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The working title of the film was The True and the Brave. Voice-over narration by Louis Calhern as "Gen. Ten Eyck" is heard intermittently throughout the film. According to a June 30, 1953 Hollywood Reporter news item, Gregory Peck was originally sought for the leading role, and a August 28, 1953 news item reported that Richard Widmark would be borrowed from Twentieth Century-Fox to co-star in the film. An August 1953 Hollywood Reporter news item notes that dancer Boscoe Holder tested for a role, and an October 1953 news item adds Erna Onderdonk to the cast, but their appearance in the final film has not been confirmed.
Most of the film was shot on location in London and Holland. Studio publicity material contained in the film's production file at the AMPAS Library indicates that additional filming was done at M-G-M's Culver City studio to accommodate Calhern and other actors who were not available for work in Europe. Betrayed was Clark Gable's last film under his long-term contract with M-G-M. Gable left the studio after twenty-three years to pursue free-lance work. It was also the last of four films in which Gable and Lana Turner co-starred.