannin is coming with one thousand men, Bowie decides to stay, unaware that Bonham has been ordered by Travis to lie about the number of men accompanying Fannin. In private, Bonham reports to Travis that only five hundred men are expected. A quarrel between Bowie and Travis escalates into plans for a duel after Bowie takes his men out on patrol without Travis' permission, but Davy convinces them to postpone their confrontation until after the war. Confronted by Davy, Travis admits that his orders are simply to buy time for Houston. Believing that the mission is worthwhile and knowing that Bowie plans to leave with his men in the morning, Davy gets him drunk, causing him to sleep late. The next day, Seguin sneaks into the fort with a few more men, bolstering morale. When a message is delivered directly to Bowie, bypassing Travis, the commander accuses Bowie of more insubordination. However, Travis apologizes after he learns that the message reports the death of Bowie's wife. When the doctor reports low rations and an outbreak of dysentery caused by tainted water, Travis orders a night-time raid of the Mexicans, from whom they rustle several steer. They also steal a good horse for a young soldier, Smitty, to ride to Houston's encampment to report their situation. When Santa Anna arrives, he allows the evacuation of the women and children, but Mrs. Dickinson insists that she and her young child will stay. After the rest of the noncombatants are safely away, shooting commences. The first Alamo casualty is Davy's friend Parson, inspiring Davy to pray that his men are successful, and if not, will be remembered as good men. At the end of the first day's battle, the Alamo men have shot many of the Mexicans, but suffer fifty casualties, twenty-eight of whom are dead. The men also receive news that Fannin's company was ambushed, and consequently no further help will be coming. When Davy expresses a desire to leave, Travis speaks truthfully to the men, telling them that they will not be able to hold the fort for long, but they have given Houston ten extra days to prepare for Santa Anna. Giving his blessing, Travis opens the gate and claims there is no dishonor in leaving. Davy and Bowie begin to lead their men out, but then Bowie gets off his horse and stands next to Travis. The others follow suit and soon all decide to perservere. After nightfall, Smitty delivers his written message to Houston and, anxious to return to his comrades, refuses both food and sleep. Upon reading the message, Houston, who is helpless to assist Travis, hopes that their sacrifice will be remembered. At the Alamo, the sleepless men talk about their belief in the hereafter. Bowie frees his aged slave Jethro and urges him to sneak out and make his way north, but Jethro chooses to stay. During the fighting the next day, Bowie is shot and taken to the infirmary. As the enemy breaches the fort's walls, Travis is killed. Davy is stabbed, but before dying, sets fire to the ammunition to prevent the Mexicans from taking it. Near the end of the battle, Mexican soldiers entering the infirmary are shot by Bowie as he fires guns with both hands. Jethro throws himself over his former master to protect him, but both are slaughtered. Only Mrs. Dickinson, her child and a young black boy are given a burro and allowed to leave without harm. Smitty arrives, but from a distance he sees that he is too late to help.

Videos

Movie Clip

Alamo, The (1960) - You Must Be Jim Bowie! Maybe emulating his mentor John Ford’s comedy mode, writer-director John Wayne contrives for his character, Tennesseean Davy Crocket, to meet Texan Jim Bowie (Richard Widmark) and his renowned knife, through an after-hours brawl, in The Alamo, 1960.
Alamo, The (1960) - The Life Of Texas Most of the performance of Richard Boone as a rugged Sam Houston, arriving in San Antonio ahead of the giant Mexican army, finding Bowie (Richard Widmark, not yet introduced) unavailable, puts Travis (Laurence Harvey) in charge, co-star John Wayne directing, in The Alamo, 1960.
Alamo, The (1960) - Cognizant Of The Will Of God Jim Bowie (Richard Widmark), recovered from a binge, leads his men to the church that will become their fortress, Col. Travis (Laurence Harvey) raising the “Alamo Flag.” co-star and producer John Wayne directing the ceremony, before they tangle, in The Alamo, 1960.
Alamo, The (1960) - Not In Front Of The Men San Antonio, 1836, the first conference of the three commanders, Laurence Harvey as Travis, greeting Richard Widmark as Bowie and director-producer John Wayne as Davy Crockett, disagreeing about how to manage information, in The Alamo, 1960.
Alamo, The (1960) - To Hunt And Get Drunk John Wayne directing and playing Davy Crockett, just arrived in San Antonio, 1836, interrupted in his initial conversation with Col. Travis (Laurence Harvey) for a friendly fight with one of his Tennessee militiamen, then speechifying, early in The Alamo, 1960.
Alamo, The (1960) -- Opening, Prologue Opening title sequence, following the overture, from director John Wayne's ambitious The Alamo, 1960, starring himself as Davy Crockett, Richard Widmark as Jim Bowie, and Laurence Harvey as Col. Travis.

