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The film opens with voice-over narration by Joel McCrea, as his character "Judge Rick Thorne," describing the often-dangerous life of a U.S. circuit judge. Although contemporary sources indicate that the picture was shot in Ansco Color, the viewed print was in black-and-white. According to Hollywood Reporter news items and production charts, the film was shot on location in Sedona, AZ and on Gene Autry's Melody Ranch in Placerita Canyon, Newhall, CA. The Variety review incorrectly states that the picture was shot in Mexico. According to a July 29, 1954 Hollywood Reporter news item, United Artists partially financed the film's production.
Stranger on Horseback marked the last Hollywood film appearance of actress Miroslava, who committed suicide on March 10, 1955. Miroslava, whose family immigrated to Mexico from their native Czechoslovakia during World War II, was one of Mexico's most popular film actresses at the time of her death.