John Carpenter


Director, Screenwriter
John Carpenter

About

Also Known As
James T Chance, John Howard Carpenter, Martin Quatermass, John T Chance, Rip Haight, Frank Armitage
Birth Place
Carthage, New York, USA
Born
January 16, 1948

Biography

For most of his life, John Carpenter had been directing films. Surrounded by artistic influences ever since he was young - his father was an accomplished violinist and his mother routinely took him to movies - Carpenter naturally made the transition from childhood experimenter, to film student, to finally, professional director. Unexpected, however, was his making one the most important ...

Family & Companions

Debra Hill
Companion
Producer, screenwriter. Met Carpenter while working as script supervisor on "Assault on Precinct 13" (1976); produced and co-scripted Carpenter's "Halloween" (1978) and "The Fog" (1980), produced "Escape From New York" (1981), produced and co-scripted "Escape From L.A.".
Adrienne Barbeau
Wife
Actor. Married January 1, 1979; divorced November 1988; appeared in several of Carpenter's film and TV projects.
Sandy King
Wife
Producer. Has collaborated with Carpenter on many of his films and some TV projects.

Biography

For most of his life, John Carpenter had been directing films. Surrounded by artistic influences ever since he was young - his father was an accomplished violinist and his mother routinely took him to movies - Carpenter naturally made the transition from childhood experimenter, to film student, to finally, professional director. Unexpected, however, was his making one the most important horror films ever in "Halloween" (1978), a chilling tale of a serial killer terrorizing a small town that was shot for a mere $300,000 and became one of the most profitable films of all time. Without stars, special effects or visible gore - there was nary a drop of blood on screen - "Halloween" launched Carpenter's career, while spawning untold numbers of imitators, no less than six direct sequels, and one (awful) remake. Though he went on to direct other seminal films - "Escape from New York" (1981), "Christine" (1983) and "Big Trouble In Little China" (1986) - Carpenter was forever remembered for creating a new horror subgenre - the slasher flick - that has often been imitated, but never duplicated.

Born on Jan. 16, 1948 in Carthage, NY, Carpenter was drawn to filmmaking by repeated viewings of "It Came From Outer Space" (1953) and "Forbidden Planet" (1956), thanks to his mother who routinely took the young lad to the movies. His father, meanwhile, was a music director at Western Kentucky University, sparking his son's interest in playing violin. But Carpenter was more adept at playing bass, eventually becoming good enough to play in a teenage band that did USO shows in Europe. His true passion, however, was making films. As a youth, Carpenter ran around with an 8mm Eumig camera given to him by his dad and made "really bad" short films with names like "Gorgo vs. Godzilla" and "Sorcerer from Outer Space." After high school, Carpenter spent two years at Western Kentucky where his dad taught, but later transferred to the University of Southern California, becoming part of the School of Cinema; just missing an opportunity to learn alongside the likes of Francis Ford Coppola and George Lucas.

While a graduate student at the USC, Carpenter was the writer, editor and composer on the Oscar-winning short, "The Resurrection of Bronco Billy" (1969). The next year, he worked with classmate Dan O'Bannon (later of "Alien" fame) on the sci-fi black comedy "Dark Star," his memorable master's thesis that he expanded into his first feature in 1974. Shot on a budget of only $60,000, the film offered a witty, yet bleak alternative to Stanley Kubrick's high-minded "2001: A Space Odyssey, in its vision of man in space overwhelmed by technology. British culture magazine Time Out proclaimed it "arguably the last great hippy movie with its jokey references to drugs, the absurd and California surfing...." Described by Carpenter as "'Waiting for Godot' in space," "Dark Star" alerted genre fans of the arrival of a distinctive new sensibility that was smart, playful and technically assured. Though well received at the 1974 Filmex, "Dark Star" was mishandled by several different distributors and failed at the box office. Its cult status was attained only after becoming popular on the college circuit in the late 1970s.

With no directing offers forthcoming, Carpenter turned to writing screenplays with some degree of success. He sold a script called "Eyes " to Columbia, "Blood River" to John Wayne's Batjac Productions and "Black Moon Rising" to producer Harry Gittes. "Eyes" metamorphosed into Irvin Kershner's "The Eyes of Laura Mars" (1978), starring Faye Dunaway; "Blood River" later galloped onto the small screen as a 1991 CBS Western telefilm starring the unlikely trio of Rick Schroder, Wilford Brimley and Adrienne Barbeau; and "Black Moon Rising" eventually became a forgettable 1986 caper film starring Tommy Lee Jones and Linda Hamilton.

