Paul Robeson


Actor
Paul Robeson

About

Also Known As
Paul Leroy Bustill Robeson
Birth Place
Princeton, New Jersey, USA
Born
April 09, 1898
Died
January 23, 1976
Cause of Death
Complications From A Stroke

Biography

The son of a runaway slave turned minister and a schoolteacher, Paul Robeson proved to be an unique figure in American history. A tall, handsome man with a commanding stage presence and mellifluous, booming baritone, he was not only a distinguished actor and singer but also a scholar, athlete and lawyer. Born and raised in New Jersey, Robeson won a scholarship to Rutgers and was only the...

Family & Companions

Eslanda Cardoza Goode
Wife
Met while attending Columbia; married on August 17, 1921; became first black woman to head a pathology lab; died in 1965.
Uta Hagen
Companion
Actor. Played opposite him in "Othello".

Bibliography

"Paul Robeson: Artist and Citizen"
Jeffrey C Stewart (editor) (1998)
"Paul Robeson"
Martin Duberman, Alfred A. Knopf (1988)
"Here I Stand"
Paul Robeson (1958)

Notes

Robeson was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize in 1952 but was unable to accept it until 1958 when his passport (which had been revoked in 1950) was restored to him.

In 1995, he was posthumously inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame.

Biography

The son of a runaway slave turned minister and a schoolteacher, Paul Robeson proved to be an unique figure in American history. A tall, handsome man with a commanding stage presence and mellifluous, booming baritone, he was not only a distinguished actor and singer but also a scholar, athlete and lawyer. Born and raised in New Jersey, Robeson won a scholarship to Rutgers and was only the third black to enroll at the school. He excelled at athletics, earning letters in four sports (basketball, track, baseball and football) and was twice named to the All-American Football Team. Robeson made Phi Beta Kappa and was his class valedictorian. Moving to NYC, he entered Columbia University's Law School, playing professional football for three seasons (1920-23) and acting and singing to help defray the expenses. In 1921, he had an early stage role in the biblically-themed "Simon the Cyrenian" and later joined the cast of the all-black musical "Shuffle Along" in 1922. Admitted to the New York State Bar, Robeson found work at a law firm but left when a Caucasian secretary refused to take dictation from him. Gravitating towards the stage, this singularly versatile talent found success alternately the leads in two Eugene O'Neill dramas, "The Emperor Jones" and the controversial "All God's Chillun Got Wings." As the latter depicted an interracial marriage, it was the subject of debate and condemnation, but the actor triumphed.

His stage success led to film work. Robeson debuted in a dual role of an unscrupulous preacher and his more virtuous brother in Oscar Micheaux's silent "Body and Soul" (1924). While Jerome Kern wanted the singer-actor to originate the role of Joe in the Broadway premiere "Show Boat" (Robeson had even signed a contract), production delays and conflicting bookings led to Robeson being replaced. He did get to play the role in London and his stirring delivery of "Ol' Man River" became the definitive version of the song for generations. Settling in Europe where he felt a person of color could find more diverse employment opportunities, Robeson appeared in the experimental feature "Borderline" (1930). He briefly returned to America to film "The Emperor Jones" (1933), considered by many critics to be his best work despite the inherent flaws of the material. Declining the opportunity to perform in "Aida" in Chicago, he returned to England to undertake the role of an African chief in the ill-advised "Sanders of the River" (1934). He fared only slightly better in a similar role in the first filming of H Rider Haggard's adventure novel "King Solomon's Mines" (1937). Robeson accepted the film version of "Show Boat" (1936) primarily for the money, but it at least provided a record of his signature vocals for "Ol' Man River." As roles for blacks in Hollywood were severely limited to caricatures and menials, he returned to England and appeared in a handful of films that, while routine, at least offered less stereotypical roles. He twice played a dockworker in films that also showcased his rich baritone. "Song of Freedom" (1936) cast him as a laborer turned opera star who discovers he is heir to an African throne while "Big Fella" (1937) teamed him with Elizabeth Welch in an offbeat tale of blackmail and kidnapping. "Jericho/Dark Sands" (1938) saw Robeson portraying a court-martialed American who escapes to Africa. Some find the film charming while others decry its now blatant racist overtones. He was again a noble figure in "The Proud Valley" (1939), playing a coal miner in Wales who sacrifices his life for his fellow workers. It was to be the last of his leading roles. Robeson returned to the USA and made only one other film appearance in the omnibus "Tales of Manhattan" (1942), teamed in a sketch with Eddie 'Rochester' Anderson and Ethel Waters that reduced these fine performers to ridiculous stereotypes as sharecroppers. That same year, he narrated the civil rights documentary "Native Land" which received a very limited release.

