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The working titles of this film were Rebel Yell and Everything's Peaches Down in Georgia. The picture's opening title cards read, "Twentieth Century-Fox presents Charles Coburn, Joan Bennett, William Eythe in Berry Fleming's Colonel Effingham's Raid." According to information in the Twentieth Century-Fox Produced Scripts Collection, located at the UCLA Arts-Special Collections Library, Margaret Prussing and Albert Shelby LeVino worked on a version of the screenplay, but their work was not incorporated into the finished picture. Hollywood Reporter news items note that Monty Woolley and Mary Anderson were originally scheduled to star in the film, with producer Lamar Trotti briefly set as the director and screenwriter. In April 1943, a studio press release announced that John M. Stahl would direct the picture, and in December 1943, a publicity announcement included Clem Bevans in the cast.
The Twentieth Century-Fox Records of the Legal Department, also at UCLA, contain contracts indicating that Darby Jones was originally set to play "Ninety-Eight," Armand "Curly" Wright was to play "Jimmy Economy" and George Carleton was to play "Jessie Bibbs." None of those actors appeared in the released film, however. The CBCS erroneously lists actor Frank Mitchell (instead of Grant Mitchell) in the role of "Major Anthony T. Hickock." According to a February 1945 Hollywood Reporter news item, production shut down for two weeks while Joan Bennett recovered from the flu. Although an January 11, 1945 Hollywood Reporter news item stated that scenes featuring actor Edward Fielding, who died on January 10, 1945, would be reshot with another actor, Fielding does appear in the completed picture, which marked his last screen appearance. According to a correspondence from Fleming, contained in the legal files, the story was inspired by "an incident that occurred in Augusta [GA] in March 1941 when the county commissioners...proposed to raze the Richmond county courthouse." On November 3, 1949, Coburn recreated his role for The Hallmark Playhouse radio broadcast of the story.