Carpenter enhanced his reputation with the remarkable exploitation flick "Assault on Precinct 13" (1976), for which he also composed the catchy minimalist score. "Assault" ingeniously mixed Howard Hawks' "Rio Bravo," George Romero's "Night of the Living Dead" and film history references galore to create a deliciously stressful exercise in screen suspense. Though a failure at the box office, the film helped establish Carpenter with European cineastes fond of tough American auteurs. A last-minute addition to the London Film Festival in December 1977, the film garnered a huge audience response. London critics anointed Carpenter the major new "find" of the festival. Unfortunately, this critical success did not translate into directing offers, forcing Carpenter to resume screenwriting-for-hire with "Escape" for 20th Century-Fox and "High Rise" and "Prey" for Warner Brothers. Of the three - only "High Rise" was subsequently produced (as the superior 1978 NBC telefilm, "Someone's Watching Me!").

Producer Irwin Yablans - whose Turtle Releasing distributed "Assault on Precinct 13" - attended the successful London screening. Then setting up a new production company, Compass International, he offered Carpenter a chance to direct a feature. The project was to be a thriller based on a concept by Yablans called "The Babysitter Murders." The struggling writer-director thought the idea might prove commercial and thus, "Halloween" came to pass - an enormously influential and successful slasher flick that introduced Jamie Lee Curtis to the world and helped establish the grammar and thematic preoccupations of a new horror subgenre. Alongside his most celebrated film score, Carpenter skillfully employed a gliding Steadicam that unexpectedly turned elegant tracking sequences into menacing point-of-view shots. Having more in common with a carnival funhouse than the charnel house air of many of its would-be imitators, the film tantalized with the possibility of cheap thrills on the periphery of each carefully composed widescreen frame. Produced by co-writer Debra Hill, "Halloween" reportedly grossed over $75 million worldwide, making it one of the most profitable films ever made.

The success of "Halloween" launched a series of inferior sequels (directed by others), as well as Carpenter's entry into mainstream Hollywood production. The Los Angeles Film Critics Association hailed Carpenter with the 1979 New Generation Award for "Dark Star," "Assault on Precinct 13" and "Halloween." Flush with this success, Carpenter began working in TV during the late '70s, starting with co-scripting the innocuous teen romance "Zuma Beach" (NBC, 1978). He strutted his stuff a few months later as writer-director of NBC's "Someone's Watching Me!," a dazzling suspenser starring Lauren Hutton as a career woman being preyed upon by an unseen voyeuristic neighbor. With a nod to Hitchcock's "Rear Window," Carpenter achieved his claustrophobic effects with subtle framing and deep focus compositions. He gained more attention and kudos with "Elvis" (ABC, 1979), a three-hour biopic starring Kurt Russell as the legendary rocker. A trimmed version was released theatrically overseas.

Once a leading contender to become modern Hollywood's version of the old genre master Hawks, Carpenter - since moving into bigger-budget productions - found his stylistic strengths and modest thematic interests (e.g. issues of communication and isolation; questioning authority) being sometimes smothered by an excess of production values or poorly served by inadequate scripting. Even a relatively early and low-budget outing like "Escape From New York" (1981) soon dropped its intriguing premise to settle for the conventional heroics required by the plot. Similarly, in "The Thing" (the first film over which Carpenter did not have contractual control), Rob Bottin's impressive special effects stole the spotlight from an ostensibly humanist theme.

"Christine" began as a promising exploration of America's automobile fetish and its relationship to male youth culture only to dissolve into a spectacle of the eponymous car's several physical metamorphoses and murderous rampages. "Starman" (1984) attempted to retell "E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial" as an adult love story. Neither Jeff Bridges' Oscar-nominated performance as an amorous alien nor his peculiar, but engaging chemistry with leading lady Karen Allen was sufficient to overcome the sketchy and derivative screenplay, serving as a reminder that characterization was one of Carpenter's weaknesses as a filmmaker. "Big Trouble in Little China" was a lavish but uneven homage to supernatural Hong Kong action flicks. Memorable for Kurt Russell's broad spoof of John Wayne and for a deftly edited kidnapping sequence, the film eventually succumbed to an overdose of special effects. The commercial and critical failure of this project sent Carpenter temporarily back to the world of low-budget filmmaking.

