Marcello Mastroianni


Actor
Marcello Mastroianni

About

Also Known As
Marcello Mastrojanni
Birth Place
Fontana Liri, , IT
Born
September 28, 1924
Died
December 19, 1996
Cause of Death
Pancreatic Cancer

Biography

One of the biggest international film stars to emerge from Italy in the 1960s, Marcello Mastroianni rose to worldwide prominence in films directed by the modern masters of European cinema and opposite its most radiant actresses. After toiling for years in small roles in lesser projects, Mastroianni became a cinematic superstar with his disaffected performance in Fellini's "La Dolce Vita"...

Photos & Videos

Marriage Italian Style - Movie Posters
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow - Movie Poster

Family & Companions

Flora Mastroianni
Wife
Actor. Married in 1948; separated in 1970; never divorced; died on April 19, 1999 in Rome, Italy at age 72.
Catherine Deneuve
Companion
Actor. Mother of his daughter Chiara.
Faye Dunaway
Companion
Actor.
Anna Maria Tato
Companion
Director. Together since 1975; directed a documentary shortly before the actor's death.

Notes

"Visconti was the teacher. Severe, but we like him. Fellini is your benchmate, the one you sit next to and make jokes. With Fellini, we always make it a joke. The more serious the film, the more we laugh. We don't say, 'oh maestro, how beautiful is this thing you are creating!' We think this, but we don't say this." --Marcello Mastroianni, quoted in TIME, October 12, 1987

"When I make films, I am absolutely happy. That's why I make so many films. This is a most beautiful thing, to be with 60, 70 people on a set and to make stories. It helps me to act. I work seriously but never take myself seriously. I want to enjoy myself--really enjoy--like a child. Because all actors are children . . . And when the film is finished, I am looking for another film. Otherwise my life is a little more bored." --Mastroianni quoted in TIME, October 12, 1987

Biography

One of the biggest international film stars to emerge from Italy in the 1960s, Marcello Mastroianni rose to worldwide prominence in films directed by the modern masters of European cinema and opposite its most radiant actresses. After toiling for years in small roles in lesser projects, Mastroianni became a cinematic superstar with his disaffected performance in Fellini's "La Dolce Vita" (1960). Acclaimed turns in "La Notte" (1961) and "Divorce, Italian Style" (1961) - the latter of which won him a Golden Globe - preceded Mastroianni's iconic performance in Fellini's visual masterpiece "8 ½" (1963). Both a blessing and a curse, he was crowned Italian cinema's most prominent leading man in films such as "Marriage, Italian Style" (1964), "The 10th Victim" (1965), and "Shoot Loud, Louder... I Don't Understand" (1966), which cast him opposite the likes of screens sirens Sophia Loren, Ursula Andress and Raquel Welch, respectively. Although his megastar status had all but dissipated by the 1970s, the incredibly prolific and affable actor worked continuously in projects such as the controversial "The Big Feast" (1973), "Ginger and Fred" (1986) - another of his many collaborations with Fellini - and the star-studded Robert Altman haute couture comedy "Ready-to-Wear" (1994). In a screen career that spanned nearly 150 films, Mastroianni's unabashed love for his craft allowed him to consistently surprise audiences as he explored the limitless vistas of life through the medium of cinema.

Born Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni on Sept. 28, 1924 in Fontana Liri, Italy - a small town, south of Rome - he was the son of mother, Ida, and father, Ottone, a carpenter. Growing up poor in Turin, and later, Rome, he studied surveying with an eye on a career in architecture before WWII and the German occupation put an end to such practical plans. Conscripted for a time to draw maps for the Nazis, Mastroianni was later sent to a forced labor camp in the Alps, from which he soon escaped, only to spend the remainder of the war hiding out in Venice. Having worked as a film extra before the outbreak of the war, Mastroianni later picked up a job in Rome as an accountant for British film studio Eagle Lion, and began acting in several theatrical productions at the University of Rome, where he was taking classes. It was during this period that Mastroianni met a figure who would loom undeniably large in his future - Frederico Fellini, and his wife, Giulietta Masina, an actress. His credited film debut came with a small role in "I Miserabili" ("Les Miserables") (1948), although it was on stage that he was making greater strides as a performer. Under the direction of Italian theater legend Luchino Visconti, Mastroianni honed his talents and made a reputation for himself in acclaimed productions of "A Streetcar Named Desire," "Death of a Salesman," and "Uncle Vanya" in the late-1940s.

