Raoul Walsh


Director
Raoul Walsh

About

Also Known As
Raoul A. Walsh, R. A. Walsh
Birth Place
New York City, New York, USA
Born
March 11, 1887
Died
December 04, 1980

Biography

With a film career spanning more than half a century, director Raoul Walsh was a highly prolific filmmaker capable of helming quality motion pictures in a wide array of genres that demonstrated a simple but straightforward style. Starting his career as an actor during the silent era - which he continued sporadically thereafter - Walsh struggled to find his footing as a director until hel...

Photos & Videos

White Heat - Movie Posters
Objective, Burma! - Movie Posters
Saskatchewan - Behind-the-Scenes Photos

Family & Companions

Miriam Cooper
Wife
Actor. First wife; married 1916, divorced 1927; starred in many of his films.

Bibliography

"Each Man in His Time"
Raoul Walsh, Farrar, Straus & Giroux (1974)

Biography

With a film career spanning more than half a century, director Raoul Walsh was a highly prolific filmmaker capable of helming quality motion pictures in a wide array of genres that demonstrated a simple but straightforward style. Starting his career as an actor during the silent era - which he continued sporadically thereafter - Walsh struggled to find his footing as a director until helming "The Roaring Twenties" (1939) for Warner Bros., which commenced a fruitful 15-year career that saw his best work come to light. Walsh worked often with some of Hollywood's top talent - Errol Flynn, James Cagney, Virginia Mayo, Humphrey Bogart and Rita Hayworth - on films like "High Sierra" (1941), "Gentlemen Jim" (1942), "Objective, Burma!" (1945) and "Colorado Territory" (1949). He made the archetypal gangster film, "White Heat" (1949) with Cagney, which served as an influence on countless heist movies made years later. But Walsh's fertile period came to an end when his contract at Warner Bros. was up in 1953. He went on to direct notable films like "The Tall Men" (1955) and "Band of Angels" (1957), but nothing that matched his heyday of the previous decades. Despite the 1950s drop off, Walsh's long and productive career marked him for consideration among the best craftsman at work during Hollywood's golden era.

Born on March 11, 1887 in New York City, Walsh was raised by his father, Albert, a clothing designer, and his mother, Elizabeth. A childhood friend of Virginia O'Hanlon and John Barrymore, Walsh attended Seton Hall University in New Jersey, and made his stage debut in 1909. Soon after he made the transition to film by appearing in Westerns made by the Pathe brothers, he signed with D.W. Griffith in 1912 and appeared as a young Pancho Villa in Christy Cabanne's "The Life of General Villa" (1912). Following turns in dramas like "The Great Leap" (1914), "The Availing Prayer" (1914) and "Sands of Fate" (1914), Wash portrayed John Wilkes Booth in Griffith's "Birth of a Nation" (1915). Meanwhile, "Villa" marked his first foray into directing; he shot the Mexican documentary sequence for the film and persuaded Villa himself to re-stage the battle of Durango. From there, Walsh directed a number of one- and two-reelers before moving on to features, most of them under contract to 20th Century Fox between 1916-1928.

Many of the films Walsh made in the beginning were minor efforts, like "The Innocent Sinner" (1917), "Evangeline" (1919), "The Deep Purple" (1920) and "Serenade" (1921). He made his most significant silent-era film with "The Thief of Bagdad" (1924), an extraordinary fantasy epic starring Douglas Fairbanks at his charismatic best. Aside from great performances by Fairbanks and co-star Anna May Wong, "Thief of Bagdad" featured top-notch special effects that Walsh used to great effect in the famed magic carpet sequence. Walsh followed up with "What Price Glory?" (1926), an anti-war movie about two rival Marines vying for the love of an innkeeper's daughter, that proved to be his most successful film of the silent era. He next directed Gloria Swanson in "Sadie Thompson" (1928), in which she played a disgraced woman who travels to Pago Pago in order to start anew, only to battle with a zealous missionary (Lionel Barrymore) intent on sending her back home. Turning an eye toward the criminal world, he directed "Me, Gangster" (1928), widely considered to be a blueprint for his better-known crime dramas, and followed that with "The Cock-Eyed World" (1929), a musical sequel to "What Price Glory?" Meanwhile, he co-directed "In Old Arizona" (1929) with Irving Cummings, a film notable for a pre-production car accident while scouting locations that left Walsh without his right eye. He would famously wear a black eye patch to cover the injury for the remainder of his life.