Robeson returned to the stage, starring in an acclaimed 1942 production of "Othello" that cause some controversy over his kissing his Caucasian co-star Uta Hagen. The show began in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and went on to play nearly 300 performances on Broadway in 1943 and toured extensively. As the decade wore on, though, Robeson came under attack for many of his political views. Having been warmly welcomed in the Soviet Union, he became a vocal advocate of Communism and other left-wing causes. Willing to risk his career for viewpoints that some found objectionable, he constantly called attention to bigotry and the limited opportunities for persons of color, including picketing the White House and calling for a crusade against lynching. Called to testify before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) in 1946, Robeson proved a strong presence. Responding to a query as to why he didn't go to live in the USSR, he told the Committee "Because my father was a slave, and my people died to build this country, and I am going to stay right here and have a part of it just like you. And no fascist-minded people will drive me from it. Is that clear?" Yet, some of his views were controversial, notably his call for black youth not to participate if there was a war with the Soviet Union. Like many other artists of the time, Robeson was blacklisted and his passport was revoked for eight years (1950-58). By the time the US Supreme Court restored his right to travel, his health had begun to fail. In 1958, he published his autobiography, "Here I Stand" but few major newspapers would review it. He twice tried to commit suicide and suffered a series of breakdowns that led him to withdraw from public life. He died of complications from a stroke in 1976. Three years later, he was the subject of the documentary "Paul Robeson: Portrait of an Artist" and over the next thirty years, his reputation as an artist and world citizen was gradually restored.

Life Events

1920

Played professional football in the American Professional Football League in Hammond, Akron and Milwaukee

1921

Early stage role in "Simon the Cyrenian"

1922

Joined the cast of the Broadway musical "Shuffle Along" (date approximate)

1923

Admitted to the Bar of New York State and briefly worked in a law firm; left when a white secretary refused to take dictation from him

1924

Starred in the leading roles of Eugene O'Neill's "The Emperor Jones" and "All God's Chillun Got Wings" at the Provincetown Playhouse; the latter caused controversy over the play's central drama which revolved around a white woman married to a black man

1925

Feature film debut in "Body and Soul", directed by Oscar Micheaux; played dual role of an unscrupulous preacher and his virtuous brother

1927

Signed to appear as Joe in the original stage production of "Show Boat"; dropped out because of delays in production

1928

Played Joe in the London premiere of "Show Boat"

1929

Made debut at Carnegie Hall in NYC

1930

First played "Othello" in London

1930

Made second film appearance in the experimental "Borderline", shot in Switzerland; co-starred with his wife

1933

Returned to NYC to recreate his stage role in the film version of "The Emperor Jones"

1934

Turned down an offer from the Chicago Opera to star in "Aida" to accept the role of the African chief Bosambo in "Sanders of the River"

1934

Made first of several visits to the Soviet Union

1936

Again recreated a stage role, that of Joe who sings "Ol' Man River" in "Show Boat"

1937

Played an African native in "King Solomon's Mines"

1938

Visited Madrid, Spain to entertain the International Brigade fighting in the Spanish Civil War

