One-Eyed Jacks


2h 21m 1961

Brief Synopsis

An outlaw seeks revenge on the old friend who betrayed him.

Photos & Videos

Film Details

Also Known As
Guns Up
Genre
Drama
Western
Adaptation
Release Date
Jan 1961
Premiere Information
New York opening: 30 Mar 1961
Production Company
Pennebaker, Inc.
Distribution Company
Paramount Pictures
Country
United States
Location
Death Valley, California, USA; Monterey, California, USA
Screenplay Information
Based on the novel The Authentic Death of Hendry Jones by Charles Neider (New York, 1956).

Technical Specs

Duration
2h 21m
Sound
Mono (Westrex Recording System)
Color
Color (Technicolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
1.85 : 1

Synopsis

In 1880, while fleeing from the Mexican police, two bank robbers, Rio and Longworth, have one of their horses shot out from under them. Rio agrees to remain behind while his friend rides off to get a new mount from a nearby ranch, but, motivated by self-preservation and greed, Longworth abandons Rio and rides off alone with the gold. After spending 5 years in the Sonora prison, Rio escapes with a cellmate, Modesto, and makes his way to the California border. There he learns that Longworth has become the sheriff of Monterey and has married a Mexican woman who has a grown daughter. Consumed by his passion for revenge, Rio joins forces with two outlaws, Amory and Harvey, who are planning to rob the Monterey bank. By feigning friendship and denying that he was ever caught, Rio wins the trust of the guilt-ridden Longworth. As part of his plan Rio seduces his arch-enemy's virginal stepdaughter, Louisa, and then brutally tells her the truth about himself. A short time later, Rio kills a drunken bully in self-defense, and Longworth uses the incident as an excuse for publicly whipping Rio, smashing his shooting hand, and driving him out of town. For several weeks Rio practices firing with his hand in a sling and once more returns to Monterey, but his growing love for Louisa, who is pregnant, has become stronger than his hatred of Longworth, and he decides to call off his vendetta. However, Amory and Harvey rob the Monterey bank; Longworth blames Rio, has him imprisoned, and arranges for a hanging. With the aid of a gun smuggled to him by Louisa, he overpowers the sadistic deputy sheriff, Lon, and escapes from jail. Just as he reaches the street, Longworth arrives. In the final meeting between the two enemies, it is Longworth who is killed. Rio says goodbye to Louisa, promises to return, and rides away.

Film Details

Also Known As
Guns Up
Genre
Drama
Western
Adaptation
Release Date
Jan 1961
Premiere Information
New York opening: 30 Mar 1961
Production Company
Pennebaker, Inc.
Distribution Company
Paramount Pictures
Country
United States
Location
Death Valley, California, USA; Monterey, California, USA
Screenplay Information
Based on the novel The Authentic Death of Hendry Jones by Charles Neider (New York, 1956).

Technical Specs

Duration
2h 21m
Sound
Mono (Westrex Recording System)
Color
Color (Technicolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
1.85 : 1

Award Nominations

Best Cinematography

1961

Articles

One-Eyed Jacks


Marlon Brando's only film as director, One-Eyed Jacks (1961) was the Heaven's Gate of its day. Famously over-budget and overlong, this Western melodrama has, in recent years, earned critical praises as a psychologically fascinating and visually stunning entry into the genre. Based on the 1956 Charles Neider novel, The Authentic Death of Hendry Jones, the film draws heavily on the legend of Billy the Kid, particularly Billy's relationship to Pat Garrett. In this regard, it is interesting to note that the first to turn the novel into a screenplay was none other than Sam Peckinpah, who would go on to direct his own version of the story in 1973 entitled Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid starring Kris Kristofferson.

With Peckinpah's script, Pennebaker Productions (Brando's film company) approached the young Stanley Kubrick. Brando had been impressed with Kubrick's first two features, Killer's Kiss (1955) and The Killing (1956) and he was convinced that Kubrick was the right man for the job. "We've got to get Kubrick," he is reported to have said. Kubrick agreed to direct but insisted on a new script by Calder Willingham. Karl Malden signed on and the producer, Frank Rosenberg, went to Mexico to search for an actress to play the young love interest. He returned after signing Pina Pellicer for her first film role.