Trailer

Hosted Intro

Film Details

Genre
Historical
War
Western
Release Date
Oct 27, 1960
Premiere Information
World premiere in San Antonio, TX: 24 Oct 1960; Los Angeles and New York openings: 26 Oct 1960
Production Company
Batjac Productions, Inc.; The Alamo Company
Distribution Company
United Artists Corp.
Country
United States
Location
Brackettville, Texas, United States; Fort Clark, Texas, United States

Technical Specs

Duration
3h 10m
Sound
70 mm 6-Track
Color
Color (Technicolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
2.20 : 1

Award Wins

Best Sound

1960

Award Nominations

Best Cinematography

1960

Best Editing

1960
Stuart Gilmore

Best Picture

1960

Best Score

1960

Best Song

1960

Best Supporting Actor

1960
Chill Wills

Articles

The Alamo (1960)


Nominated for six Academy Awards®, The Alamo (1960) was a dream that John Wayne had been harboring for over 15 years and he threw himself into developing the project after completing The Quiet Man in 1952. Initially proposed as a picture for Republic Studios with Herbert Yates producing, the deal eventually fell through with Yates going on to produce his own Alamo movie, The Last Command (1955). Wayne refused to abandon his original vision, however, and finally succeeded in striking a deal with United Artists in 1956. In order to direct the film and insure that creative control could not be taken from him, the Duke had to agree to play the part of Davy Crockett and sign a three-movie deal with the studio. As a result, Wayne exercised nepotism in assembling his cast and crew to make sure that his project would remain faithful to his ideals. His son Michael served as assistant producer, Wayne's brother Bob was the producer's aide, other sons and daughters were extras or had bit parts. Wayne's pal James Edward Grant wrote the screenplay. Good friend and mentor, director John Ford, came to the set to lend any help Wayne might need. And John Ford's son-in-law, Ken Curtis, played Captain Dickinson.

The story of the 187 Texans (including frontiersmen Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie) who held out against over 6,000 regular Mexican army troops for 13 days during the Texas Revolution embodied the idealistic elements that were closest to Wayne's heart. For the film's location, Wayne decided on Brackettville, Texas, and began building the sets in 1958 while he assembled his cast. Clark Gable was his first choice as William Travis and Burt Lancaster was considered for Jim Bowie, roles which would eventually be played by Laurence Harvey and Richard Widmark, respectively. Sammy Davis, Jr. campaigned vigorously for the part of Jethro, Jim Bowie's slave, but was passed over in favor of Jester Hairston, a less controversial choice (Davis's "Rat Pack" status and interracial romance with May Britt made him an unpopular choice with investors in the film). By the time production began, The Alamo had a cast and crew of 342 people, 1600 leased horses, and a catering staff of 45 which was a daily drain on the film's budget.

Historically there was a rivalry between Col. Travis and Jim Bowie, but on the set of The Alamo, the clash was between Richard Widmark and John Wayne. Widmark repeatedly challenged Wayne's direction in front of everyone and once they almost came to blows; thereafter the two remained professional but aloof. Other on-set aggravations were caused by the Texas location - scorpions, skunks and other critters were a constant nuisance. In the biography, John Wayne American by Randy Roberts and James S. Olson (University of Nebraska Press), co-star "Hank Worden remembered that "there were something like thousands of rattlesnakes every square mile." The heat was oppressive. In September the temperature was already 84 degrees by 10:00 a.m., and by 3:00 in the afternoon it was a blistering 98. The humidity was terrible, not at all the dry heat they had expected. Decked out in his costume and coonskin cap, Wayne poured sweat, sometimes so profusely that he had to change clothes before going in front of the camera."

Wayne also found that allowing John Ford to sit in on the set was a big mistake. His former director would constantly undermine Duke's direction, offering unsolicited advice or barking, "G*ddamnit, Duke, that's no way to play it," after scenes. Not wanting to appear disloyal to the man that had launched his career, Wayne assigned Ford some second unit action scenes which kept him busy while the Duke could work uninterrupted (he hardly used any of Ford's footage). On the other hand, some suggestions were heeded and Wayne decided to cast pop singer Frankie Avalon (recommended by Michael Wayne) in the role of Smitty, a part he once planned to play when he was younger and trying to launch the project. In addition, he also cast world famous matador Carlos Arruza as an aide to General Santa Anna. Both were obvious ploys to appeal to young audiences and Mexicans, respectively.

When Wayne first previewed the film in San Antonio, The Alamo ran 192 minutes and nearly everyone agreed that it was too long. Even after 40 minutes were cut for the general release, most critics were still unfavorable in their reviews. The public was more enthusiastic, making The Alamo the number five box office hit of the year. Even though it was also a huge success in Europe and Japan, it would take years for the film to turn a profit due to its runaway production costs. The Duke later remarked, "That picture lost so much money I can't buy a pack of chewing gum in Texas without a co-signer."

Despite its much-maligned reputation, however, The Alamo is an often impressive epic with several memorable set pieces and performances. The second half of the film, in particular, where the Mexican troops stage their final assault on the Alamo's defenders is genuinely stirring and the Dimitri Tiomkin score yielded a top forty radio hit, "The Green Leaves of Summer." Of the six Oscar® nominations only one was a winner - Best Sound by Gordon E. Sawyer and Fred Hynes.