Mastroianni, recently married to actress Flora Carabella, was soon working steadily with minor parts in such films as "Parigi è sempre Parigi" ("Paris is Always Paris") (1951) and "Le Ragazze di Piazza di Spagna" ("Three Girls from Rome") (1952). Eventually, he labored through to larger and challenging roles in more than 20 Italian films before having the chance to work with famed director Alessandro Blasetti and comedy star Vittorio De Sica in the crime comedy "Peccato che Sia una Canaglia" ("Too Bad She's Bad") (1955), a film that would be the first of Mastroianni's many onscreen pairings with Italian film beauty Sophia Loren. Efforts like the romantic drama "Le Notti Bianche" ("White Nights") (1957), directed by his old theatrical mentor, Visconti, and "I Soliti Ignoti" ("Big Deal on Madonna Street") (1958), Mastroianni's second feature directed by renowned filmmaker Mario Monicelli, increased the actor's visibility and box office cachet. By the late 1950s, Mastroianni had established himself as a major Italian star, although he was still little-known to American audiences. That all changed when he starred as a decadent gossip columnist in Federico Fellini's "La Dolce Vita" ("The Sweet Life") (1960), the film that made him an international film star. Episodic in its structure and rife with symbolism, it told the story of a week in the life of Mastroianni's character, a disillusioned man looking for substance in the banality of a life among the over-privileged Italian glitterati. Hailed as a cinematic masterpiece and one of the most important films ever made, the scene in which Mastroianni and Anita Ekberg frolic in waters of Rome's Trevi Fountain soon entered into the pantheon of iconic screen imagery.

Mastroianni followed with another impressive turn, this time working with influential director Michelangelo Antonioni in "La Notte" ("The Night") (1961), in which he solidified his growing onscreen persona as a novelist adrift in an emotionally barren marriage to Jeanne Moreau. With both actor and director at the height of their creative powers, he collaborated with Fellini once again for the avant-garde masterpiece "8 ½" (1963). Mastroianni played an illustrious movie director struggling with "writers block" as he attempts to complete his latest picture, all the while contemplating his life, his work, his marriage and romantic fantasies. Widely considered Fellini's greatest achievement, the film went on to win two Academy Awards and influence filmmakers for generations to come. Mastroianni reunited with Loren for a pair of successful outings directed by De Sica - "Ieri, Oggi, Domani" ("Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow") (1963) and "Matrimonio all'Italiana" ("Marriage, Italian Style") (1964). "Casanova '70" (1965), once again directed by Monicelli, cast him as an over-sexed army officer who only finds excitement by seducing women in mortally dangerous situations, and irrevocably established his film reputation as a "Latin Lover" - a limited description the actor would later insist that he loathed. Nonetheless, in addition to Loren, Mastroianni was continually paired with many of cinema's most beautiful actresses in films that included a turn opposite Ursula Andress in the science fiction thriller "La Decima Vittima" ("The 10th Victim") (1965), and with Raquel Welch in the bizarre comedic fantasy adventure "Spara forte, più forte, non capisco" ("Shoot Loud, Louder... I Don't Understand") (1966).

As one of the biggest international movie stars of the 1960s, Mastroianni expanded the boundaries of his repertoire in films that included Visconti's adaptation of novelist Albert Camus' bleak, existential exploration, "Lo Straniero" ("The Stranger") (1967). He turned in his first non-dubbed English language performance in the U.K.-produced "Diamonds for Breakfast" (1968), and worked with director John Boorman on "Leo the Last" (1970) as the bored heir to a deposed European throne. Interesting choices, but as always, it was his work alongside Loren in films like "I Girasoli" ("Sunflower") (1970) and "La Moglie del Prete" ("The Priest's Wife") (1971) that produced more favorable box office results for Mastroianni. Always willing to test the limits of taste and censorship, he went took part in the aptly-named Roman Polanski-directed "Che?" ("What?") (1972), an absurdist erotic fantasy, loosely mimicking the "Alice in Wonderland" story. The following year he appeared in an even more controversial piece - "La Grande Bouffe" ("The Big Feast") (1973), in which four successful, middle-aged men vow to literally eat themselves to death during a weekend getaway at a villa where they are joined by a trio of prostitutes. Working relentlessly, he also starred with Catherine Deneuve - his companion throughout the early 1970s, despite the fact that he had never divorced Carabella - in a pair of odd comedies "Niente di Grave, suo Marito è Incinto" ("A Slightly Pregnant Man") (1973) and the highly stylized farce about Custer's last stand, "Touche pas à la Femme Blanche" ("Don't Touch the White Woman!") (1974).

