We're No Angels


1h 46m 1955
We're No Angels

Brief Synopsis

After escaping Devil's Island, three offbeat prisoners help a goodhearted family outwit a scheming relative.

Film Details

Also Known As
Angels Cooking
Genre
Comedy
Crime
Adaptation
Release Date
Jul 1955
Premiere Information
New York opening: 7 Jul 1955; Los Angeles opening: week of 20 Jul 1955
Production Company
Paramount Pictures Corp.
Distribution Company
Paramount Pictures Corp.
Country
United States
Screenplay Information
Based on the play La cuisine des anges by Albert Husson (Paris, 12 Feb 1952).

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 46m
Sound
Mono
Color
Color (Technicolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
1.96 : 1
Film Length
12 reels

Synopsis

On Christmas Eve, 1895, on French-controlled Devil's Island, where trustees of the penal colony are allowed to roam free, three escaped convicts¿swindler Joseph and murderers Albert and Jules¿plot ways to board a Paris-bound ship anchored offshore. Penniless and still wearing their prison garb, the convicts are approached by Arnaud, the ship's young medical officer, who asks for directions. While chatting with Arnaud, Jules, a former safecracker, picks his pockets and inadvertently steals a letter addressed to Felix Ducotel, the local general store proprietor. The three decide to deliver the letter, and rob the store, and are delighted when the absent-minded, kindly Felix assumes they are convict laborers and hires them to fix his leaky roof. Once on the roof, the convicts eavesdrop on Felix and his wife Amelie as they discuss Felix's cousin, Andre Trochard, the store's owner. Amelie despises Andre for using his wealth to control the financially strapped Felix and threatening to fire him if the store fails to show a profit. Amelie also bemoans the fact that their impressionable eighteen-year-old daughter Isabelle is in love with Paul, Andre's nephew and heir, who lives in Paris with his uncle, as she knows that Andre will never approve the match. When Isabelle asks her father about the still unopened letter, Felix realizes it is from Andre and panics. After reading that Andre has been quarantined on the ship and is demanding that Felix secure his release, Felix scurries to the dock. Isabelle then reads the letter and faints. Seeing her prostrate, the convicts jump down from the roof and also read the letter. The men explain to a bemused Amelie that Isabelle fainted upon reading Andre's announcement that Paul is to marry the daughter of a rich business acquaintance. While young Albert carries the unconscious Isabelle to her room, Joseph blithely talks a bald man into buying an expensive comb and brush set from the store and inspects Felix's account books. Although Jules and Albert begin to question their plan to rob and kill the Ducotels, Joseph insists they need money to escape. Joseph proceeds to sell an expensive coat for Felix, and Felix and Amelie, touched by the convicts' apparent concern, invite them for Christmas Eve dinner. Joseph then dashes out and steals a turkey and other items for the meal, while Albert, who was jailed for killing his uncle over money, encourages Isabelle not to give up on Paul. Buoyed by Albert's flattery, Isabelle tells the convicts they are like the three angels on her favorite Christmas tree decoration. That night after dinner, a grateful Felix gives the men some cash, and Albert and Jules again wonder if they can go through with their plan. Just then, Andre and Paul show up, having been released from the ship, and Andre declares that he has come to inspect Felix's books and check the store's inventory. Before retiring, the snide and suspicious Andre also tells Felix that Isabelle, who he assumes is after his money, cannot marry Paul. After lying to Andre that the store is making money, Joseph begs Felix to allow him to fix the books to show a profit. Felix is about to agree when Andre reappears, demanding to check the books that night. Although Joseph and Jules are now ready to give up and leave, Albert convinces them to stay to help Isabelle with Paul. Joseph forges a note from Paul to Isabelle, begging her to meet him in the garden, then he and Jules cajole Paul into talking to her. Isabelle tries to convince Paul to defy his uncle and marry her, but as soon as Andre catches them together and orders Paul to look at Felix's books, the spineless Paul acquiesces. Infuriated by Andre's accusations and bullying, the convicts conduct a mock trial, and Joseph condemns Andre to death. Joseph immediately changes his mind, but just then, Andre bursts in, yelling about missing store inventory. Andre grabs a decorative box he believes Albert has stolen and retreats to his bedroom, dismissing Albert's warning that the box contains his poisonous pet viper Adolphe. Feeling that fate has intervened, the convicts make no further moves until morning. The next day, after entering Andre's bedroom and finding him dead from a snake bite, Joseph forges a will leaving half of Andre's estate to Felix and tries to get various family members to discover the body. At the same time, Albert and Jules search all over for the now missing Adolphe. Paul finally finds his uncle's body and, barely hiding his glee, burns Joseph's forged will, thereby assuring he will inherit everything. Paul then returns to his uncle's room and is bitten by Adolphe, who was hiding in Andre's pocket. The convicts escort the dying Paul to the summer house, where he is later discovered by Isabelle. At that moment, officer Arnaud, representing the board of health, arrives, having been summoned by Amelie and Felix. After making sure that Isabelle and the handsome Arnaud meet, the convicts steal some suits and bid the Ducotels farewell. At the dock, however, they realize they have become a little too "angelic" to escape, conclude they would soon be caught any way and head back to prison.