The only film John Wayne would ever direct, The Alamo proved to be more autobiographical than he possibly realized at the time. According to the authors of John Wayne American, John's daughter, "Aissa Wayne believed that the film had a great deal to do with her father's decision not to enlist in World War II. "I think making The Alamo became my father's own form of combat. More than an obsession, it was the most intensely personal project of his career." He used the film to explain himself - his Cold Warrior passions, lifestyle, failed marriages, and patriotism. The Alamo was Duke's confessional, an open letter to 150 million Americans. The film tells more about John Wayne than about Texas in 1836."

Director/Producer: John Wayne
Screenplay: James Edward Grant
Cinematography: William H. Clothier
Music: Dimitri Tiomkin
Editing: Stuart Gilmore
Art Direction: Alfred Ybarra
Cast: John Wayne (Colonel Davy Crockett), Richard Widmark (Jim Bowie), Laurence Harvey (Colonel William Travis), Frankie Avalon (Smitty), Linda Cristal (Flaca), Chill Wills (Beekeeper), Joseph Calleia (Juan Seguin), Ken Curtis (Captain Almeron Dickinson), Denver Pyle (Thimblerig).
C-203m. Letterboxed.

by Lang Thompson & Jeff Stafford
The Alamo (1960)

The Alamo (1960)

Nominated for six Academy Awards®, The Alamo (1960) was a dream that John Wayne had been harboring for over 15 years and he threw himself into developing the project after completing The Quiet Man in 1952. Initially proposed as a picture for Republic Studios with Herbert Yates producing, the deal eventually fell through with Yates going on to produce his own Alamo movie, The Last Command (1955). Wayne refused to abandon his original vision, however, and finally succeeded in striking a deal with United Artists in 1956. In order to direct the film and insure that creative control could not be taken from him, the Duke had to agree to play the part of Davy Crockett and sign a three-movie deal with the studio. As a result, Wayne exercised nepotism in assembling his cast and crew to make sure that his project would remain faithful to his ideals. His son Michael served as assistant producer, Wayne's brother Bob was the producer's aide, other sons and daughters were extras or had bit parts. Wayne's pal James Edward Grant wrote the screenplay. Good friend and mentor, director John Ford, came to the set to lend any help Wayne might need. And John Ford's son-in-law, Ken Curtis, played Captain Dickinson. The story of the 187 Texans (including frontiersmen Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie) who held out against over 6,000 regular Mexican army troops for 13 days during the Texas Revolution embodied the idealistic elements that were closest to Wayne's heart. For the film's location, Wayne decided on Brackettville, Texas, and began building the sets in 1958 while he assembled his cast. Clark Gable was his first choice as William Travis and Burt Lancaster was considered for Jim Bowie, roles which would eventually be played by Laurence Harvey and Richard Widmark, respectively. Sammy Davis, Jr. campaigned vigorously for the part of Jethro, Jim Bowie's slave, but was passed over in favor of Jester Hairston, a less controversial choice (Davis's "Rat Pack" status and interracial romance with May Britt made him an unpopular choice with investors in the film). By the time production began, The Alamo had a cast and crew of 342 people, 1600 leased horses, and a catering staff of 45 which was a daily drain on the film's budget. Historically there was a rivalry between Col. Travis and Jim Bowie, but on the set of The Alamo, the clash was between Richard Widmark and John Wayne. Widmark repeatedly challenged Wayne's direction in front of everyone and once they almost came to blows; thereafter the two remained professional but aloof. Other on-set aggravations were caused by the Texas location - scorpions, skunks and other critters were a constant nuisance. In the biography, John Wayne American by Randy Roberts and James S. Olson (University of Nebraska Press), co-star "Hank Worden remembered that "there were something like thousands of rattlesnakes every square mile." The heat was oppressive. In September the temperature was already 84 degrees by 10:00 a.m., and by 3:00 in the afternoon it was a blistering 98. The humidity was terrible, not at all the dry heat they had expected. Decked out in his costume and coonskin cap, Wayne poured sweat, sometimes so profusely that he had to change clothes before going in front of the camera." Wayne also found that allowing John Ford to sit in on the set was a big mistake. His former director would constantly undermine Duke's direction, offering unsolicited advice or barking, "G*ddamnit, Duke, that's no way to play it," after scenes. Not wanting to appear disloyal to the man that had launched his career, Wayne assigned Ford some second unit action scenes which kept him busy while the Duke could work uninterrupted (he hardly used any of Ford's footage). On the other hand, some suggestions were heeded and Wayne decided to cast pop singer Frankie Avalon (recommended by Michael Wayne) in the role of Smitty, a part he once planned to play when he was younger and trying to launch the project. In addition, he also cast world famous matador Carlos Arruza as an aide to General Santa Anna. Both were obvious ploys to appeal to young audiences and Mexicans, respectively. When Wayne first previewed the film in San Antonio, The Alamo ran 192 minutes and nearly everyone agreed that it was too long. Even after 40 minutes were cut for the general release, most critics were still unfavorable in their reviews. The public was more enthusiastic, making The Alamo the number five box office hit of the year. Even though it was also a huge success in Europe and Japan, it would take years for the film to turn a profit due to its runaway production costs. The Duke later remarked, "That picture lost so much money I can't buy a pack of chewing gum in Texas without a co-signer." Despite its much-maligned reputation, however, The Alamo is an often impressive epic with several memorable set pieces and performances. The second half of the film, in particular, where the Mexican troops stage their final assault on the Alamo's defenders is genuinely stirring and the Dimitri Tiomkin score yielded a top forty radio hit, "The Green Leaves of Summer." Of the six Oscar® nominations only one was a winner - Best Sound by Gordon E. Sawyer and Fred Hynes. The only film John Wayne would ever direct, The Alamo proved to be more autobiographical than he possibly realized at the time. According to the authors of John Wayne American, John's daughter, "Aissa Wayne believed that the film had a great deal to do with her father's decision not to enlist in World War II. "I think making The Alamo became my father's own form of combat. More than an obsession, it was the most intensely personal project of his career." He used the film to explain himself - his Cold Warrior passions, lifestyle, failed marriages, and patriotism. The Alamo was Duke's confessional, an open letter to 150 million Americans. The film tells more about John Wayne than about Texas in 1836." Director/Producer: John Wayne Screenplay: James Edward Grant Cinematography: William H. Clothier Music: Dimitri Tiomkin Editing: Stuart Gilmore Art Direction: Alfred Ybarra Cast: John Wayne (Colonel Davy Crockett), Richard Widmark (Jim Bowie), Laurence Harvey (Colonel William Travis), Frankie Avalon (Smitty), Linda Cristal (Flaca), Chill Wills (Beekeeper), Joseph Calleia (Juan Seguin), Ken Curtis (Captain Almeron Dickinson), Denver Pyle (Thimblerig). C-203m. Letterboxed. by Lang Thompson & Jeff Stafford