As the silent era drew to a close, Walsh entered a bit of a lull that, with few exceptions, lasted for the entirety of the 1930s. After guiding John Wayne in his first starring role with "The Big Trail" (1930), he directed a string of rather forgettable movies like "Me and My Gal" (1932) starring Spencer Tracy and "The Bowery" (1933) with Wallace Beery. After "Sailor's Luck" (1933), Walsh directed Marion Davies and Bing Crosby in the enjoyable comedy "Going Hollywood" (1933), and went on to helm more mediocre motion pictures such as "Under Pressure" (1935), "Baby Face Harrington" (1935) and "Klondike Annie" (1936), starring Mae West. Walsh's career took a dramatic turn when he assumed direction of "The Roaring Twenties" (1939) for Warner Bros., which marked a fruitful 15-year association with the studio in whose productive and creative environment Walsh flourished. The film starred James Cagney, Humphrey Bogart and Jeffrey Lynn as three World War I buddies who return home to become bootleggers, leading to rivalry, division and death. The crime drama was a real breakthrough for Walsh, who went on to flourish in the following decade.

At Warner Bros., Walsh associated with first-rate talent at all levels, and from these collaborations emerged a body of films that demonstrated his remarkable talent for different genres. He directed the excellent melodrama "The Drive By Night" (1940), which starred Bogart and George Raft as two owners of a scrappy trucking company who battle rivals and criminals, only to suffer a surprising tragedy. After directing John Wayne in the high-end Western "The Dark Command" (1940), Walsh teamed up with Bogart again for "High Sierra" (1941), a gangster flick in which Bogie played a recently paroled convict who spearheads a major heist at a California hotel. He next directed Cagney and Rita Hayworth in the charming comedy "The Strawberry Blonde" (1941), before casting Errol Flynn as a dashing General George Custer, who goes down fighting in the less-than-historically accurate Western "They Died With Their Boots On" (1941). The following year, Walsh directed Flynn in "Gentleman Jim" (1942), a biopic about the 19th century boxer Jim Corbett, and partnered with the actor again with the wartime propaganda film, "Desperate Journey" (1942), co-starring Ronald Reagan.

Walsh remained a highly prolific director during the war years, teaming with Flynn yet again on the espionage thriller, "Northern Pursuit" (1943), which benefited from the actor's high-profile trial and acquittal for rape. He next directed Flynn in the Oscar-nominated war drama, "Objective, Burma!" (1945), which depicted a unit of U.S. paratroopers trying to destroy a Japanese radar station. After the noirish drama "The Man I Love" (1946) starring Ida Lupino, Walsh directed the dark psychological Western "Pursued" (1947), which featured Robert Mitchum and Teresa Wright as a married couple on the run from a band of men. In 1948, he oscillated easily between genres, directing Flynn in the Western "Silver River," Dennis Morgan and Dorothy Malone in the musical comedy "One Sunday Afternoon," and Robert Stack in the wartime adventure "Fighter Squadron." Walsh was on top of the world with his next film, "White Heat" (1949), one of the most influential gangster movies of all time. James Cagney delivered his best bad-guy performance, playing a ruthless criminal mastermind who suffers from chronic headaches and is under the Freudian influence of his mother (Margaret Wycherly). A hit with both critics and audiences, "White Heat" went on to influence later heist pictures by John Huston, Stanley Kubrick and Martin Scorsese.

Walsh went back to familiar ground with "Colorado Territory" (1949), an affecting but ultimately inferior Western remake of "High Sierra" starring Joel McCrea and Virginia Mayo. He next directed Gregory Peck and Mayo in "Captain Horatio Hornblower" (1951), a swashbuckling adventure on the high seas set at the turn of the 19th century, and went on to helm a string of average films like "Distant Drums" (1951), "Blackbeard the Pirate" (1952) and "The World in His Arms" (1953). After directing Cagney in the political drama "A Lion is in the Streets" (1953), Walsh's contract with Warner Bros. expired. Though he continued working for over a decade, his success was limited. Among his better films from this later period were the Western "The Tall Men" (1955) with Clark Gable and Jane Russell, and "The Revolt of Mamie Stover" (1956), also with Russell. Perhaps his final triumph was "Band of Angels" (1957), a powerful and somewhat controversial Southern melodrama about a dashing, but mysterious landowner (Gable) who buys the daughter (Yvonne DeCarlo) of a deceased plantation owner who is surprised to learn she has African-American blood.