He next directed "Prince of Darkness" (1987), a likeably goofy return to low-budget horror and a knowing tribute to the works of British fantasy screenwriter Nigel Kneale (best known for the "Quatermass" films). Absurd but compelling, the film told the story of Satan's return to Earth couched in the terminology of technological sci-fi. "They Live" (1988) presented professional wrestler Roddy Piper in an initially subversive consideration of the dark underpinnings of the "Reagan revolution" before degenerating into all-too-familiar fisticuffs and shoot-outs. Nonetheless, budget restrictions seemed to reawaken some quality that had been fading in Carpenter's filmmaking. Shorn of production bloat, his films had again become fairly dependable, if unambitious, fun.

The $40 million "Memoirs of an Invisible Man" (1992) boasted state-of-the-art invisibility effects from Industrial Light and Magic but was undermined by poor casting - it was a Chevy Chase vehicle - and an indecisive tone. Carpenter briefly returned to the small screen as executive producer, segment director, composer and host of "John Carpenter Presents Body Bags" (Showtime, 1993), a horror anthology telefilm. Playing a ghoulish, pun-happy morgue attendant, Carpenter introduced three horrific stories: "Gas Station," "Hair" and "Eye." He helmed the first two, while Tobe Hooper directed the third. The effort was generally deemed well-crafted but uninspired. "In the Mouth of Madness" (1995) was an enormously entertaining trifle about a skeptical insurance investigator (Sam Neill) pursuing a hugely successful horror writer, whose books literally create a world of their own. The film benefited from a terrific cast that also included David Warner, Charlton Heston, Jurgen Prochnow and John Glover. The film's pleasures were undercut by an annoyingly obscure last third and a silly ending. Carpenter's remake of one of the beloved films of his youth, "Village of the Damned" (1995) opened to mixed reviews and tepid box office.

The sequel that no one demanded, "John Carpenter's Escape From L.A." (1996), arrived 15 years after its predecessor on a wave of hype. Carpenter, Kurt Russell and Debra Hill collaborated on the screenplay and Hill produced. Though a stylized cipher, "Escape from New York" character Snake Plissken may have been the most memorable character in all of Carpenter's films. Russell was still convincing in black leather as the reluctant mercenary sent into a nightmarish futuristic Los Angeles, where the terminally politically incorrect are consigned. Though budgeted at $50 million, the film was deemed "cheesy" and "crappy" by much of the press, but these words were delivered with affection. The cast featured such exploitation icons as Peter Fonda, Bruce Campbell and Pam Grier and the film opened to healthy box office.

By the mid-1990s, John Carpenter was a hardy survivor of the vicissitudes of the movie business. One of the few young genre auteurs of the 1970s to continue to work in genre fare (unlike David Cronenberg) - and work regularly (unlike George Romero and Tobe Hooper), he has remained busy producing, helming and penning works for film and TV. Carpenter had difficulty, however, rediscovering and packaging his strengths in a modern commercial cinema that encouraged the presentation of action as overblown visual spectacle. A consummate craftsman, Carpenter delivered solid entertainments that always boasted at least a few outstanding sequences. Unfortunately, while his career continued, there was little evidence of artistic growth. Carpenter's name figured prominently in advertising as a brand-name assurance of a certain level of quality, but he had clearly failed to live up to the promise of his early work.

As the 1990s came to a close, it became apparent that Carpenter was more content with living off past successes rather than breaking new artistic ground. He began directing films with his name directly in the title, like "John Carpenter's Vampires" (1998) and "John Carpenter's Ghost of Mars" (2001) - both of which failed to benefit from this new approach. While "Vampires" - a mildly entertaining, though one-dimensional horror-western about an ill-fated band of vampire hunters - pulled in over $20 million at the box office, "Ghost of Mars" - a futuristic sci-fi thriller about the discovery of an ancient civilization on Mars - failed to make it past $10 million, signaling perhaps Carpenter's fading influence with the masses. Meanwhile, former musical front man Rob Zombie directed the remake of Carpenter's original "Halloween" in 2007, turning the horror classic into a muddy, bloody and pointless mess. Carpenter nonetheless served as a consulting producer.