Quotes

I've never had anything to say about that long-winded jackanapes, but he sure does know a way how to start a war.
- Jim Bowie
Republic. I like the sound of the word. It means people can live free, talk free, go or come, buy or sell, be drunk or sober, however they choose. Some words give you a feeling. Republic is one of those words that makes me tight in the throat - the same tightness a man gets when his baby takes his first step or his first baby shaves and makes his first sound as a man. Some words can give you a feeling that makes your heart warm. Republic is one of those words.
- Davy Crockett
It do!
- Tennessean
It was like I was empty. Well, I'm not empty anymore. That's what's important, to feel useful in this old world, to hit a lick against what's wrong for what's right even though you get walloped for saying that word. Now I may sound like a Bible beater yelling up a revival at a river crossing camp meeting, but that don't change the truth none. There's right and there's wrong. You got to do one or the other. You do the one and you're living. You do the other and you may be walking around, but you're dead as a beaver hat.
- Davy Crockett
Where's Jim Bowie?
- Gen. Sam Houston
He's indisposed, sir.
- Captain James Butler Bonham
Indisposed? By God if you mean drunk, you say drunk, sir!
- Gen. Sam Houston
He's drunk, sir!
- Captain James Butler Bonham

Trivia

Lagene Ethridge was murdered during filming by her boyfriend.

Lieutenant Finn's fall from his horse was unscripted and unintentional.

The huge Alamo set took two years to construct.

'John Wayne' originally intended that Richard Widmark should play Davy Crockett, while Wayne himself would have taken the small role of Sam Houston so he could focus his energy on directing the picture. But he was only able to get financial backing if he played one of the main parts, so he decided to play Crockett and cast Widmark as Jim Bowie.

Before those changes, Sonny Tufts was considered for the role of Jim Bowie, and Clark Gable for the role of William Travis.