Despite his long career up to this point, Walsh showed no signs of slowing down, though the quality of his films began to drop. He traveled to Spain to direct the comedic Western "The Sheriff of Fractured Jaw" (1958) and had to tone down the language for his rather disappointing adaptation of Norman Mailer's best-selling novel "The Naked and the Dead" (1958), starring Cliff Robertson. He moved on to direct Joan Collins in the biblical epic, "Esther and the King" (1960), and helmed the forgettable military comedy "Marines, Let's Go" (1961). Struggling to find his old footing, Walsh resorted to directing a B-movie Western on the Warner Bros. backlot - the studio for whom he had many triumphs - with "A Distant Trumpet" (1964), a mundane film that marked an end to his distinguished career. Walsh settled into retirement following this final film, due in part to diminishing eye sight in his left eye. Sixteen years later, on Dec. 31, 1980, Walsh died in Simi Valley, CA at 93 years old, leaving behind a legacy as one of classic Hollywood's greatest and most prolific directors, despite never receiving an Oscar nomination for Best Director.

By Shawn Dwyer

Filmography

 

Director (Feature Film)

A Distant Trumpet (1964)
Director
Marines, Let's Go! (1961)
Director
Esther and the King (1960)
Director
A Private's Affair (1959)
Director
The Sheriff of Fractured Jaw (1959)
Director
The Naked and the Dead (1958)
Director
Band of Angels (1957)
Director
The King and Four Queens (1956)
Director
The Revolt of Mamie Stover (1956)
Director
The Tall Men (1955)
Director
Battle Cry (1955)
Director
Saskatchewan (1954)
Director
The Lawless Breed (1953)
Director
Sea Devils (1953)
Director
Gun Fury (1953)
Director
A Lion Is in the Streets (1953)
Director
The World in His Arms (1952)
Director
Blackbeard, the Pirate (1952)
Director
Glory Alley (1952)
Director
Along the Great Divide (1951)
Director
Distant Drums (1951)
Director
Captain Horatio Hornblower (1951)
Director
On Moonlight Bay (1951)
Fill-in Director
Colorado Territory (1949)
Director
One Sunday Afternoon (1949)
Director
White Heat (1949)
Director
Silver River (1948)
Director
Fighter Squadron (1948)
Director
The Man I Love (1947)
Director
Pursued (1947)
Director
Cheyenne (1947)
Director
Objective, Burma! (1945)
Director
The Horn Blows at Midnight (1945)
Director
Salty O'Rourke (1945)
Director
Uncertain Glory (1944)
Director
Background to Danger (1943)
Director
Northern Pursuit (1943)
Director
Gentleman Jim (1942)
Director
They Died with Their Boots On (1942)
Director
Desperate Journey (1942)
Director
Manpower (1941)
Director
High Sierra (1941)
Director
The Strawberry Blonde (1941)
Director
Dark Command (1940)
Director
They Drive by Night (1940)
Director
The Roaring Twenties (1939)
Director
Saint Louis Blues (1939)
Director
College Swing (1938)
Director
Artists and Models (1937)
Director
You're in the Army Now (1937)
Director
When Thief Meets Thief (1937)
Director
Hitting a New High (1937)
Director
Spendthrift (1936)
Director
Big Brown Eyes (1936)
Director
Klondike Annie (1936)
Director
Every Night at Eight (1935)
Director
Under Pressure (1935)
Director
Baby Face Harrington (1935)
Director
Going Hollywood (1933)
Director
The Bowery (1933)
Director
Sailor's Luck (1933)
Director
Wild Girl (1932)
Director
Me and My Gal (1932)
Director
The Man Who Came Back (1931)
Director
The Yellow Ticket (1931)
Director
Women of All Nations (1931)
Director
The Spy (1931)
Addl Director
The Big Trail (1930)
Director
The Cock-Eyed World (1929)
Director
Hot for Paris (1929)
Director
In Old Arizona (1929)
Director
Sadie Thompson (1928)
Director
The Red Dance (1928)
Director
Me, Gangster (1928)
Director
The Monkey Talks (1927)
Director
Loves of Carmen (1927)
Director
What Price Glory (1927)
Director
The Lady of the Harem (1926)
Director
The Lucky Lady (1926)
Director
The Wanderer (1926)
Director
The Spaniard (1925)
Director
East of Suez (1925)
Director
The Thief of Bagdad (1924)
Director
Lost and Found on a South Sea Island (1923)
Director
Kindred of the Dust (1922)
Director
The Oath (1921)
Director
Serenade (1921)
Director
From Now on (1920)
Director
The Deep Purple (1920)
Director
The Strongest (1920)
Director
Should a Husband Forgive? (1919)
Director
Evangeline (1919)
Director
Every Mother's Son (1918)
Director
Woman and the Law (1918)
Director
I'll Say So (1918)
Director
On the Jump (1918)
Director
The Prussian Cur (1918)
Director
This Is the Life (1917)
Director
The Honor System (1917)
Director
The Innocent Sinner (1917)
Director
The Silent Lie (1917)
Director
Betrayed (1917)
Director
The Pride of New York (1917)
Director
The Conqueror (1917)
Director
Blue Blood and Red (1916)
Director
The Serpent (1916)
Director
Regeneration (1915)
Director
Carmen (1915)
Director
The Greaser (1915)
Director
The Bowery (1914)
Director
The Mystery of the Hindu Image (1914)
Director
The Double Knot (1913)
Director

