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The working title of this film was Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut. J. D. Salinger's short story depicted only the reunion between "Eloise" and "Mary Jane" in Connecticut. For the screenplay, screenwriters Julius and Philip Epstein fleshed out Eloise's romance with "Walt" and added the plot elements regarding the paternity of Eloise's child and the possible custody dispute. Modern sources state that Salinger greatly disliked this adaptation of his story, and never allowed another of his works to be filmed. According to a August 16, 1948 Hollywood Reporter news item, Teresa Wright was originally set to star in the film, but Samuel Goldwyn terminated her contract before the start of production. Audrey Totter was originally cast in the role of Mary Jane.
According to information in the file on the film in the MPAA/PCA Collection at the AMPAS Library, the first draft of the script, submitted for approval on November 8, 1948, was rejected because the affair between Eloise and Walt was presented in too sympathetic a light. In a revised version of the script, submitted in May 1949, the story opened with Mary Jane and "Lew" having conspired for some time to break up his marriage to Eloise. That script was approved, but the Breen Office pointed out that the PCA preferred that a divorce in a film be initiated only by "the unsympathetic or guilty party."
Susan Hayward was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress, but lost to Olivia de Havilland, and the song "My Foolish Heart" was nominated in the Best Music category. In a Los Angeles Times review dated December 26, 1949, critic Philip K. Scheuer wrote: "It seemed to me an important and satisfying scene between the father and the mother...had, regrettably, been eliminated since the preview." Exactly which scene May have been eliminated has not been determined. An adaptation of My Foolish Heart was broadcast on the Lux Radio Theatre on August 28, 1950, with Susan Hayward and Dana Andrews repeating their original roles.