Notes

After the opening credits, a long written prologue explains that in 1836, Texas was under Mexican rule and settlers from far countries and all parts of the United States were considered Mexican citizens. The prologue continues by stating, "Generalissimo Santa Anna was sweeping north across Mexico toward them, crushing all who opposed his tyrannical rule" and forcing the Texans to make "the decision that all men in all times must face...the eternal choice of men...to endure oppression or to resist." The film, as it was shown at its opening, contained an overture, intermission, entr'acte and exit music.
       Although a June 15, 1960 Hollywood Reporter news item reported that the film was 210 minutes, at the time of the October 1960 opening it had been shortened to 192. According to a November 1960 Hollywood Reporter news item and other contemporary sources, producer-director John Wayne cut thirty more minutes, in response to a study of audience reaction indicating restlessness during the early parts of the film. Among the several sequences removed at that time were: a birthday party scene for the daughter of "Capt. Almeron Dickinson"; a drunken "Col. James Bowie" finding that "Col. William Barret Travis" has been placed in charge of the fort; "Emil Sande" being killed by "Col. David Crockett," who then tells "Flaca"; Flaca and "Mrs. Guy" talking as settlers leave the area; the death of "Parson" as Crockett prays; and the defenders of the Alamo discussing their religious beliefs on the night before their last battle.
       Although the October 1960 Variety review and other sources claim that Wayne's cinematic version of the story of the Alamo differs somewhat from history, much of the film remains true to the facts or popular legends about the battle. Col. Travis was left in command of the Alamo by Col. James Neill, who is seen briefly in the film. After Gen. Antonio L√≥pez de Santa Anna's army began to arrive, Travis sent a famous message, claiming that he was "besieged by a thousand or more of the Mexicans [but] determined to sustain myself as long as possible, and die like a soldier...." As depicted in the film, Capt. James Butler Bonham was sent to appeal to Capt. James Fannin. Although Fannin was ambushed and killed near Goliad, as recounted in the film, this incident did not happen until after the fall of the Alamo.
       The film's "Smitty" had a real-life alter ego, a twenty-one-year-old Texan named James L. Allen, who was sent out as a courier the night before the final assault and missed the battle. According to a November 1960 Los Angeles Examiner article, Wayne was undecided about whether Smitty, who was portrayed by teen idol Frankie Avalon, would die with the rest of the main characters but, just before the filming the final scenes, Wayne announced that "The end of the picture is depressing enough. He lives." As mentioned in the film, the siege lasted thirteen days, partly because Santa Anna's forces were waiting for the twelve-pounder cannons needed to breach the Alamo's walls. According to historical sources, Travis did at some point tell his men that escape was impossible and death certain, and allowed anyone to leave without loss of honor. Unlike the film, but similar in spirit, only one man was reported to have left the fort.
       After the Mexicans stormed the Alamo on March 6, 1836, Bowie shot and killed two of the enemy from his infirmary bed before being killed, as was shown in the film. Although sources differ on the real outcome of Crockett, some believe that he was probably killed while attempting to blow up the fort's gunpowder, as shown in the film. Before dying, the 189 Alamo defenders killed between 1,000 and 1,700 Mexican soldiers. Although Santa Anna announced a glorious victory, his more skeptical aide is reputed to have said, "One more such glorious victory and we are finished." As in the film, Mrs. Dickinson and her baby were spared, as were other noncombatants. The thirteen extra days during which the Alamo's fighters stalled Santa Anna's progress north May have helped Texas' eventual victory, but most sources agree that the self-sacrifice of Alamo defenders was more important as a tremendous morale builder that strengthened the Texans' resolve to beat their opponent. On April 21, 1836, Houston's army defeated Santa Anna at San Jacinto, shouting cries of "Remember the Alamo" and "Remember Goliad" (in memory of Fannin's last battle), and won the liberation of Texas. In 1845, Texas became a state.
       A July 1951 New York Times news item reported that Wayne would "star in, produce and direct The Alamo at Tuacana, Mexico." In an October 1960 Los Angeles Times article and other contemporary sources, Wayne said he first conceived of the film in 1946. According to a January 1960 ^MPH article, the script by James Edward Grant, who also served as associate producer for the film, had been "in constant work, enlarged and changed literally dozens of times" throughout the 1950s. According to an October 1959 LA Mirror-News article, Wayne presented the idea to Herbert Yates, head of Republic Studios, to which Wayne remained under contract in the early 1950s and which had made the 1939 film about the Alamo, Man of Conquest (see AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1931-40). However, Yates refused to back Wayne's idea, but Republic later made the smaller-scaled 1955 picture The Last Command about the Alamo, without using Wayne or Grant's script.
       In the early 1950s, Wayne considered producing the film in Sonora, Mexico, and even had sets built there, but the money to finance the picture was suddenly withdrawn, possibly because of sensitivity over making a picture in Mexico about "5,000 Mexican soldiers killing the 180 defenders of the Alamo, shrine of Texas liberty," according to the October 1959 Los Angeles Mirror-News report. While searching for suitable locations in Peru, according to a modern source, Wayne met his third wife, Pilar, who was a local actress. In a October 23, 1960 Daily Variety article, Wayne disclosed that, besides United Artists, backers of the film included brothers I. J. and O. J. McCullough, and Clint Murchison, all oilmen, and the Yale Foundation.