Cast (Feature Film)

75 Years of Cinema Museum (1972)
Himself
It's a Great Feeling (1949)
Himself
Sadie Thompson (1928)
Sgt. Tim O'Hara
The Birth of a Nation (1915)
John Wilkes Booth
The Outlaw's Revenge (1915)
The outlaw
The Great Leap; Until Death Do Us Part (1914)
The Dishonored Medal (1914)
Adopted Son

Writer (Feature Film)

Marines, Let's Go! (1961)
Screenwriter
Esther and the King (1960)
Screenwriter
Big Brown Eyes (1936)
Screenwriter
Spendthrift (1936)
Screenwriter
Hot for Paris (1929)
Story
The Cock-Eyed World (1929)
Scen
Me, Gangster (1928)
Scen
Sadie Thompson (1928)
Writer
From Now on (1920)
Scen
The Strongest (1920)
Scen
Should a Husband Forgive? (1919)
Story
Evangeline (1919)
Scen
Should a Husband Forgive? (1919)
Scen
Every Mother's Son (1918)
Story
On the Jump (1918)
Story
The Prussian Cur (1918)
Story and scen
Woman and the Law (1918)
Scen
This Is the Life (1917)
Story
The Conqueror (1917)
Scen
Betrayed (1917)
Scen
The Pride of New York (1917)
Scen
The Honor System (1917)
Scen
This Is the Life (1917)
Scen
The Innocent Sinner (1917)
Scen
Blue Blood and Red (1916)
Scen
The Serpent (1916)
Scen
Regeneration (1915)
Adaptation
Carmen (1915)
Scen

Producer (Feature Film)

Marines, Let's Go! (1961)
Producer
Esther and the King (1960)
Producer
Battle Cry (1955)
Producer
Del infierno al cielo (1931)
Producer
The Big Trail (1930)
Producer
Kindred of the Dust (1922)
Presented By
Serenade (1921)
Presented By
The Deep Purple (1920)
Producer
Headin' Home (1920)
Supervisor
Pillars of Society (1916)
Producer

Music (Feature Film)

Saint Louis Blues (1939)
Composer

Production Companies (Feature Film)

The Lawless Breed (1953)
Company
Sailor's Luck (1933)
Company
Me and My Gal (1932)
Company
Il grande sentiero (1931)
Company
Die grosse Fährte (1931)
Company
La gran jornada (1931)
Company
The Big Trail (1930)
Company

Misc. Crew (Feature Film)

Black Rainbow (1989)
Other
Earth Girls Are Easy (1988)
Other
Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid (1982)
Other
Hearts and Minds (1975)
Other

Cast (Special)

The Men Who Made the Movies: Raoul Walsh (1973)
Himself

Life Events

1910

Stage acting debut

1912

Film acting debut

1912

Assistant director to D.W. Griffith

1914

Film co-directing debut (with Christy Cabanne), "The Life of General Villa"