What happened next is less clear. Brando, Kubrick, Willingham, Rosenberg and Carlo Fiore (a friend of Brando's and an assistant on the film) met regularly up at Brando's home overlooking Coldwater Canyon. Brando required that all the men remove their shoes so as not to scratch the wood floor. Kubrick often removed his pants as well, choosing to work in nothing but his shirt and underwear. After many delays and many hours arguing up at Brando's house, Willingham left and was replaced by Guy Trosper. Brando and Kubrick repeatedly clashed over the issue of character development (it's probably safe to assume that Brando wanted more and Kubrick less), but things finally came to a head when Brando overheard Kubrick making a crack about an actress Brando was smitten with. Kubrick was immediately fired, though the official press release stated that he had resigned to work on Lolita.

With filming set to start in a month, Brando volunteered himself for the job of director. Paramount agreed, even though as Brando himself recounted in his 1994 autobiography, "I didn't know what to do." Five days into shooting, Brando was two weeks behind schedule, a neat mathematical trick. With a Method actor at the helm, actors were encouraged to improvise; one Paramount executive dubbed the film "Stanislavsky in the saddle." Stories circulated in the press about Brando's odd behavior (something that continues to this day). He insisted on getting drunk to film a scene in which he was supposed to act drunk, but he got too drunk to act or direct and so he insisted on repeating the process another day. Again he got too drunk to direct or act. Another time, Brando made everyone sit around while he waited for the "right" wave off the Monterey coast. According to the film's producer, Frank Rosenberg, Brando "pondered each camera set up while 120 members of the company sprawled on the ground like battle-weary troops, or gazed at the seals playing in the swelling seas." Throughout all this, Brando kept shooting. They eventually printed close to 250,000 feet of film (the average is 150,000). All this while utilizing the Vista-Vision process, which cost fifty cents a foot! In the end, the film, originally budgeted at $1.8 million, wound up with a price tag of $6 million.

Brando has called One-Eyed Jacks "one of my favorite pictures." But the ending was not what he intended. Brando's original edit of the film ran 4 hours and 42 minutes. He then, as he put it, "got pretty sick of it and turned the job over to someone else." After he walked away from the editing, the studio cut the picture down to a manageable 141 minutes and added a new ending, which was filmed almost a year after principal photography was completed. According to Brando: "I don't feel it's what I set out to do. In my film, everybody lied, even the girl. The only one who told the truth was the Karl Malden character. Paramount made him out to be the heavy, a liar . . . . Now the characters in the film are black and white, not gray and human as I planned them." How much of Brando's version is true is hard to tell as he has a notorious history of bad-mouthing his pictures just as they are about to be released.

This was the third and final pairing of Brando and Malden, marking the end of a memorable working relationship. Katy Jurado (High Noon [1952], Broken Lance [1954]) is terrific as Maria, Malden's wife, and, in her only US film appearance, Pina Pellicer is well cast in the role of Louisa. Sadly, after a brief film career in Mexico, she committed suicide at the age of 24. Slim Pickens is wonderful as the sadistic deputy sheriff. Brando also borrowed two actors from John Ford's stable: Ben Johnson and Hank Worden. And watch for a quick appearance by Elisha Cook Jr.

Brando claimed that he wanted to make a "frontal assault on the temple of cliches." But according to David Shipman, "you'd have to go back to William S. Hart to find a Western hero so lacking in heroic qualities." Indeed, many reviewers found the film oddly cliched itself. Time magazine, for instance, called it "A horse opera" and claimed it was "the usual melodrama of revenge." But the New York Times called it "extraordinary" and claimed, "It is as if it had been jointly directed by John Huston and Raoul Walsh." All reviewers, however, took note of the stunning cinematography by Charles Lang. Lang's use of color and the contrasting locations of Sonora, Mexico and Monterey, California make One-Eyed Jacks an aesthetic treat and well worth another look.