       The film's program book also listed Clint Murchison, Jr. and Dabney Murchison as investors. According to the October Daily Variety article, Wayne said that he put up the rest of the money. A modern source reported that Wayne also tried to interest Warner Bros. in the production, without success. According to modern sources, Wayne eventually mortgaged his house, his production company and other holdings to finance the film. In an October 1960 Limelight article, Wayne was quoted as saying, "Every last damn dime I have in the world I tied up in this thing." During this time, according to an August 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item, he and his business manager of eighteen years, Bo Roos, parted ways.
       According to a October 4, 1959 New York Times article, art director Alfred Ybarra began researching the Alamo and San Antonio de Bexar in 1950. An authentic reproduction of the Alamo as it appeared circa 1835 was built over a two-year period on the 22,000-acre ranch owned by James T. "Happy" Shahan, which was located northwest of Brackettville, TX. Although, in an October 1960 Los Angeles Times article, Wayne claimed that they originally planned to build ordinary false front sets, instead the set consisted of completed buildings made from authentic adobe. Because the set was built in the middle of undeveloped land, crews also put in more than ten miles of underground electrical and telephone wiring, as well as modern toilet facilities and five miles of sewage lines. The construction, according to the New York Times article, completely changed the economy of the county. A November 1960 American Cinematographer article reported that the buildings were constructed to withstand violent extremes of Texas weather. An October 1959 New York Times article reported plans to make the set a tourist attraction after the film's production was completed. According to the New York Times article, the cast and crew were housed during filming in the abandoned army barracks at nearby Fort Clark, TX.
       A December 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item reported that a total of 200 players and 5,000 extras appeared in the picture. Wayne's four-year-old daughter Aissa made her film debut as "Angelina `Lisa' Dickinson" and his son Patrick portrayed "Capt. James Butler Bonham." According to an October 1960 Los Angeles Times article, his daughter, Toni Wayne LaCava, had a one-line speaking role and Pilar was an extra in the film, but their appearance in the film is unconfirmed. Other actors added to the cast, but whose appearance in the film has not been confirmed, include: Dean Smith (who was also a stuntman), Mickey Finn and Richard Evans. Carlos Arruza, who portrayed "Lt. Reyes," was a noted matador. According to a November 1960 Los Angeles Mirror-News article, twenty-five stuntmen rode trained "falling horses" for the battle scenes.
       According to an August 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item, Linda Cristal, who portrayed Flaca in the film, and John Gavin were on loan from Universal; however, a September 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item reported that negotiations for Gavin to play the role of Dickinson were not completed and that Ken Curtis was cast in the role. An August 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item reported that Danny Stradella was cast, but he did not appear in the film. Although negotiations for Wayne and Marlon Brando to "swap" cameos in their respective films, The Alamo and The Ugly American, were reported in an August 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item, neither actor appeared in the other's film. A September 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item stated that Diahann Carroll was offered a role, but she did not appear in the film. A August 5, 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item reported that James Arness lost the role of "Gen. Sam Houston" to Richard Boone.
       Several modern sources reported that Wayne was interested in playing the role of Houston and had originally intended to play a small part, so that he could concentrate on producing the film. However, according to the sources, UA would agree to back the project only if he starred in it, as it was too much of a risk without him. A November 1960 Los Angeles Mirror-News article reported that Wayne originally wanted Richard Widmark to play Travis instead of Bowie and a modern source reported that he later "regretted not playing" the role himself. A modern source adds Teresa Champion, a Flamenco artist who danced on the table in the cantina sequence, to the cast, as well as actor Rudy Robbins.
       The Alamo marked Wayne's directorial debut, but not, as some contemporary sources stated, his first film as a producer. An October 1959 Los Angeles Mirror-News article reported that director John Ford, Wayne's mentor and longtime director, was "hovering around" the camera and directed some second unit battle scenes, and a July 1959 ^HR news item reported that Ford would direct scenes in which Wayne performed. However, according to special material in the film's DVD version, all of Ford's scenes were cut from the final film. In a November 1960 Los Angeles Mirror-News article, Ford shrugged off speculation about just how much he contributed to the final film and claimed that he was the "coach."
       The Alamo's program book stated that 300 rare longhorn cattle were borrowed from several Texas ranchers, including Milby Butler, J. D. Phillips, Cap Yates and Bill Daniel, who was the brother of then Texas governor Price Daniel and who also portrayed "Col. Neill." A total of eight Todd-AO cameras were used, and according to a November 1960 American Cinematographer article, all night scenes were shot at night, due to the use of a new Eastman film negative. Modern sources also add Wayne's brother Bob Morrison (Office) and Rolly Harper (Caterer) to the crew.
       According to an October 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item, the University of Texas allowed the use of its song, "Eyes of Texas," to be incorporated into Dimitri Tiomkin's score. The October 1960 Limelight review reported that Tiomkin also incorporated other traditional melodies into his score, including "El Deguelo," the song Santa Anna was said to have played to the besieged Alamo defenders to signal "no mercy." The film's soundtrack was released by Columbia Records.