1915

Played John Wilkes Booth in "The Birth of a Nation"

1929

Began wearing eye patch after losing an eye during the shooting of Hollywood's first outdoor sound film, "In Old Arizona"

1964

Retired after losing sight in other eye

Photo Collections

White Heat - Movie Posters
Following are several original release movie posters from White Heat (1949), starring James Cagney as Cody Jarrett.
Objective, Burma! - Movie Posters
Here are a few original release movie posters from Objective, Burma! (1945), starring Errol Flynn. These are two different styles of half-sheets, which measured 22x28 inches.
Saskatchewan - Behind-the-Scenes Photos
Saskatchewan - Behind-the-Scenes Photos
Artists and Models - Behind-the-Scenes Photos
Artists and Models - Behind-the-Scenes Photos
They Drive by Night - Lobby Card Set
Here is a set of Lobby Cards from Warner Bros' They Drive by Night (1940), starring George Raft, Ann Sheridan, Humphrey Bogart, and Ida Lupino. Lobby Cards were 11" x 14" posters that came in sets of 8. As the name implies, they were most often displayed in movie theater lobbies, to advertise current or coming attractions.
They Died with Their Boots On - Movie Poster
Here is the American one-sheet movie poster for They Died with Their Boots On (1942), starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland. One-sheets measured 27x41 inches, and were the poster style most commonly used in theaters.

Videos

Movie Clip

Strawberry Blonde, The (1941) - We Have A Lady Present Biff (James Cagney) is ready to abandon buddy Hugo (Jack Carson) when he finds out the friend Virginia (Rita Hayworth) has brought to their clandestine date is a nurse, the headstrong Amy (Olivia de Havilland), early in Raoul Walsh's The Strawberry Blonde, 1941.
Uncertain Glory (1944) - The Barber Will Shave Your Neck After an opening establishing visibly atmospheric Nazi-occupied Paris, 1943, we meet Errol Flynn as inmate Jean Picard, not apparently political, rousted by the warden (Art Smith) who is congratulated by the commissioner (Douglas Dumbrille) and questioned one last time by policeman Bonet (Paul Lukas), in Raoul Walsh and Warner Bros.’ Uncertain Glory, 1944.
Uncertain Glory (1944) - Two Great Weaknesses Smitten Louise (Faye Emerson) has followed criminal Picard (Errol Flynn), who escaped execution due to an air raid in Paris, to Bordeaux, only to be intercepted by policeman Picard (Paul Lukas), who was tipped off by her jealous boyfriend, early in Uncertain Glory, 1944.
Northern Pursuit (1943) - Of German Descent We know that von Keller (Helmut Dantine) has just survived an avalanche that killed all his fellow Nazi infiltrators, but this is the first scene for Canadian Mounties Steve (Errol Flynn) and Jim (John Ridgely), in director Raoul Walsh's Northern Pursuit, 1943.
Northern Pursuit (1943) - You Think This Is Cold? End of the opening narration (by Lou Marcelle (as in Casablanca, 1942), impressive simulated submarine, emergence of Nazi spy von Keller (Helmut Dantine), and seemingly unrelated Canadian skullduggery between Wills (Gene Lockhart) and Dagor (Bernard Nedell), from Raoul Walsh's Northern Pursuit, 1943, starring Errol Flynn.
Desperate Journey (1942) - Half American, Half Jersey City Nazi Major Baumeister (Raymond Massey) is telling the crew of the downed RAF bomber (Errol Flynn, Arthur Kennedy, Alan Hale, Ronald Sinclair) they have no prospects, but he has an idea to flip American Johnny (Ronald Reagan), who himself turns the tables, directed by Raoul Walsh, in a famous bit from Desperate Journey, 1942.
Desperate Journey (1942) - You Are Englishmen? Still in their stolen Nazi uniforms, after another clever sabotage in Berlin, pilot Terry (Errol Flynn) and crew (Ronald Reagan, Arthur Kennedy) need help for wounded Hollis (Ronald Sinclair), and get lucky meeting sympathizer Nancy Coleman (as Kaethe) and her doctor uncle (Albert Basserman) in Desperate Journey, 1942.
Desperate Journey (1942) - You Yankees Always Win After a bit in which the Resistance in Poland pulls off a sabotage and sends a carrier pigeon to England, we meet Allied members of an RAF bomber crew, Arthur Kennedy, Patrick O’Moore, Ronald Reagan as Johnny, Errol Flynn as Terry, Ronald Sinclair as Hollis, Alan Hale as Edwards, Raoul Walsh directing, in Desperate Journey, 1942.
Desperate Journey (1942) - Are We Hit Bad? Raoul Walsh directs, intense spectacle (special effects credited to Nathan Levinson and Byron Haskin for Warner Bros.) as the England based crew of the “D-For-Danny” RAF B-17 (Errol Flynn piloting, Ronald Reagan bombing, Arthur Kennedy navigating, with Alan Hale and Ronald Sinclair) hit their target in Germany, in Desperate Journey, 1942.
Background To Danger (1943) - An American Word? Nicolai (Peter Lorre), with his more fetching sister Tamara (Brenda Marshall), first secretly dispatches Ivor (Daniel Ocko), then reveals to American Joe (George Raft) why he rescued him from a crew of bogus Turkish cops, in Background To Danger, 1943, from an Eric Ambler novel.
Background To Danger (1943) - This Chewing The Gum A German plot to bring Turkey into the war against Russia already established, we meet George Raft (with schtick) as "Joe Barton," in Ankara, who meets Ana (Osa Massen) who is spooked by a thug (Daniel Ocko), early in Raoul Walsh's Background To Danger, 1943, from an Eric Ambler novel.
Background To Danger (1943) - Your Trouble And Discomfort Goon Mailer (Kurt Katch) delivers American Joe (George Raft), a salesman who seems drawn to international intrigue, to Robinson (Sydney Greenstreet), whom we know to be a Nazi agent though he is posing here as a Turkish police official, for a talk about secret papers, in Raoul Walsh's Background To Danger, 1943.