Film Details

Also Known As
Angels Cooking
Genre
Comedy
Crime
Adaptation
Release Date
Jul 1955
Premiere Information
New York opening: 7 Jul 1955; Los Angeles opening: week of 20 Jul 1955
Production Company
Paramount Pictures Corp.
Distribution Company
Paramount Pictures Corp.
Country
United States
Screenplay Information
Based on the play La cuisine des anges by Albert Husson (Paris, 12 Feb 1952).

Technical Specs

Duration
1h 46m
Sound
Mono
Color
Color (Technicolor)
Theatrical Aspect Ratio
1.96 : 1
Film Length
12 reels

Articles

We're No Angels (1955)


In 1955, two key talents of the Warner Brothers studio system collaborated for the fourth time; actor Humphrey Bogart and director Michael Curtiz. Their first effort for the studio resulted in Angels with Dirty Faces (1938), a picture that cemented Bogey's reputation as the "No. 1 Bad Boy." Casablanca followed in 1942, capturing the Best Director Oscar for Curtiz and securing film immortality. And their third collaboration was Passage to Marseille (1944), a combination war film and prison escape thriller. So it only makes sense that their final film together would be . . .a light holiday comedy?

Curtiz and Bogart picked We're No Angels (1955), a story of three escaped convicts from Devil's Island, that was based on the French play La Cuisine des Anges by Albert Husson. An atypical outing for both Bogart and Curtiz, We're No Angels begins with the prison escapees planning to rob and murder husband and wife shopkeepers. However, they quickly reason that "cutting their throats might spoil their Christmas," so the men decide instead to get the financially unstable store back on track by fixing the place up and bringing in more customers. As business begins to boom, Andre Trochard, the owner of the store, arrives on the scene with some greedy schemes of his own. Throw in a deadly snake named Adolph (one of the convict's pet), and the fun begins.

Bogart plays Joseph, ringleader of the convicts. He is joined by Peter Ustinov as Jules and Aldo Ray rounds out the group as Albert, the snake's owner. Ustinov had just completed The Egyptian (1954), also directed by Curtiz, and both men were looking forward to working together again. On the set, Ustinov and Bogart would become good friends as well, although Humphrey was prone to childish pranks like putting raw liver in his colleague's shoes, something Peter understandably did not find hilarious. Although Ustinov remembers filming fondly, he was rapidly tiring of Hollywood, comparing it to "a gigantic World's Fair they haven't had time to tear down."

The fastidious Curtiz was also a target for Bogart's amusement, falling for fake dog poop in his trailer. Sophomoric hijinks aside, however, Curtiz sought to further diversify his repertoire by tackling the comedy genre with We're No Angels and for the most part, he succeeds; Ustinov's impeccable comic timing flourishes under his direction and even Bogey's sneer softens to a smile. Basil Rathbone plays the sinister storeowner with glee, a delightful parody of the villain roles he performed prior to his Sherlock Holmes typecasting. And Joan Bennett is particularly memorable as the kindly shopkeeper wife. Bennett, best known as Spencer Tracy's wife in Father of the Bride (1950), had been away from the screen for almost three years after being embroiled in a scandal that effectively blackballed her from Hollywood. In 1951 her husband, producer Walter Wanger shot her lover and agent Jennings Lang in a jealous rage. When the smoke (literally) cleared, Bennett was painted as the antagonist in the lover's triangle and quickly shunned by film society. Bogart, a long-time friend, came through for his fallen colleague with the role in We're No Angels.

