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A working title of the film was The Inside Story. The Daily Variety review listed a preview running time of 100 minutes. Although Samuel S. Hinds and Emma Dunn, who portrayed the parents of "Dr. Kildare" in the series, were listed in Hollywood Reporter production charts, they were not in the released film. Ann Ayars, who portrayed "Cookie Charles," made her motion picture debut in the film. Dr. Kildare's Victory was the last of the "Dr. Kildare" films to be released and the last of the series to be completed by Lew Ayres. Shortly after the film was released, Ayres declared himself a conscientious objector to war and, as a result, was confined to an internment camp. News items in Hollywood Reporter relate that "hundreds of bookings" of the picture were canceled and, because of protests, Loew's had ordered all of their film exchanges to grant cancellation requests. In early April 1941, Hollywood Reporter news items relate that the "panic" had lessened, but that M-G-M was still concerned over the film's public reception. By mid-April 1941, Ayres had requested a change of status from conscientious objector to "non-combatant," and some newspapers, exhibitors and film industry personnel had expressed the view that a boycott of Ayres's films was "inconsistent with Americanism" and intolerant.
Although Ayres's next released film, Fingers at the Window, apparently opened without problems, and Ayres joined the Army Medical Corps, the next film in the Dr. Kildare series was partially re-shot without Ayres. That film, which was released as Calling Dr. Gillespie, was initially shot with Ann Ayars reviving her role as Kildare's new "love interest," but her role was eliminated from the released film, along with Ayres's. For additional information on Ayres's career during this period, see the entries above and below for Calling Dr. Gillespie and Fingers at the Window. For additional information on the Dr. Kildare series, see the entry for Young Dr. Kildare in AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1931-40; F3.5251 and consult the Series Index.