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The title of the film is taken from the Walt Whitman poem "Good-bye My Fancy!," from which "Agatha" reads a selection. According to a New York Times article, in the original play, which was written before the U.S. military action in Korea, the film that Agatha brings to the college is an anti-war film. Believing this to be an inappropriate topic for the movie version of Goodbye, My Fancy, which was made during the Korean War, the screenwriters decided to focus on the issue of academic freedom under fascism and Communism. According to the article, director Vincent Sherman wanted to use the academic fight against loyalty oaths as the topic of Agatha's film, but the studio was opposed to the introduction of such "an inflammatory question." The article added that Warner Bros. paid $55,000 for the screen rights to the play.
Goodbye, My Fancy marked Janice Rule's film debut. A Hollywood Reporter news item stated that Jill Kraft, who appeared in the theatrical version of the play, had been signed for a part in the film, but her appearance in the released film has not been confirmed. The exterior college scenes were filmed at Occidental College in Los Angeles, CA. Robert Young, Frank Lovejoy and Lurene Tuttle reprised their roles in a Lux Radio Theatre broadcast of Goodbye, My Fancy on January 14, 1952, with Barbara Stanwyck in the role of Agatha. Another production was broadcast on June 28, 1953, starring Rosalind Russell and Robert Young.