       Although several sources report that the cost of the film was $12,000,000, a October 5, 1960 Daily Variety news item reported that Wayne's "final tally" for the film was $14,000,000 and that the film would have to gross $17,000,000 before he netted a profit. To publicize the film, according to a September 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item, Wayne's company Batjac intended to spend $100,000 in radio ads. A September 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item reported that Pontiac would sponsor a special one-hour television show that would feature a rare "trailer-type plug for the film" and show behind-the-scenes footage. According to a December 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item, two days of production during the filming of the movie were devoted to the television special. An August 1960 Hollywood Reporter news item reported that Wayne ordered a huge painting by Reynold Brown called "The Last Charge at the Alamo" to be reproduced in 24-sheets as part of ad campaign billboards. According to an October 1960 Daily Variety news item, 184 pages of material, which the news item described as the "longest single `press release' ever distributed for a Hollywood motion picture," was sent to "10,000 columnists, government officials, opinion makers, libraries, schools and exhibitors."
       Although, according to an April 1961 Los Angeles Herald Express article, assistant to the producer Michael Wayne handled parts of the publicity chores, according to a December Hollywood Reporter news items, publicist and Wayne's aide Jim Henaghan hired Russell Birdwell, who had been the chief publicist for Gone With the Wind (see AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1931-40), as publicity consultant. When Henaghan was fired following a dispute with Wayne, Birdwell was given his job. Although a December 1959 Hollywood Reporter news item reported that Henaghan filed a suit against Wayne, claiming that he had not received full compensation for his work on The Alamo, according to modern sources the dispute was settled out of court without disclosure of details.
       In several October 1960 articles, Wayne claimed that The Alamo had a "message." In the film's program book, he wrote that The Alamo was "filmed to convey to Americans and people everywhere a sense of the debt they owe to all men who have died fighting for freedom." Using Wayne's strongly-held convictions to sell the picture, Birdwell wrote a wordy, one-page ad that was published in the July 1960 Life magazine headlined "There were no ghost writers at the Alamo," which was signed by Wayne and Grant with the words "A Statement of Principle." Although mostly outlining the legendary exploits of those struggling for Texas freedom, the article, without naming other names, linked the heroism of the Alamo with the coming Presidential election, in which Wayne's interest was strongly Republican. The statement also addressed the film industry's controversy over formerly blacklisted writer Dalton Trumbo, who wrote two of the other epic films released that year, Spartacus and Exodus (see entries below), both of which seemed possible contenders for an Oscar for Best Picture. The ad, which cost $152,000, according to a July 1960 Daily Variety article, received a "free plug" on NBC-TV's coverage of Sen. John F. Kennedy's press conference in which former President Harry Truman made charges that the coming Democratic Convention was "rigged" and a reporter waved a copy of the issue of Life magazine, asking if the ad was a "veiled plug" for the candidacy of Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson. A July 1960 Hollywood Reporter article wrote that the repercussion of the event, which received international attention, possibly allowed "Wayne's $152,000 gamble [to] pay off very big."
       The Los Angeles Mirror-News review stated that the The Alamo's patriotism had arrived when "a wary America" needed "a rousing, patriotic shot in the arm." In October 1960, a Los Angeles Herald Express reporter, believing that "Leftists and Communists" were attempting "to indoctrinate" the public, praised the "Americanism" values of The Alamo in a lengthy editorial. However, other reviewers, while commending the sweeping battle scenes in the last part of the picture, had criticisms of the film and uneasiness about the hyperbole surrounding it. The New Yorker reviewer pointed out anachronisms in the plot, but complained that in doing so he risked accusations that he was "lowering the prestige of Texas" and "the brave men who died in that heroic fiasco." The Variety review agreed that the filmmakers had "shrouded some of the fantastic facts of the original with...frivolous fancies of their re-creation" and reported that the film contained "homilies on American virtues and patriotic platitudes under life-and-death fire which smack of yesteryear theatricalism." Even the favorable Los Angeles Mirror-News review claimed that dialog during a lull in the battle, in which two minor characters call the Mexican soldiers "fine fighting men," stretched the story's credibility.
       The Alamo was nominated for seven Academy Awards: Best Picture; Best Supporting Actor (Chill Wills), Best Cinematography (Color), Best Film Editing, Best Musical Score, Best Song (Tiomkin and Paul Francis Webster's "Green Leaves of Summer") and Best Sound. In the months preceding the announcement of the nominations, controversy surrounded The Alamo as Birdwell and Wayne campaigned aggressively for the film in an unprecedented bid for votes. In December 1960 Birdwell bought a three-page ad in Daily Variety which listed excerpts from favorable comments about the film. He preceded the list by stating, "If men seeking the Presidency of the United States can be understood and admired for stating frankly and uninhibitedly `I want your vote,'" then the people of the film industry should not be "less timid in expressing their hopes and aspiration." In a three-page February 1961 Daily Variety ad, Birdwell again appealed to Academy voters by asking, "When the motion picture industry's epitaph is written-what will it say?," and concluded with two pages of complimentary, large print quotes by directors George Stevens and John Ford.