Many of Curtiz's films share a common theme, that of outsiders in an unknown environment. The convicts in We're No Angels are certainly in unchartered territory, but the premise also shares real-life parallels with some of the cast and crew. For Curtiz, it was an attempt to try something different within the rigid formula world of Warner Brothers. For Bogart, it was a break from the rough, hardened characters he previously played and a chance to have fun. And for Bennett, it was a cherished opportunity to participate once again in her chosen profession.

Producer: Pat Duggan
Director: Michael Curtiz
Screenplay: Ranald MacDougall
Production Design: Sam Comer, Grace Gregory
Cinematography: Loyal Griggs
Costume Design: Mary Grant
Film Editing: Arthur P. Schmidt
Original Music: Frederick Hollander
Principal Cast: Humphrey Bogart (Joseph), Aldo Ray (Albert), Peter Ustinov (Jules), Joan Bennett (Amelie Ducotel), Basil Rathbone (Andre Trochard), Leo G. Carroll (Felix Ducotel), Gloria Talbott (Isabelle Ducotel).
C-106m. Closed captioning.

by Eleanor Quin

We're No Angels (1955)

We're No Angels (1955)

In 1955, two key talents of the Warner Brothers studio system collaborated for the fourth time; actor Humphrey Bogart and director Michael Curtiz. Their first effort for the studio resulted in Angels with Dirty Faces (1938), a picture that cemented Bogey's reputation as the "No. 1 Bad Boy." Casablanca followed in 1942, capturing the Best Director Oscar for Curtiz and securing film immortality. And their third collaboration was Passage to Marseille (1944), a combination war film and prison escape thriller. So it only makes sense that their final film together would be . . .a light holiday comedy? Curtiz and Bogart picked We're No Angels (1955), a story of three escaped convicts from Devil's Island, that was based on the French play La Cuisine des Anges by Albert Husson. An atypical outing for both Bogart and Curtiz, We're No Angels begins with the prison escapees planning to rob and murder husband and wife shopkeepers. However, they quickly reason that "cutting their throats might spoil their Christmas," so the men decide instead to get the financially unstable store back on track by fixing the place up and bringing in more customers. As business begins to boom, Andre Trochard, the owner of the store, arrives on the scene with some greedy schemes of his own. Throw in a deadly snake named Adolph (one of the convict's pet), and the fun begins. Bogart plays Joseph, ringleader of the convicts. He is joined by Peter Ustinov as Jules and Aldo Ray rounds out the group as Albert, the snake's owner. Ustinov had just completed The Egyptian (1954), also directed by Curtiz, and both men were looking forward to working together again. On the set, Ustinov and Bogart would become good friends as well, although Humphrey was prone to childish pranks like putting raw liver in his colleague's shoes, something Peter understandably did not find hilarious. Although Ustinov remembers filming fondly, he was rapidly tiring of Hollywood, comparing it to "a gigantic World's Fair they haven't had time to tear down." The fastidious Curtiz was also a target for Bogart's amusement, falling for fake dog poop in his trailer. Sophomoric hijinks aside, however, Curtiz sought to further diversify his repertoire by tackling the comedy genre with We're No Angels and for the most part, he succeeds; Ustinov's impeccable comic timing flourishes under his direction and even Bogey's sneer softens to a smile. Basil Rathbone plays the sinister storeowner with glee, a delightful parody of the villain roles he performed prior to his Sherlock Holmes typecasting. And Joan Bennett is particularly memorable as the kindly shopkeeper wife. Bennett, best known as Spencer Tracy's wife in Father of the Bride (1950), had been away from the screen for almost three years after being embroiled in a scandal that effectively blackballed her from Hollywood. In 1951 her husband, producer Walter Wanger shot her lover and agent Jennings Lang in a jealous rage. When the smoke (literally) cleared, Bennett was painted as the antagonist in the lover's triangle and quickly shunned by film society. Bogart, a long-time friend, came through for his fallen colleague with the role in We're No Angels. Many of Curtiz's films share a common theme, that of outsiders in an unknown environment. The convicts in We're No Angels are certainly in unchartered territory, but the premise also shares real-life parallels with some of the cast and crew. For Curtiz, it was an attempt to try something different within the rigid formula world of Warner Brothers. For Bogart, it was a break from the rough, hardened characters he previously played and a chance to have fun. And for Bennett, it was a cherished opportunity to participate once again in her chosen profession. Producer: Pat Duggan Director: Michael Curtiz Screenplay: Ranald MacDougall Production Design: Sam Comer, Grace Gregory Cinematography: Loyal Griggs Costume Design: Mary Grant Film Editing: Arthur P. Schmidt Original Music: Frederick Hollander Principal Cast: Humphrey Bogart (Joseph), Aldo Ray (Albert), Peter Ustinov (Jules), Joan Bennett (Amelie Ducotel), Basil Rathbone (Andre Trochard), Leo G. Carroll (Felix Ducotel), Gloria Talbott (Isabelle Ducotel). C-106m. Closed captioning. by Eleanor Quin