Producer: Frank P. Rosenberg
Director: Marlon Brando
Screenplay: Guy Trosper, Calder Willingham, based on a novel by Charles Neider
Art Direction: J. McMillan Johnson, Hal Pereira
Cinematography: Charles Lang
Costume Design: Yvonne Wood
Film Editing: Archie Marshek
Original Music: Hugo Friedhofer
Principal Cast: Marlon Brando (Rio), Karl Malden (Dad Longworth), Pina Pellicer (Louisa), Katy Jurado (Maria), Ben Johnson (Bob Amory), Slim Pickens (Deputy Lon Dedrick), Timothy Carey (Howard Tetley), Elisha Cook, Jr. (Carvey), Ray Teal (Barney), Larry Duran (Chico), Sam Gilman (Harvey Johnson).
C-142m. Letterboxed.

by Mark Frankel

One-Eyed Jacks

One-Eyed Jacks

Marlon Brando's only film as director, One-Eyed Jacks (1961) was the Heaven's Gate of its day. Famously over-budget and overlong, this Western melodrama has, in recent years, earned critical praises as a psychologically fascinating and visually stunning entry into the genre. Based on the 1956 Charles Neider novel, The Authentic Death of Hendry Jones, the film draws heavily on the legend of Billy the Kid, particularly Billy's relationship to Pat Garrett. In this regard, it is interesting to note that the first to turn the novel into a screenplay was none other than Sam Peckinpah, who would go on to direct his own version of the story in 1973 entitled Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid starring Kris Kristofferson. With Peckinpah's script, Pennebaker Productions (Brando's film company) approached the young Stanley Kubrick. Brando had been impressed with Kubrick's first two features, Killer's Kiss (1955) and The Killing (1956) and he was convinced that Kubrick was the right man for the job. "We've got to get Kubrick," he is reported to have said. Kubrick agreed to direct but insisted on a new script by Calder Willingham. Karl Malden signed on and the producer, Frank Rosenberg, went to Mexico to search for an actress to play the young love interest. He returned after signing Pina Pellicer for her first film role. What happened next is less clear. Brando, Kubrick, Willingham, Rosenberg and Carlo Fiore (a friend of Brando's and an assistant on the film) met regularly up at Brando's home overlooking Coldwater Canyon. Brando required that all the men remove their shoes so as not to scratch the wood floor. Kubrick often removed his pants as well, choosing to work in nothing but his shirt and underwear. After many delays and many hours arguing up at Brando's house, Willingham left and was replaced by Guy Trosper. Brando and Kubrick repeatedly clashed over the issue of character development (it's probably safe to assume that Brando wanted more and Kubrick less), but things finally came to a head when Brando overheard Kubrick making a crack about an actress Brando was smitten with. Kubrick was immediately fired, though the official press release stated that he had resigned to work on Lolita. With filming set to start in a month, Brando volunteered himself for the job of director. Paramount agreed, even though as Brando himself recounted in his 1994 autobiography, "I didn't know what to do." Five days into shooting, Brando was two weeks behind schedule, a neat mathematical trick. With a Method actor at the helm, actors were encouraged to improvise; one Paramount executive dubbed the film "Stanislavsky in the saddle." Stories circulated in the press about Brando's odd behavior (something that continues to this day). He insisted on getting drunk to film a scene in which he was supposed to act drunk, but he got too drunk to act or direct and so he insisted on repeating the process another day. Again he got too drunk to direct or act. Another time, Brando made everyone sit around while he waited for the "right" wave off the Monterey coast. According to the film's producer, Frank Rosenberg, Brando "pondered each camera set up while 120 members of the company sprawled on the ground like battle-weary troops, or gazed at the seals playing in the swelling seas." Throughout all this, Brando kept shooting. They eventually printed close to 250,000 feet of film (the average is 150,000). All this while utilizing the Vista-Vision process, which cost fifty cents a foot! In the end, the film, originally budgeted at $1.8 million, wound up with a price tag of $6 million. Brando has called One-Eyed Jacks "one of my favorite pictures." But the ending was not what he intended. Brando's original edit of the film ran 4 hours and 42 minutes. He then, as he put it, "got pretty sick of it and turned the job over to someone else." After he walked away from the editing, the studio cut the picture down to a manageable 141 minutes and added a new ending, which was filmed almost a year after principal photography was completed. According to Brando: "I don't feel it's what I set out to do. In my film, everybody lied, even the girl. The only one who told the truth was the Karl Malden character. Paramount made him out to be the heavy, a liar . . . . Now the characters in the film are black and white, not gray and human as I planned them." How much of Brando's version is true is hard to tell as he has a notorious history of bad-mouthing his pictures just as they are about to be released. This was the third and final pairing of Brando and Malden, marking the end of a memorable working relationship. Katy Jurado (High Noon [1952], Broken Lance [1954]) is terrific as Maria, Malden's wife, and, in her only US film appearance, Pina Pellicer is well cast in the role of Louisa. Sadly, after a brief film career in Mexico, she committed suicide at the age of 24. Slim Pickens is wonderful as the sadistic deputy sheriff. Brando also borrowed two actors from John Ford's stable: Ben Johnson and Hank Worden. And watch for a quick appearance by Elisha Cook Jr. Brando claimed that he wanted to make a "frontal assault on the temple of cliches." But according to David Shipman, "you'd have to go back to William S. Hart to find a Western hero so lacking in heroic qualities." Indeed, many reviewers found the film oddly cliched itself. Time magazine, for instance, called it "A horse opera" and claimed it was "the usual melodrama of revenge." But the New York Times called it "extraordinary" and claimed, "It is as if it had been jointly directed by John Huston and Raoul Walsh." All reviewers, however, took note of the stunning cinematography by Charles Lang. Lang's use of color and the contrasting locations of Sonora, Mexico and Monterey, California make One-Eyed Jacks an aesthetic treat and well worth another look. Producer: Frank P. Rosenberg Director: Marlon Brando Screenplay: Guy Trosper, Calder Willingham, based on a novel by Charles Neider Art Direction: J. McMillan Johnson, Hal Pereira Cinematography: Charles Lang Costume Design: Yvonne Wood Film Editing: Archie Marshek Original Music: Hugo Friedhofer Principal Cast: Marlon Brando (Rio), Karl Malden (Dad Longworth), Pina Pellicer (Louisa), Katy Jurado (Maria), Ben Johnson (Bob Amory), Slim Pickens (Deputy Lon Dedrick), Timothy Carey (Howard Tetley), Elisha Cook, Jr. (Carvey), Ray Teal (Barney), Larry Duran (Chico), Sam Gilman (Harvey Johnson). C-142m. Letterboxed. by Mark Frankel