       Critic Ivan Spear, in a February 1961 Box Office editorial, wrote: "If memory serves correctly, never before has there been so much tocsintitillating in efforts to win merely Academy nominations." After the nominations were announced, columnist Dick Williams, who was expressing a sentiment shared by other critics, editorialized in a March 1961 issue of Los Angeles Mirror-News, that "The impression is left that one's proud sense of Americanism May be suspected if one does not vote for The Alamo." The cover story of the March 9, 1961 issue of Close-up suggested that Birdwell was buying nominations. To these accusations, Birdwell published full-page ad rebuttals, addressing his detractors by name, in issues of both Hollywood Reporter and Daily Variety.
       Meanwhile, as noted in an April 1961 New York Times article, several ads were bought on behalf of Chill Wills, one listing stars he had "supported" in the past and testimonials of people from Texas, and another listing a roster of Academy members' names. Incorporating Wills's signature expression "cousins," a term of affection spoken by many of the characters he played, an ad read: "Win, lose or draw you're still my cousins and I love you all." According to a March 29, 1961 Hollywood Citizen-News article, Groucho Marx responded with his own ad, in which he claimed delight at being Wills's cousin, but his intention of voting for Sal Mineo (who was nominated for his performance in Exodus). Another ad for Wills in a March 1961 Hollywood Reporter issue stated that the The Alamo cast was "praying harder-than the real Texans prayed for their lives" for Wills to win. The various ads backfired on the actor after Hollywood columnist Hedda Hopper, who was named in one ad, publicly repudiated him and Wayne took out ads in which he accused Wills of bad taste. In response, Wills's press agent, W. S. "Bow Wow" Wojchiechowicz, took full responsibility, stating that he placed the ads without Wills's prior knowledge.
       The expensive campaigning annoyed many people in the film industry. In a March 1961Box Office article, Ivan Spear noted the "political and idealogical schisms within the film capital" prompted by Birdwell's controversial publicity and concluded that "pictures could be brought into the winners' circle through sheer weight of advertising dollars." According to a April 2, 1961 New York Times article that placed The Alamo at "the center of the strife," "the Exodus people...riposted with full pages, exhorting fellow movie-makers to `Judge the picture-not the ads.'" The unprecedented season is considered by many historians to be the progenitor of future Oscar campaigns and the current inclination toward expensive electioneering for votes. When the Academy Awards ceremony aired on April 17, 1961, Best Picture was awarded to The Apartment and The Alamo was awarded only one Oscar, for Best Sound, which was received by Gordon Sawyer of Samuel Goldwyn SSD and Fred Hynes of Todd-AO SSD.
       Among the other honors bestowed on The Alamo, according to a March 1961 Daily Variety news item, was the Thomas Alva Edison Foundation Award for the best film serving the national interest. According to an April 1961 Hollywood Reporter news item, the Daughters of the American Revolution awarded the film a bronze plaque for best historical film of 1960. According to modern sources, The Alamo was neither a critical nor commercial success on its first release, but had some success in later reissues and television screenings. Modern sources state that Wayne sold his interest to UA after the first run and that he claimed to have eventually recouped his money.
       The Brackettville set was used as a location site for other film and television Westerns for several years. A November 1960 Los Angeles Mirror-News article reported that Richard Widmark and Linda Cristal, who portrayed Bowie and Flaca, respectively, soon returned to the Alamo set to film the 1961 Columbia production Two Rode Together (see AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1961-70), which was directed by Ford. An October 1965 Hollywood Reporter ad and a November 1971 Variety news item reported that the Alamo set was for sale. A modern source explained that Wayne, needing money, had asked the department store Sakowitz to sell it on consignment for $3,000,000, but when the property never sold, Shahan made a direct deal with Batjac to buy it for about $250,000. A 1998 Amarillo Sunday News-Globe article describing a two-day reunion held at Brackettville for surviving cast and crew members to celebrate what would have been Wayne's ninety-first birthday reported that over one hundred films, videos and commercials had been shot at the set, which had become a tourist attraction.
       In 1993, a February Los Angeles Times article announced that MGM/UA was releasing a laser disc of The Alamo, restoring the film to its original three hours and twenty-two minutes running time from a 70mm print discovered in Toronto. A July 2002 Daily Variety article prior to a DVD release of the film reported that the print was found by a Toronto projectionist in 1990. In the Daily Variety article, producer and film preservationist Robert A. Harris, who worked with M-G-M to restore the print, stated that the only remaining "roadshow" print was "essentially a director's cut shot on 70mm." The newly released disc of the restored print also contained the original trailer for the film and a documentary, which, among other features, included 1959 footage of The Alamo set during which Laurence Harvey, the Shakespearean actor who portrayed Travis and who died in 1973, orated from Richard II with a Southern twang.
       In addition to the titles mentioned above, other films on the subject of the Alamo include Disney's 1954 Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier, starring Fess Parker; D. W. Griffith's 1915 The Martyrs of the Alamo; the 1926 Sunset Productions picture Davy Crockett at the Fall of the Alamo and Sunset and Columbia's 1937 production Heroes of the Alamo (see entries in AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1911-20; 1921-30; 1931-40). For information about U-I's 1953 The Man from the Alamo, which was directed by Budd Boetticher and starred Glenn Ford, . In 2004, director John Lee Hancock's The Alamo was released, starring Billy Bob Thornton and Dennis Quaid.

Miscellaneous Notes

Voted One of the Year's Ten Best Films by the 1960 National Board of Review.

Released in United States Winter December 1960

John Wayne makes his directorial debut. It's also the only film he solely directed; he shared the credit on "The Green Berets".

Todd-AO

Released in United States Winter December 1960