1942

Last film appearance in the omnibus feature "Tales of Manhattan"; appeared with Ethel Waters and Eddie 'Rochester' Anderson

1942

Narrated "Native Land", a documentary about civil rights abuses

1942

Triumphed onstage as "Othello"; production premiered in Cambridge, MA before moving to NYC in 1943 ; later toured with the show, co-starring Jose Ferrer and his then-wife Uta Hagen

1946

Summoned to testify before the House Committee on UnAmerican Activities (HUAC)

1950

After failing to renounce his views on the Soviet Union, his passport is revoked

1956

Testified before HUAC

1958

After a US Supreme Court decision, his passport was restored

1960

Made last concert tour appearing in New Zealand and Australia

1963

Retired from public life

1979

Was the subject of the documentary "Paul Robeson: Portrait of an Artist"

1982

First production of a play, "Paul Robeson", performed by Avery Brooks; play staged Off-Broadway in 1988

Videos

Movie Clip

Show Boat (1936) - Ol' Man River Upon dismissing the flighty Magnolia (Irene Dunne), Paul Robeson (as "Joe") offers his legendary rendition of Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II''s "Ol' Man River" in James Whale's Show Boat, 1936.
Show Boat (1936) - Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man Hard to pick the best part as Helen Morgan ("Julie"), brings first Irene Dunne ("Magnolia") then Hattie McDaniel ("Queenie") and Paul Robeson ("Joe") into her performance of "Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man"by Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II, in Show Boat, 1936.
Sanders Of The River (1935) - All Kinds Of Magic From a prologue in praise of British civil servants, we meet Leslie Banks (title character) and aides (Robert Cochrane, Richard Grey) in what is now Nigeria, then the real star, Paul Robeson, as a somewhat shiftless native, opening the Korda brothers' Sanders Of The River, 1935.
Sanders Of The River (1935) - I Can't Manage These Girls His aide (Robert Cochrane) hapless, Brit administrator Leslie Banks (title character) deals directly with females rescued from slave traders, who show keen interest in his appointed ruler Bosambo (Paul Robeson), who himself focuses on Lilongo (Nina Mae McKinney), in Sanders Of The River, 1935.
Sanders Of The River (1935) - Song Of The Spear Brit colonial boss Leslie Banks (title character) and crew send word to Paul Robeson (as Bosambo, a loyal petty thief they've made chief of an African tribe) calling for action, and an original song by Mischa Poliansky and Arthur Wimperis, in the Korda brothers' Sanders Of The River, 1935.
Show Boat (1936) - Opening Opening titles and arrival of the "Cotton Blossom" in New Orleans, with fanfare from "Cap'n Andy" (Charles Winninger) in James Whale's adaptation of the Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II musical Show Boat, 1936.

Family

William Drew Robeson
Father
Minister. Former slave.
Maria Louisa Robeson
Mother
Schoolteacher. Died in a stove fire c. 1904.
Paul Robeson Jr
Son
Born c. 1927.

Companions

Eslanda Cardoza Goode
Wife
Met while attending Columbia; married on August 17, 1921; became first black woman to head a pathology lab; died in 1965.
Uta Hagen
Companion
Actor. Played opposite him in "Othello".

Bibliography

"Paul Robeson: Artist and Citizen"
Jeffrey C Stewart (editor) (1998)
"Paul Robeson"
Martin Duberman, Alfred A. Knopf (1988)
"Here I Stand"
Paul Robeson (1958)

Notes

Robeson was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize in 1952 but was unable to accept it until 1958 when his passport (which had been revoked in 1950) was restored to him.

In 1995, he was posthumously inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame.

"I've learned that my people are not the only ones oppressed ... I have sung my songs all over the world and everywhere found that some common bond makes the people of all lands take to Negro songs as their own." --Paul Robeson

"The artist must elect to fight for Freedom or for Slavery. I have made my choice. I had no alternative." --Paul Robeson