Filmography

 

Director (Feature Film)

The Ward (2011)
Director
Ghosts of Mars (2001)
Director
John Carpenter's Vampires (1998)
Director
John Carpenter's Escape from L.A. (1996)
Director
Village of the Damned (1995)
Director
In the Mouth of Madness (1995)
Director
John Carpenter Presents Body Bags (1993)
Director
Memoirs Of An Invisible Man (1992)
Director
They Live (1988)
Director
Prince of Darkness (1987)
Director
Big Trouble in Little China (1986)
Director
Starman (1984)
Director
Christine (1983)
Director
The Thing (1982)
Director
Escape From New York (1981)
Director
The Fog (1980)
Director
Elvis (1979)
Director
Someone's Watching Me! (1978)
Director
Halloween (1978)
Director
Assault on Precinct 13 (1976)
Director
Dark Star (1974)
Director

Cast (Feature Film)

Tales from the Script (2009)
Himself
Nightmares in Red, White and Blue (2009)
Going to Pieces: The Rise and Fall of the Slasher Film (2007)
Ghosts of Mars (2001)
Performer
The Silence Of The Hams (1994)
John Carpenter Presents Body Bags (1993)
The Boy Who Could Fly (1986)

Writer (Feature Film)

Halloween (2018)
Characters As Source Material
Halloween (2007)
Characters As Source Material
Halloween (2007)
Source Material
Assault on Precinct 13 (2005)
Source Material
The Fog (2005)
Source Material
Halloween: Resurrection (2002)
Characters As Source Material
Ghosts of Mars (2001)
Screenplay
Silent Predators (1999)
Screenplay
Halloween: H2O (1998)
Characters As Source Material
John Carpenter's Escape from L.A. (1996)
Characters As Source Material
John Carpenter's Escape from L.A. (1996)
Screenwriter
Halloween: The Curse of Michael Myers (1995)
Characters As Source Material
Blood River (1991)
Screenwriter
El Diablo (1990)
Screenplay
They Live (1988)
Screenplay
Prince of Darkness (1987)
Screenplay
Black Moon Rising (1986)
From Story
Black Moon Rising (1986)
Screenplay
Halloween II (1981)
Screenplay
Escape From New York (1981)
Screenplay
The Fog (1980)
Screenplay
Better Late Than Never (1979)
Screenplay
Halloween (1978)
Screenwriter
Someone's Watching Me! (1978)
Screenwriter
Eyes Of Laura Mars (1978)
From Story
Eyes Of Laura Mars (1978)
Screenplay
Zuma Beach (1978)
Screenwriter
Eyes Of Laura Mars (1978)
Story By
Assault on Precinct 13 (1976)
Screenwriter
Dark Star (1974)
Screenwriter

Producer (Feature Film)

Halloween (2018)
Executive Producer
Halloween (2007)
Consulting Producer
The Fog (2005)
Producer
John Carpenter Presents Body Bags (1993)
Executive Producer
El Diablo (1990)
Executive Producer
The Philadelphia Experiment (1984)
Executive Producer
Halloween III: Season of the Witch (1982)
Producer
Halloween II (1981)
Producer
Dark Star (1974)
Producer

Music (Feature Film)

Halloween (2018)
Music
The Meddler (2016)
Song Performer
ParaNorman (2012)
Song
Halloween 2 (2009)
Theme Music
Halloween (2007)
Theme Song
The Life of David Gale (2003)
Theme Music
Halloween: Resurrection (2002)
Theme Song
Ghosts of Mars (2001)
Music
Ghosts of Mars (2001)
Music Conductor
John Carpenter's Vampires (1998)
Music Composer
John Carpenter's Vampires (1998)
Music
Halloween: H2O (1998)
Music Composer
John Carpenter's Escape from L.A. (1996)
Music Score Composer
Village of the Damned (1995)
Music
In the Mouth of Madness (1995)
Music
Halloween: The Curse of Michael Myers (1995)
Music Composer
John Carpenter Presents Body Bags (1993)
Music
Halloween 5: The Revenge of Michael Myers (1989)
Music Composer
They Live (1988)
Music
Halloween 4: The Return of Michael Myers (1988)
Music Composer
Prince of Darkness (1987)
Music
Big Trouble in Little China (1986)
Song
Big Trouble in Little China (1986)
Music
Terror in the Aisles (1984)
Music
Christine (1983)
Music
Halloween III: Season of the Witch (1982)
Music
Escape From New York (1981)
Music
Halloween II (1981)
Music
The Fog (1980)
Music
Halloween (1978)
Music
Assault on Precinct 13 (1976)
Song ("You Can'T Fight It")
Assault on Precinct 13 (1976)
Music
Dark Star (1974)
Song ("Benson Arizona")
Dark Star (1974)
Music; Music Director