TCM Remembers - Katy Jurado


KATY JURADO, 1924 - 2002

Katy Jurado, an Oscar nominee and major actress in Westerns, died July 5th at the age of 78. She was born in Guadalajara, Mexico on January 16th 1924 as Maria Cristina Estella Marcela Jurado Garcia, daughter of a cattle rancher and an opera singer. Jurado started to appear in Mexican films in 1943. After 15 films in her native country, director Budd Boetticher saw Jurado attending a bullfight (Jurado wrote about the subject for Mexican newspapers) and cast her in his Bullfighter and the Lady (1952), her Hollywood debut. For much of her career Jurado alternated between the two film industries. In the US, she was memorable for the sensual energy she brought to roles in High Noon (1952), One-Eyed Jacks (1961) which was directed by Marlon Brando, Sam Peckinpah's Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid (1973) and John Huston's Under the Volcano (1984). She was nominated for an Oscar as Best Supporting Actress for Broken Lance (1954). Jurado's Mexican films were in a broader range of genres and included Luis Bunuel's El Bruto (1952), Ismael Rodriguez's We the Poor and Miguel Littin's The Widow Montiel (1979). She won three Ariel Awards (Mexican equivalent to the Oscars) and one special award. She was married to Ernest Borgnine from the end of 1959 to summer 1963. One of her final films was The Hi-Lo Country (1998), a contemporary Western directed by Stephen Frears and co-starring Woody Harrelson, Billy Crudup and Penelope Cruz.