Mastroianni garnered critical acclaim, including his second Oscar nomination (his first being for "Divorce, Italian Style"), for his work in the social drama "Una Giornata Particolare" ("A Special Day") (1977), in which he portrayed an embittered gay man who befriends a repressed housewife (Loren) in WWII Italy. More work with his longtime friend Fellini continued with "La Città delle Donne" ("City of Women") (1980), "Ginger and Fred" (1986), and as himself in the biographical "Intervista" (1987). Mastroianni also turned in a tour-de-force performance as a man torn between his affluent, albeit loveless marriage, and his love of a married Russian woman in director Nikita Mikhalkov's "Oci Ciornie" ("Dark Eyes") (1987). The stylized drama, adapted from short stories by Anton Chekhov, earned the actor yet another Oscar nod. In a rare U.S.-produced feature, he returned to the well-worn "Latin Lover" persona once again as an elderly lothario pursuing recent widow Shirley MacLaine in the syrupy romantic comedy "Used People" (1992). Two years later, he sparred with Loren one final time amid a sea of high-wattage acting talent in the underwhelming Robert Altman effort "Pret-a-Porter" ("Ready-to-Wear") (1994). Shortly after turning in his multi-character performance in director Raoul Ruiz's highly-touted offbeat comedy "Trois Vies et Une Seule Mort" ("Three Lives and Only One Death") (1996), a stoic Mastroianni finally succumbed to the effects of pancreatic cancer, a condition he had closely guarded for fear he would no longer be offered work. Attended by his companion of 21 years, filmmaker Anna Maria Tato, as well as Catherine Deneuve and his two daughters, Mastroianni passed away on Dec. 19, 1996, at the age of 72. He made his final dramatic film appearance posthumously in director Manoel de Oliveira's "Journey to the Beginning of the World" (1997), most appropriately playing an aging Fellini-esque movie director. During the filming of "Journey," Tato had also filmed "Marcello Mastroianni: I Remember, Yes I Remember" (1997), a documentary that would serve as both a tribute to and a summary of the actor's storied life and remarkable career.

Filmography

 

Cast (Feature Film)