Misc. Crew (Feature Film)

Tales from the Script (2009)
Other
Terror in the Aisles (1984)
Other

Cast (Special)

Commemoration: Howard Hawks' Rio Bravo (2007)
Himself
Scream: The E! True Hollywood Story (2001)
Interviewee
Hidden Values: The Movies of the '50s (2001)
AFI's 100 Years... 100 Thrills (2001)
Dario Argento: An Eye For Horror (2001)
The American Nightmare (2000)
Faces of Evil (2000)
After Sunset: The Life and Times of the Drive-In (1998)
Masters of Fantasy: John Carpenter (1998)

Cast (Short)

The Master's Touch: Hitchcock's Signature Style (2009)
Himself

Life Events

1956

At age eight, began making his own action-oriented movies using his father's 8mm Brownie camera

1965

Emerald Productions published the film fanzine, <i>Fantastic Films Illustrated</i>

1969

Served as co-writer, film editor and music composer on the Oscar-winning short, "The Resurrection of Bronco Billy"

1974

First major film as director, "Dark Star"; also co-wrote with Dan O'Bannon

1976

Wrote, directed and scored second feature, "Assault on Precinct 13"

1978

First mainstream Hollywood film, "Eyes of Laura Mars"

1978

Directed Lauren Hutton in the NBC TV-movie, "Someone's Watching Me!"; first screen collaboration with future wife Adrienne Barbeau

1978

TV-movie writing debut, "Zuma Beach" (NBC)

1978

Wrote, directed and composed the score for his breakthrough film, "Halloween"

1979

Helmed the ABC biopic "Elvis"; Kurt Russell played the title role in their first collaboration

1980

Directed, wrote and composed the score for "The Fog"; also made his screen-acting debut

1981

Second collaboration with Kurt Russell, "Escape From New York"

1982

Directed first film he did not write, "The Thing"; again collaborated with Russell

1983

Directed the film adaptation of the Stephen King novel, "Christine"

1984

Made debut as an executive producer, "The Philadelphia Experiment"

1984

Directed "Starman," starring Jeff Bridges in his Oscar nominated role

1985

Directed Kurt Russell in "Big Trouble in Little China"

1987

Returned to low-budget filmmaking with "Prince of Darkness"

1990

Wrote and produced the Western comedy "El Diablo," for HBO

1993

Executive produced and directed two segments of the Showtime anthology, "John Carpenter Presents Body Bags"

1996

Re-teamed with Kurt Russell for the sequel, "John Carpenter's Escape From L.A."

1998

Directed the film, "Vampires," starring James Woods as the leader of a band of vampire hunters

2001

Wrote and directed the horror film, "Ghosts of Mars"

2005

Directed "Cigarette Burns," an episode of Showtime's "Masters of Horror" series

2005

Produced the big budget remake of his film, The Fog"

2006

Once again directed an episode of Showtime's Masters of Horror series, "Pro-Life"

2010

Returned to directing with "The Ward"

2018

Received a writing credit on David Gordon Green's "Halloween"

