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The film begins with voice-over narration explaining that Wyoming was originally known as "The Equality State" because in 1869, it became the first state to grant women the right to vote. According to an October 1950 Hollywood Reporter news item, director Robert Tansey was replaced by Richard Talmadge after three days of shooting, when Tansey was stricken by heat exhaustion. Only Tansey, however, receives onscreen credit as director. Dranke Smith made his feature-film debut in Cattle Queen.
As noted in the Variety review, Eagle-Lion Classics, Inc., the distribution company originally contracted to release Cattle Queen, was taken over by United Artists Corp. before the film was released. Cattle Queen marked the last feature-film release of Eagle-Lion Films, Inc., a subsidiary of Path Industries, Inc.