The Magic of Fellini (2002)
Himself
Fellini (2001)
Himself
Pereira Declares (1998)
Pereira
Voyage to the Beginning of the World (1997)
Manoel
Marcello Mastroianni: I Remember, Yes I Remember (1997)
Three Lives and Only One Death (1996)
Beyond the Clouds (1995)
The Man Of All Vices
One Hundred and One Nights (1995)
Ready to Wear (1994)
Sergei (Sergio)--Mysterious Russian Tailor
The True Life of Antonio H. (1994)
Himself
Un, Deux, Trois, Soleil (1993)
I Don't Want to Talk About It (1993)
Ludovico D'Andrea
Used People (1992)
The Suspended Step of the Stork (1991)
A Fine Romance (1991)
Cesareo Gramaldi
El Ladron De Ninos (1991)
Bigua (The Colonel)
Verso Sera (1990)
Professor Bruschi
Everybody's Fine (1990)
What Time Is It? (1989)
Marcello
I Soliti Ignoti... Vent'Anni Dopo (1988)
Tiberio Brashi
Miss Arizona (1988)
Sandor Rozsnyai
The Late Mattia Pascal (1988)
Mattia Pascal
Le Grand embouteillage (1988)
Splendor (1988)
Federico Fellini's Intervista (1987)
Dark Eyes (1987)
Enas Melissokomos Petheni - O Alles Mythos (1986)
Ginger and Fred (1986)
Pippo Botticella--
O Melissokomos (1986)
Spyros
Enrico IV (1985)
Macaroni (1985)
The Last Horror Film (1984)
Le General de l'Armee Morte (1983)
General Ariosto
Gabriela (1983)
La Nuit de Varennes (1982)
Storia di Piera (1982)
Lorenzo
Oltre la Porta (1982)
Enrico Sommi
The Skin (1981)
Curzio Malaparte
Fantasma d'Amore (1981)
Nino Monti
Io Sono Anna Magnani (1980)
Himself
La Citta Delle Donne (1980)
Snaporaz
La Terrazza (1979)
Luigi
Blood Feud (1978)
Rosario Maria Spallone
Cosi' come sei (1978)
Bye Bye Monkey (1978)
Nocello--Luigi
Double Murder on Via Governo Vecchio (1977)
Bruno Baldassare
Mogliamante (1977)
A Special Day (1977)
Gabriele
La Donna Della Domenica (1976)
Santamaria
One Way or Another (1976)
Signore e Signori, Buonanotte (1976)
Lunatics and Lovers (1975)
Per le Antiche Scale (1975)
Doctor
The Gangster's Moll (1975)
La Divina Creatura (1975)
Duke Michele Barra
We All Loved Each Other So Much (1974)
Allonsanfan (1974)
Fulvio Imbriani
La Pupa del gangster (1974)
Salut l'artiste (1973)
Nicolas
Dirty Weekend (1973)
Giulio
A Slightly Pregnant Man (1973)
Marco
La Grande Bouffe (1973)
Marcello
Don't Touch the White Woman! (1973)
Custer
Che? (1973)
Alex
Massacre in Rome (1973)
1870 (1972)
Fellini's Roma (1972)
Himself
Ca n'arrive qu'aux autres (1971)
Marcello
The Priest's Wife (1971)
Don Mario
Permette? Rocco Papaleo (1971)
Rocco
La Cagna (1971)
Giorgio
The Pizza Triangle (1970)
Oreste
Leo the Last (1970)
Leo
Sunflower (1970)
Antonio
Ghosts--Italian Style (1969)
Headless ghost
A Place for Lovers (1969)
Valerio
Kiss the Other Sheik (1968)
Michele
The Man With the Balloons (1968)
Mario
The Stranger (1967)
Arthur Meursault
My Wife's Enemy (1967)
Marco
Lo Straniero (1967)
Shoot Loud, Louder ... I Don't Understand (1966)
Alberto Saporito
Casanova '70 (1965)
Maj. Andrea Rossi-Colombetti
The Lady Killer of Rome (1965)
Nello Poletti
Love à la Carte (1965)
Piero
The 10th Victim (1965)
Marcello Polletti
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (1964)
Renzo
The Organizer (1964)
Professor Sinigaglia
Marriage Italian Style (1964)
Domenico Soriano
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (1964)
Carmine
Love on the Riviera (1964)
Police inspector
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (1964)
Augusto Rusconi
Family Diary (1963)
Enrico
8 1/2 (1963)
Guido Anselmi
Divorce--Italian Style (1962)
Ferdinando Cefalù
La notte (1962)
Giovanni
Bell'Antonio (1962)
Antonio Magnano
A Very Private Affair (1962)
Fabio
La dolce vita (1961)
Marcello Rubini
White Nights (1961)
Mario
The Law (1960)
Enrico, the engineer
Ghosts in Rome (1960)
Big Deal On Madonna Street (1958)
Tiberio
Fathers And Sons (1957)
La Fortuna di essere Donna (1956)
Too Bad She's Bad (1955)
House of Ricordi (1955)
Gaetano Donizetti
Il Viale della speranza (1952)
Altri Tempi (1952)
("The Baby"/"Il Pupo")

Misc. Crew (Feature Film)

Fellini (2001)
Other
The True Life of Antonio H. (1994)
Other
Io Sono Anna Magnani (1980)
Other
Fellini's Roma (1972)
Other

Cast (Special)

The 65th Annual Academy Awards Presentation (1993)
Presenter

Cast (TV Mini-Series)

The Poppy Is Also a Flower (1966)
Inspector Mosca

Life Events

1929

Family moved to Turin

1933

Family moved to Rome

1938

Appeared as extra in four films, the first of which was "Marionette" (1938)

1943

Moved to Florence; then fled to Venice to avoid deportation to Germany

1944

Returned to Rome after liberation

1947

Returned to films with bit part as a rioter in "I Miserabili" (made up of two separate features)