Videos

Movie Clip

Fog, The (1980) - Open, Their Dark And Icy Death From producer and director and co-writers Debra Hill and John Carpenter, nice chilling ghost-story opening, with all of John Houseman’s performance, Ty Mitchell as young Andy listening, from The Fog, 1980, starring Adrienne Barbeau (then Mrs. Carpenter), Jamie Lee Curtis, Janet Leigh and Hal Holbrook.
Fog, The (1980) - Weird And Unlucky End of director John Carpenter’s credits, Adrienne Barbeau’s voice DJ Stevie from a small coastal-California town where weird electrical events have begun, Tom Atkins as Nick is happy to pick up hitcher Elizabeth (Jamie Lee Curtis), in The Fog, 1980.
Eyes Of Laura Mars (1978) - Lace Day In Columbus Circle Faye Dunaway the title character most convincing, Brad Dourif a tech, Rene Auberjonois her agent, Michael Tucker an editor, Darlanne Fluegel and Lisa Taylor her models, Irvin Kershner directing on location, Columbus Circle in Manhattan, when the visions come back, in Eyes Of Laura Mars, 1978.
Eyes Of Laura Mars (1978) - I've Seen All Kinds Of Murder Her entourage led by Rene Auberjonois and Michael Tucker at the police station, Faye Dunaway (the photographer title character who somehow saw the murder through the killer’s eyes) finds out Tommy Lee Jones, whom she met earlier, is a detective, and has evidence from the previous killing, while another cop (Frank Adonis) interviews her handyman (Brad Dourif), in Eyes Of Laura Mars, 1978.
Eyes Of Laura Mars (1978) - Should I Hire A Bodyguard? Wrapping an early interview with plainclothes detective Neville (Tommy Lee Jones), Faye Dunaway (the title-character photographer who’s been telepathing murders) is surprised by Raul Julia, whom we learn is her ex-husband, not just the boyfriend of the last victim, her publicist, in Eyes Of Laura Mars, 1978.
Assault On Precinct 13 (1976) - Juvenile Gang Problem At once abstract, intense and preposterous, writer-director John Carpenter’s opening, with his own score continuing from the credits, Gilbert De La Pena, Frank Doubleday, Al Nakauchi and James Johnson as the assembled ethnic “warlords,” in the original Assault On Precinct 13, 1976.
Assault On Precinct 13 (1976) - This Is Regular Vanilla The scene that almost caused the movie to get an X rating, dad Lawson (Martin West) figures his daughter (Kim Richards) will be okay with the ice cream man (Peter Bruni) while he makes a call, director John Carpenter's warlords (Frank Doubleday, Gilbert De La Pena, Al Nakauchi, James Johnson) cruising South Central LA, in Assault On Precinct 13, 1976.
Assault On Precinct 13 (1976) - Chicken Night In Turkey Spontaneous vigilante Lawson (Martin West) flees into the station which is supposed to shut down that night, confusing Bishop (Austin Stoker), Leigh (Laurie Zimmer) and Chaney (Henry Brandon), Starker (Charles Cyphers) griping as Julie (Nancy Loomis) peeks outside, in John Carpenter's Assault On Precinct 13, 1976.
Assault On Precinct 13 (1976) - Smoking Can Kill You A vignette preceding the main event, introducing cop Starker (Charles Cyphers), the warden (John J. Fox), fearsome Wilson (Darwin Joston) and fellow inmates (Tony Burton, Peter Frankland), John Carpenter writing, directing, editing and scoring, in the original Assault On Precinct 13, 1976.
Escape From New York (1981) - David 14 Having established the year 1997 and Manhattan as a prison, top cop Hauk (Lee Van Cleef) is introduced, Nancy Stephens the lone hijacker, Donald Pleasence the president, in John Carpenter's Escape From New York, 1981.
Escape From New York (1981) - Call Me Snake In 1997, chief cop Hauk (Lee Van Cleef) takes a call from the veep about the president held hostage on Manhattan, the prison, then consults with just-arrived inmate Plisskin (Kurt Russell), in John Carpenter's Escape From New York, 1981.
Escape From New York (1981) - I've Got His Pulse tbd

Trailer

Family

Howard Ralph Carpenter
Father
College music professor; session musician. As a session player in Nashville, played with Roy Orbison, Frank Sinatra and Brenda Lee; one of the originators of the "Nashville sound".
Milton Jean Carpenter
Mother
John Cody Carpenter
Son
Mother Adrienne Barbeau.

Companions

Debra Hill
Companion
Producer, screenwriter. Met Carpenter while working as script supervisor on "Assault on Precinct 13" (1976); produced and co-scripted Carpenter's "Halloween" (1978) and "The Fog" (1980), produced "Escape From New York" (1981), produced and co-scripted "Escape From L.A.".
Adrienne Barbeau
Wife
Actor. Married January 1, 1979; divorced November 1988; appeared in several of Carpenter's film and TV projects.
Sandy King
Wife
Producer. Has collaborated with Carpenter on many of his films and some TV projects.

Bibliography