Sir Peter Ustinov (1921-2004)


Sir Peter Ustinov, the witty, multi-talented actor, director and writer whose 60-year career in entertainment included two Best Supporting Actor Oscars® for his memorable character turns in the films Spartacus and Topkapi, died of heart failure on March 28 at a clinic in Genolier, Switzerland. He was 82.

He was born Peter Alexander Ustinov on April 16, 1921 in London, England. His father was a press attache at the German embassy until 1935 - when disgusted by the Nazi regime - he took out British nationality. He attended Westminster School, an exclusive private school in central London until he was 16. He then enrolled for acting classes at the London Theater Studio, and by 1939, he made his London stage debut.

His jovial nature and strong gift for dialects made him a natural player for films, and it wasn't long after finding theatre work that Ustinov moved into motion pictures: a Dutch priest in Michael Powell's One of Our Aircraft is Missing (1941); an elderly Czech professor in Let the People Sing (1942); and a star pupil of a Nazi spy school in The Goose Steps Out (1942).

He served in the British Army for four years (1942-46), where he found his talents well utilized by the military, allowing him to join the director Sir Carol Reed on some propaganda films. He eventually earned his first screenwriting credit for The Way Ahead (1944). One of Sir Carol Reed's best films, The Way Ahead was a thrilling drama which starred David Niven as a civilian heading up a group of locals to resist an oncoming Nazi unit. It was enough of a hit to earn Ustinov his first film directorial assignment, School for Secrets (1946), a well paced drama about the discovery of radar starring Sir Ralph Richardson and Sir Richard Attenborough.

After the war, Ustinov took on another writer-director project Vice Versa (1948), a whimsical fantasy-comedy starring Roger Livesey and Anthony Newley as a father and son who magically switch personalities. Although not a huge hit of its day, the sheer buoyancy of the surreal premise has earned the film a large cult following.

Ustinov made his Hollywood debut, and garnered his first Oscar® nomination for Best Supporting Actor, as an indolent Nero in the Roman epic, Quo Vadis? (1951). After achieving some international popularity with that role, Ustinov gave some top-notch performances in quality films: the snappish Prinny in the Stewart Granger vehicle Beau Brummel (1954); holding his own against Humphrey Bogart as an escaped convict in We're No Angels (1954); the ring master who presides over the life of the lead character in Max Ophuls's resplendent Lola Montez (1955); and a garrulous settler coping with the Australian outback in The Sundowners (1960).

The '60s would be Ustinov's most fruitful decade. He started off gabbing his first Oscar® as the cunning slave dealer in Spartacus (1960); made a smooth screen adaptation by directing his smash play, Romanoff and Juliet (1961), earned critical acclaim for his co-adaptation, direction, production and performance in Herman Melville's nautical classic Billy Budd (1962); and earned a second Oscar® as the fumbling jewel thief in the crime comedy Topkapi (1964).