1948

Made stage debut in "Angelica"; was seen by Emilio Amendola, an associate of film, theater and opera director Luchino Visconti, and was subsequently invited to join Visconti's Quirino theater company

1955

First film in which he and Sophia Loren played leading roles opposite each other, "Peccato che sia una canaglia/Too Bad She's Bad", directed by Alessandro Blasetti

1959

First collaboration with filmmaker and screenwriter Federico Fellini, "La Dolce Vita"

1963

Made first of four films with director Vittorio DeSica (with whom he had acted in a number of films in the 1950s), "Ieri, Oggi, Domani/Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow", co-starring Sophia Loren

1964

Made first major appearance on US TV on the special, "Sophia Loren in Rome"

1966

Formed independent film production company, Master Films

1966

Made a one-time venture into the realm of the US TV-movie, "The Poppy Is Also a Flower", an all-star telefilm about the evils of drug trafficking and abuse; film was also released theatrically that year

1969

Appeared as himself in the US TV documentary special, "Fellini: A Director's Notebook"

1974

Last collaboration with Vittorio De Sica came when both appeared in the Ettore Scola film, "We All Loved Each Other So Much"

1978

Acted on Italian TV in "Le mani sporchi", directed by Elio Petri

1984

First appeared in a US film: a brief cameo as himself in footage shot at the Cannes Film Festival and used in the low-budget film, "The Last Horror Film"

1987

Last film in which he was directed by Federico Fellini, "Intervista"

1992

First US Film, "Used People"

1996

Last performance was touring Italy in the production of "The Last Moons"

1997

Last feature, Manoel de Oliveira's "Journey to the Beginning of the World"

Photo Collections

Marriage Italian Style - Movie Posters
Marriage Italian Style - Movie Posters
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow - Movie Poster
Here is the original American-release movie poster for the Italian film Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (1963), starring Sophia Loren and Marcello Mastroianni.