by Lang Thompson

DOLORES GRAY, 1924 - 2002

Broadway and nightclub star Dolores Gray died June 26th at the age of 78. Her movie career was brief but consisted of high-profile MGM musicals which guaranteed her a place in film history. Gray was born in Chicago on June 7th, 1924 (and where, according to a common story, she was accidentally shot by a gangster as a child and had a bullet in her lung her entire life). As a teenager she began singing in California until Rudy Vallee featured her on his radio show. Gray moved to Broadway in 1944 and then to the London stage in 1947, solidifying her reputation as a singer/actress while constantly giving the gossip columnists plenty to write about. She had two small singing roles in Lady for a Night (1941) and Mr. Skeffington (1944) but didn't really light up the big screen until It's Always Fair Weather (1955) even though Gray reportedly didn't much care for the role. Her rendition of "Thanks a Lot, But No Thanks," which has her gunning down a slew of male dancers on-stage and kicking them through trap doors, is a genuine showstopper. Three more unforgettable musical roles quickly followed: Kismet (1955), The Opposite Sex (1956, which Gray turned down Funny Face to do) and Designing Women (1957). That was it for Gray's film career. She kept busy with TV appearances (mostly singing though she did one 1988 episode of the cult show Dr. Who) and a busy recording and nightclub schedule. In 1987, she appeared in a British production of Follies at Stephen Sondheim's request.

by Lang Thompson

ROD STEIGER, 1925 - 2002

From the docks of New York to the rural back roads of Mississippi to the war torn Russian steppes, Rod Steiger reveled in creating some of the most overpowering and difficult men on the screen. He could be a total scoundrel, embodying Machiavelli's idiom that "it's better to be feared than loved" in the movies. But as an actor he refused to be typecast and his wide range included characters who were secretly tormented (The Pawnbroker, 1965) or loners (Run of the Arrow, 1965) or eccentrics (The Loved One, 1965).

Along with Marlon Brando, Steiger helped bring the 'Method School' from the Group Theater and Actors Studio in New York to the screens of Hollywood. The Method technique, taught by Stella Adler and Lee Strasberg, insisted on complete immersion into the character's psyche and resulted in intense, dramatic performances and performers. Steiger made his first significant screen appearance as Brando's older brother in On the Waterfront (1954). Their climatic scene together in a taxicab is one of the great moments in American cinema.

It was a short leap from playing a crooked lawyer in On the Waterfront to playing the shady boxing promoter in The Harder They Fall (1956). Based on the tragic tale of true-life fighter Primo Carnera, The Harder They Fall details the corruption behind the scenes of professional boxing bouts. Steiger is a fight manager named Nick Benko who enlists newspaperman Eddie Willis (Humphrey Bogart in his final screen appearance) to drum up publicity for a fixed prizefight. While the boxing scenes were often brutally realistic, the most powerful dramatic moments took place between Steiger and Bogart on the sidelines.

As mob boss Al Capone (1959), Steiger got to play another man you loved to hate. He vividly depicted the criminal from his swaggering early days to his pathetic demise from syphilis. In Doctor Zhivago (1965), Steiger was the only American in the international cast, playing the hateful and perverse Komarovsky. During the production of Dr. Zhivago, Steiger often found himself at odds with director David Lean. Schooled in the British tradition, Lean valued the integrity of the script and demanded that actors remain faithful to the script. Steiger, on the other hand, relied on improvisation and spontaneity. When kissing the lovely Lara (played by Julie Christie), Steiger jammed his tongue into Christie's mouth to produce the desired reaction - disgust. It worked! While it might not have been Lean's approach, it brought a grittier edge to the prestige production and made Komarovsky is a detestable but truly memorable figure.

Steiger dared audiences to dislike him. As the smalltown southern Sheriff Gillespie in In The Heat of the Night (1967), Steiger embodied all the prejudices and suspicions of a racist. When a black northern lawyer, played by Sidney Poitier, arrives on the crime scene, Gillespie is forced to recognize his fellow man as an equal despite skin color. Here, Steiger's character started as a bigot and developed into a better man. He finally claimed a Best Actor Academy Award for his performance as Sheriff Gillespie.