He scored another Oscar® nomination in the Best Original Screenplay category for his airy, clever crime romp Hot Millions (1968), in which he played a con artist who uses a computer to bilk a company out of millions of dollars; but after that, Ustinov began taking a string of offbeat character parts: the lead in one of Disney's better kiddie flicks Blackbeard's Ghost (1968); a Mexican General who wants to reclaim Texas for Mexico in Viva Max! (1969); an old man who survives the ravaged planet of the future in Logan's Run (1976); and an unfortunate turn as a Chinese stereotype in Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen (1981). Still, he did achieve renewed popularity when he took on the role of Hercule Poirot in the star laced, Agatha Christie extravaganza Death on the Nile (1978). He was such a hit, that he would adroitly play the Belgian detective in two more theatrical movies: Evil Under the Sun (1982) and Appointment With Death (1988); as well as three television movies: Thirteen at Dinner (1985), Murder in Three Acts, Dead Man's Folly (both 1986).

Beyond his work in films, Ustinov was justifiably praised for his humanitarian work - most notably as the unpaid, goodwill ambassador for United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Since 1968, he had traveled to all corners of the globe: China, Russia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Kenya, Egypt, Thailand and numerous other countries to promote and host many benefit concerts for the agency.

Ustinov, who in 1990 earned a knighthood for his artistic and humanitarian contributions, is survived by his wife of 32 years, Hélène du Lau d'Allemans; three daughters, Tamara, Pavla, Andrea; and a son, Igor.

by Michael T. Toole

Sir Peter Ustinov (1921-2004)

Sir Peter Ustinov, the witty, multi-talented actor, director and writer whose 60-year career in entertainment included two Best Supporting Actor Oscars® for his memorable character turns in the films Spartacus and Topkapi, died of heart failure on March 28 at a clinic in Genolier, Switzerland. He was 82. He was born Peter Alexander Ustinov on April 16, 1921 in London, England. His father was a press attache at the German embassy until 1935 - when disgusted by the Nazi regime - he took out British nationality. He attended Westminster School, an exclusive private school in central London until he was 16. He then enrolled for acting classes at the London Theater Studio, and by 1939, he made his London stage debut. His jovial nature and strong gift for dialects made him a natural player for films, and it wasn't long after finding theatre work that Ustinov moved into motion pictures: a Dutch priest in Michael Powell's One of Our Aircraft is Missing (1941); an elderly Czech professor in Let the People Sing (1942); and a star pupil of a Nazi spy school in The Goose Steps Out (1942). He served in the British Army for four years (1942-46), where he found his talents well utilized by the military, allowing him to join the director Sir Carol Reed on some propaganda films. He eventually earned his first screenwriting credit for The Way Ahead (1944). One of Sir Carol Reed's best films, The Way Ahead was a thrilling drama which starred David Niven as a civilian heading up a group of locals to resist an oncoming Nazi unit. It was enough of a hit to earn Ustinov his first film directorial assignment, School for Secrets (1946), a well paced drama about the discovery of radar starring Sir Ralph Richardson and Sir Richard Attenborough. After the war, Ustinov took on another writer-director project Vice Versa (1948), a whimsical fantasy-comedy starring Roger Livesey and Anthony Newley as a father and son who magically switch personalities. Although not a huge hit of its day, the sheer buoyancy of the surreal premise has earned the film a large cult following. Ustinov made his Hollywood debut, and garnered his first Oscar® nomination for Best Supporting Actor, as an indolent Nero in the Roman epic, Quo Vadis? (1951). After achieving some international popularity with that role, Ustinov gave some top-notch performances in quality films: the snappish Prinny in the Stewart Granger vehicle Beau Brummel (1954); holding his own against Humphrey Bogart as an escaped convict in We're No Angels (1954); the ring master who presides over the life of the lead character in Max Ophuls's resplendent Lola Montez (1955); and a garrulous settler coping with the Australian outback in The Sundowners (1960). The '60s would be Ustinov's most fruitful decade. He started off gabbing his first Oscar® as the cunning slave dealer in Spartacus (1960); made a smooth screen adaptation by directing his smash play, Romanoff and Juliet (1961), earned critical acclaim for his co-adaptation, direction, production and performance in Herman Melville's nautical classic Billy Budd (1962); and earned a second Oscar® as the fumbling jewel thief in the crime comedy Topkapi (1964). He scored another Oscar® nomination in the Best Original Screenplay category for his airy, clever crime romp Hot Millions (1968), in which he played a con artist who uses a computer to bilk a company out of millions of dollars; but after that, Ustinov began taking a string of offbeat character parts: the lead in one of Disney's better kiddie flicks Blackbeard's Ghost (1968); a Mexican General who wants to reclaim Texas for Mexico in Viva Max! (1969); an old man who survives the ravaged planet of the future in Logan's Run (1976); and an unfortunate turn as a Chinese stereotype in Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen (1981). Still, he did achieve renewed popularity when he took on the role of Hercule Poirot in the star laced, Agatha Christie extravaganza Death on the Nile (1978). He was such a hit, that he would adroitly play the Belgian detective in two more theatrical movies: Evil Under the Sun (1982) and Appointment With Death (1988); as well as three television movies: Thirteen at Dinner (1985), Murder in Three Acts, Dead Man's Folly (both 1986). Beyond his work in films, Ustinov was justifiably praised for his humanitarian work - most notably as the unpaid, goodwill ambassador for United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Since 1968, he had traveled to all corners of the globe: China, Russia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Kenya, Egypt, Thailand and numerous other countries to promote and host many benefit concerts for the agency. Ustinov, who in 1990 earned a knighthood for his artistic and humanitarian contributions, is survived by his wife of 32 years, Hélène du Lau d'Allemans; three daughters, Tamara, Pavla, Andrea; and a son, Igor. by Michael T. Toole