Videos

Movie Clip

Special Day, A (1977) - You'd Even Keep Hitler Waiting After nearly six minutes of chilling newsreel footage detailing Hitler’s 1938 visit to Mussolini in Rome, and Nazi flags being unfurled in cinematographer Pasqualino De Santis’ desaturated color, we meet Sophia Loren as housewife Antoinieta, John Vernon her husband, in an elaborate single shot, in director Ettore Scola’s A Special Day, 1977, also starring Marcello Mastroianni.
Special Day, A (1977) - It's Not A Person Dozing off while reading an Italian fascist comic book, her Rome apartment building nearly vacant because everyone’s gone to the parade for Adolph Hitler, Sophia Loren as housewife Antoineta is wakened by the family mynah bird, and meets neighbor Gabriele (Marcello Mastroianni), in director Ettore Scola’s A Special Day, 1977.
Special Day, A (1977) - The Virtue Of A Mediocre Mind In cinematographer Pasqualino De Santis’ widely-praised desaturated color, in 1938 Rome, with coverage of Hitler’s visit to Rome playing on the radio, troubled bachelor Gabriele (Marcello Mastroianni) surprises neighbor housewife Antoineta (Sophia Loren), abandoning his excuse quickly, after they first met that same morning, in director Ettore Scola’s A Special Day, 1977.
Ginger And Fred (1986) - Are We In Such Bad Shape? Escaping the inescapably Federico Fellini-esque backstage scene of the low-rent Roman TV nostalgia special, the principals (the director’s wife Giullietta Masina as Amelia, a.k.a. Ginger and Marcello Mastroianni as Pippo, a.k.a. “Fred”) with their old friend Toto (Mignoli), assume their costumes and continue their reacquaintance, in Ginger And Fred, 1986.
Ginger And Fred (1986) - Keep Rome Clean Opening in routine circumstances at a train station in Rome, Giulietta Masina in her last performance directed by her husband, arriving to a modest reception, as Federico Fellini’s authorship emerges, especially in pork-oriented advertising, in the well-received Ginger And Fred, 1986, also starring Marcello Mastroianni, Barbara Scoppa the reporter in the van.
La Notte (1961) - That What You Did Was Vile? Giovanni (Marcello Mastroianni) confesses his sexual liaison just minutes earlier with a stranger, to his unimpressed wife Lidia (Jeanne Moreau), en route to a party marking publication of his new novel, in Michelangelo Antonioni's drama of alienation, La Notte, 1962.
La Notte (1961) - It Would Be Pointless Joining director Michelangelo Antonioni's deliberate opening, we meet hospitalized Tomasso (Bernhard Wicki) , Giovanni and Lidia (Marcello Mastroainni, Jeanne Moreau) completing their progress through Milan, interrupted by a neighbor (Maria Pia Luzi), in La Notte, 1962.
La Notte (1961) - Every Millionaire Wants His Own Intellectual Director Michelangelo Antonioni makes clear how desperately bored his principals, writer Giovanni (Marcello Mastroianni) and wife Lidia (Jeanne Moreau), are with their lives and each other, barely able to decide whether to attend an upper-crust Milan party, in La Notte, 1962.
I Compagni (The Organizer) -- (1964) - I Know All Your Faces Turin, Italy, striking factory workers stealing coal, their ringleader the professor (Marcello Mastroianni, title character) seeking support, hungry teenage Bianca (Raffaella Carra`) winning the sympathy of a young policeman, in Mario Monicelli's I Compagni, a.k.a. The Organizer, 1964.
I Compagni (The Organizer) -- (1964) - Rice And Turnips Again After a domestic opening, director Mario Monicelli's sequences depicting the working day in a turn-of-the-century textile factory in Turin, worker Pautasso (Folco Lulli) visiting his child, in I Compagni a.k.a. The Organizer, 1964 starring Marcello Mastroianni.
Ginger And Fred (1986) - It's Like A Landing Strip Still not discouraged that her old partner hasn’t turned up for the TV variety show in Rome, Amelia, (a.k.a. “Ginger,” Giulietta Masina, wife of the director Federico Fellini) manages to be charitable when she discovers he (Marcello Mastroianni, his first scene, as Pippo, a.k.a. “Fred”) is her noisy neighbor, in Ginger And Fred, 1986.
I Compagni (The Organizer) -- (1964) - But That Would Be A Strike Just arrived in Turin, the professor (Marcello Mastroianni) inserts himself into a spat between semi-organized factory workers led by Pautasso (Folco Lulli), and hesitant Raoul (Renato Salvatori), early in Mario Monicelli's I Compagni a.k.a. The Organizer, 1964.

Trailer

Family

Ruggero Mastroianni
Brother
Editor. Younger; died September 9, 1996 of a heart attack.
Armand Mastroianni
Cousin
Director. Based in USA.
Barbara Mastroianni
Daughter
Born in 1952; mother, Flora Mastroianni.
Chiara Mastroianni
Daughter
Actor. Born in 1972; mother, Catherine Deneuve.

Companions

Flora Mastroianni
Wife
Actor. Married in 1948; separated in 1970; never divorced; died on April 19, 1999 in Rome, Italy at age 72.
Catherine Deneuve
Companion
Actor. Mother of his daughter Chiara.
Faye Dunaway
Companion
Actor.
Anna Maria Tato
Companion
Director. Together since 1975; directed a documentary shortly before the actor's death.

Bibliography

Notes

"Visconti was the teacher. Severe, but we like him. Fellini is your benchmate, the one you sit next to and make jokes. With Fellini, we always make it a joke. The more serious the film, the more we laugh. We don't say, 'oh maestro, how beautiful is this thing you are creating!' We think this, but we don't say this." --Marcello Mastroianni, quoted in TIME, October 12, 1987

"When I make films, I am absolutely happy. That's why I make so many films. This is a most beautiful thing, to be with 60, 70 people on a set and to make stories. It helps me to act. I work seriously but never take myself seriously. I want to enjoy myself--really enjoy--like a child. Because all actors are children . . . And when the film is finished, I am looking for another film. Otherwise my life is a little more bored." --Mastroianni quoted in TIME, October 12, 1987

"My legs are skinny, my face has no power or resolve...They knew where they were going--or at least, we presumed they knew. I haven't any idea. If they were heroes, then I'm a nonhero." Comparing himself to other leading men like Clarke Gable, Gary Cooper, Humphrey Bogart and Paul Newman." --Marcello Mastroianni, quoted by journalist and author Curtis Bill Pepper in 1987