Steiger was an actor's actor. A chameleon who didn't think twice about diving into challenging roles that others would shy away from. In the Private Screenings interview he did with host Robert Osborne he admitted that Paul Muni was one of his idols because of his total immersion into his roles. Steiger said, "I believe actors are supposed to create different human beings." And Steiger showed us a rich and diverse cross section of them.

by Jeremy Geltzer & Jeff Stafford

TCM Remembers - Katy Jurado

KATY JURADO, 1924 - 2002 Katy Jurado, an Oscar nominee and major actress in Westerns, died July 5th at the age of 78. She was born in Guadalajara, Mexico on January 16th 1924 as Maria Cristina Estella Marcela Jurado Garcia, daughter of a cattle rancher and an opera singer. Jurado started to appear in Mexican films in 1943. After 15 films in her native country, director Budd Boetticher saw Jurado attending a bullfight (Jurado wrote about the subject for Mexican newspapers) and cast her in his Bullfighter and the Lady (1952), her Hollywood debut. For much of her career Jurado alternated between the two film industries. In the US, she was memorable for the sensual energy she brought to roles in High Noon (1952), One-Eyed Jacks (1961) which was directed by Marlon Brando, Sam Peckinpah's Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid (1973) and John Huston's Under the Volcano (1984). She was nominated for an Oscar as Best Supporting Actress for Broken Lance (1954). Jurado's Mexican films were in a broader range of genres and included Luis Bunuel's El Bruto (1952), Ismael Rodriguez's We the Poor and Miguel Littin's The Widow Montiel (1979). She won three Ariel Awards (Mexican equivalent to the Oscars) and one special award. She was married to Ernest Borgnine from the end of 1959 to summer 1963. One of her final films was The Hi-Lo Country (1998), a contemporary Western directed by Stephen Frears and co-starring Woody Harrelson, Billy Crudup and Penelope Cruz. by Lang Thompson DOLORES GRAY, 1924 - 2002 Broadway and nightclub star Dolores Gray died June 26th at the age of 78. Her movie career was brief but consisted of high-profile MGM musicals which guaranteed her a place in film history. Gray was born in Chicago on June 7th, 1924 (and where, according to a common story, she was accidentally shot by a gangster as a child and had a bullet in her lung her entire life). As a teenager she began singing in California until Rudy Vallee featured her on his radio show. Gray moved to Broadway in 1944 and then to the London stage in 1947, solidifying her reputation as a singer/actress while constantly giving the gossip columnists plenty to write about. She had two small singing roles in Lady for a Night (1941) and Mr. Skeffington (1944) but didn't really light up the big screen until It's Always Fair Weather (1955) even though Gray reportedly didn't much care for the role. Her rendition of "Thanks a Lot, But No Thanks," which has her gunning down a slew of male dancers on-stage and kicking them through trap doors, is a genuine showstopper. Three more unforgettable musical roles quickly followed: Kismet (1955), The Opposite Sex (1956, which Gray turned down Funny Face to do) and Designing Women (1957). That was it for Gray's film career. She kept busy with TV appearances (mostly singing though she did one 1988 episode of the cult show Dr. Who) and a busy recording and nightclub schedule. In 1987, she appeared in a British production of Follies at Stephen Sondheim's request. by Lang Thompson ROD STEIGER, 1925 - 2002 From the docks of New York to the rural back roads of Mississippi to the war torn Russian steppes, Rod Steiger reveled in creating some of the most overpowering and difficult men on the screen. He could be a total scoundrel, embodying Machiavelli's idiom that "it's better to be feared than loved" in the movies. But as an actor he refused to be typecast and his wide range included characters who were secretly tormented (The Pawnbroker, 1965) or loners (Run of the Arrow, 1965) or eccentrics (The Loved One, 1965). Along with Marlon Brando, Steiger helped bring the 'Method School' from the Group Theater and Actors Studio in New York to the screens of Hollywood. The Method technique, taught by Stella Adler and Lee Strasberg, insisted on complete immersion into the character's psyche and resulted in intense, dramatic performances and performers. Steiger made his first significant screen appearance as Brando's older brother in On the Waterfront (1954). Their climatic scene together in a taxicab is one of the great moments in American cinema. It was a short leap from playing a crooked lawyer in On the Waterfront to playing the shady boxing promoter in The Harder They Fall (1956). Based on the tragic tale of true-life fighter Primo Carnera, The Harder They Fall details the corruption behind the scenes of professional boxing bouts. Steiger is a fight manager named Nick Benko who enlists newspaperman Eddie Willis (Humphrey Bogart in his final screen appearance) to drum up publicity for a fixed prizefight. While the boxing scenes were often brutally realistic, the most powerful dramatic moments took place between Steiger and Bogart on the sidelines. As mob boss Al Capone (1959), Steiger got to play another man you loved to hate. He vividly depicted the criminal from his swaggering early days to his pathetic demise from syphilis. In Doctor Zhivago (1965), Steiger was the only American in the international cast, playing the hateful and perverse Komarovsky. During the production of Dr. Zhivago, Steiger often found himself at odds with director David Lean. Schooled in the British tradition, Lean valued the integrity of the script and demanded that actors remain faithful to the script. Steiger, on the other hand, relied on improvisation and spontaneity. When kissing the lovely Lara (played by Julie Christie), Steiger jammed his tongue into Christie's mouth to produce the desired reaction - disgust. It worked! While it might not have been Lean's approach, it brought a grittier edge to the prestige production and made Komarovsky is a detestable but truly memorable figure. Steiger dared audiences to dislike him. As the smalltown southern Sheriff Gillespie in In The Heat of the Night (1967), Steiger embodied all the prejudices and suspicions of a racist. When a black northern lawyer, played by Sidney Poitier, arrives on the crime scene, Gillespie is forced to recognize his fellow man as an equal despite skin color. Here, Steiger's character started as a bigot and developed into a better man. He finally claimed a Best Actor Academy Award for his performance as Sheriff Gillespie. Steiger was an actor's actor. A chameleon who didn't think twice about diving into challenging roles that others would shy away from. In the Private Screenings interview he did with host Robert Osborne he admitted that Paul Muni was one of his idols because of his total immersion into his roles. Steiger said, "I believe actors are supposed to create different human beings." And Steiger showed us a rich and diverse cross section of them. by Jeremy Geltzer & Jeff Stafford