Quotes

Your opinion of me has no cash value.
- Andre Trochard
I think he looks like a glass of milk.
- Albert
If crime showed on a man's face, there wouldn't be any mirrors.
- Albert
We came here to rob them and that's what we're gonna do -- beat their heads in, gouge their eyes out, slash their throats. Soon as we wash the dishes.
- Joseph
Even the girl herself called us angels.
- Albert
We're no angels.
- Joseph

Trivia

Notes

The working title of this film was Angels Cooking. At the end of the film, animated halos appear above the convicts' heads. Albert Husson`s play La cuisine des anges, on which the film is based, opened in Lyon, France in early January 1952, prior to its run in Paris. As noted in Hollywood Reporter, Paramount purchased the rights to the French play in mid-February 1952. According to a June 1952 Hollywood Reporter news item, Audrey Hepburn was considered for a part in the film. In January 1954, Hollywood Reporter announced that Van Heflin was to co-star in the film with Humphrey Bogart. According to an April 1954 Daily Variety news item, Paramount considered casting Irene Dunne and Gig Young in the film. John Derek was announced as a cast member in the same item but did not appear in the final film.
       A July 1954 Hollywood Reporter news item reported that Dan Towler and Harry Thompson, members of the Los Angeles Rams football team, had been cast, but their appearance in the completed film has not been confirmed. Lyricist Roger Wagner, George Chester, Lyle Moraine, Fred Sweeney and Willard Willingham were also announced as cast members in Hollywood Reporter news items, but their appearance in the final film has not been confirmed.
       In November 1955, four months after the picture's release, authors Samuel and Bella Spewack filed for an injunction against the film, claiming that a substantial portion of their Broadway play My Three Angels, which also was based on Husson's play and opened on Broadway on March 11, 1953, had been incorporated into Paramount's screen version. The New York Times review commented on the fact that the film "gives sole credit to the Galic original, then stalks the Spewacks almost scene by scene." The Spewacks demanded an accounting of the film's profits, noting that after Paramount bought the rights to the French play, they attempted to acquire the screen rights from Paramount but were denied. The disposition of the Spewacks' suit is not known.
       On December 8, 1959, a Ford Startime Theatre production of the Broadway play, also titled My Three Angels, was broadcast on the NBC network. Walter Slezak, who starred in the play, recreated his role for the television production, which was directed by Bretaigne Windust and Gordon Rigsby. In 1989, Paramount released We're No Angels, a loose adaptation of the Husson play, directed by Neil Jordan, written by David Mamet, and starring Robert De Niro and Sean Penn.

Miscellaneous Notes

Released in United States Summer August 1955

Released in United States on Video September 27, 2005

Released in United States 1995

Shown at the Museum of Modern Art (Screen Plays: From Broadway to Hollywood, 1920-1966) in New York City on October 7 and October 12, 1995.

Released in United States Summer August 1955

Released in United States on Video September 27, 2005

Released in United States 1995 (Shown at the Museum of Modern Art (Screen Plays: From Broadway to Hollywood, 1920-1966) in New York City on October 7 and October 12, 1995.)