Trailer

White Heat - (Original Trailer) A government agent infiltrates a gang run by a mother-fixated psychotic in White Heat (1949) starring James Cagney and Edmond O'Brien.
One Sunday Afternoon (1948) -- (Original Trailer) A dentist in turn-of-the-century New York thinks he may have married the wrong girl in Raoul Walsh's musical version of the stage hit One Sunday Afternoon (1948).
Thief Of Bagdad, The (1924) -- Re-release Trailer Trailer for the 2013 release of the Cohen Film Collection restoration of Douglas Fairbanks’ The Thief Of Bagdad, 1924, featuring an new score recording by Carl Davis.
Distant Trumpet, A (1964) -- (Original Trailer) Veteran director Raoul Walsh features in the original trailer for what proved to be his last film, the 1964 Western A Distant Trumpet, starring Troy Donahue and Suzanne Pleshette, from a Paul Horgan novel.
Background to Danger - (Original Trailer) George Raft falls headlong into espionage in wartime Turkey in Raoul Walsh's Background To Danger (1943).
Baby Face Harrington - (Original Trailer) A milquetoast has to fight off cops and gangsters when he's mistaken for the notorious Baby Face Harrington (1935).
Desperate Journey -- (Textless Trailer) Errol Flynn and Ronald Reagan are behind enemy lines in Nazi-occupied Poland in the slam-bang adventure Desperate Journey (1942).
Silver River - (Original Trailer) A ruthless gambler's rise to power is cut short by character flaws in Silver River (1948) starring Errol Flynn.
They Died With Their Boots On -- (Original Trailer) Errol Flynn stars in They Died With Their Boots On (1941), a romanticized biography of General George Armstrong Custer.
Horn Blows At Midnight, The - (Original Trailer) Jack Benny plays an angel sent to destroy the Earth with a trumpet blast in The Horn Blows At Midnight (1945).
They Drive By Night - (Re-issue trailer) Truck-driving brothers are framed for murder by a psychotic woman in They Drive By Night (1940), starring George Raft & Humphrey Bogart.
Colorado Territory - (Original Trailer) An outlaw just released from prison is sucked back into a life of crime in Colorado Territory (1949), starring Joel McCrea.

Family

George Walsh
Brother
Actor.

Companions

Miriam Cooper
Wife
Actor. First wife; married 1916, divorced 1927; starred in many of his films.

Bibliography

"Each Man in His Time"
Raoul Walsh, Farrar, Straus & Giroux (1974)