Quotes

We brought you along because you're supposed to be the big man with the iron; but I think now I could even out pull you.
- Bob
You're probably right, Bob. You probably could put six in me by the time I put that one into you.
- Rio
You got a lot of guts, ain't you kid?
- Deputy Lon Dedrick
You're the one with the gut Lon.
- Rio
You've been tryin' to get yourself hung for the last fifteen years Kid. This time I think you might have made it.
- Longworth
What about Longworth?
- Bob
Nothin' about him. In the mornin' I'll kill him and then we'll rob that bank.
- Rio
You may be a one eyed jack around here, but I've seen the other side of your face.
- Rio

Trivia

Marlon Brando replaced Stanley Kubrick as director.

Paramount's last release in VistaVision.

After buying the rights to the novel, producer Frank P. Rosenberg worked on the first draft of the script together with Rod Serling. Sam Peckinpah was then hired to rewrite it. A complex deal was then made where money earlier spent attempting to develop Louis L'Amour's novel "To Tame a Land" into a film was allocated for accounting purposes to this film, and Stanley Kubrick was hired as director. Kubrick fired Peckinpah and brought in Calder Willingham for more rewriting, but later Rosenberg fired him and hired Guy Trosper instead.

Brando's inexperience behind the camera was obvious on set. He shot six times the amount of footage normally used for a film at the time. He was indecisive and ran extremely overlong in getting the film finished. Paramount eventually took the film away from him and recut it themselves.

Notes

Location scenes filmed in Monterey and Death Valley, California. Stanley Kubrick began directing the film but was replaced by Brando shortly after shooting began.

Miscellaneous Notes

Released in United States August 1997

Released in United States January 1996

Released in United States March 1976

Released in United States Winter December 31, 1960

Shown at Locarno International Film Festival (50 Years of American Film) August 6-16, 1997.

Stanley Kubrick was the original director, but replaced by Brando early in the filming.

Re-released in Paris April 30, 1991.

VistaVision

Released in United States January 1996 (Shown in New York City (American Museum of the Moving Image) as part of program "Fairy Tales For Adults: A Terry Gilliam Retrospective" January 6-21, 1996.)

Released in United States March 1976 (Shown at FILMEX: Los Angeles International Film Exposition (The 48-Hour Cowboy Movie Marathon) March 18-31, 1976.)

Released in United States August 1997 (Shown at Locarno International Film Festival (50 Years of American Film) August 6-16, 1997.)

Released in United States Winter December 31, 1960