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Additional music used briefly in various segments of the film included, "The Polovetzian Dances" by Alexander Borodon; "M'Apari," from the opera Martha, by Friedrich Flowtow; "Stars and Stripes Forever" by John Phillip Sousa; "Oh, Promise Me" by Reginald De Koven and Clement Scott; "The Caissons Go Rolling Along" by Edmund L. Gruber; and, "Anchors Away" by Charles A. Zimmerman, Alfred A. Miles and Royal Lovell. Frank Morgan recreated his role from the Broadway production of the play, which was produced by Florenz Ziegfeld and starred Marilyn Miller in the title role. Although the play was a musical, an entirely new score was written for the film. A production chart in Hollywood Filmograph on May 24, 1930 listed an M-G-M film entitled Rosalie "in preparation." That film was to star Marion Davies and be directed by Robert Z. Leonard. It is possible that the planned 1930 production was also to be based on the Broadway play, however, no additional information on its history has been located. According to news items in Hollywood Reporter, George Gershwin was initially sought to compose the score for the film, which Cole Porter eventually wrote, and Roy Del Ruth was signed to direct the picture but asked to be released from the assignment to rest after completing work on M-G-M's Broadway Melody of 1938.. Portions of the film were shot on location at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York; however, footage of the Army-Navy game came from newsreels. According to a December 20, 1937 Hollywood Reporter news item, "frantic cutting" was required on the film after a December 16, 1937 preview; however, reviews from that preview list a running time of 123 minutes, and the running time after release was 122 minutes, suggesting only a slight altering of the lengthy film.
According to a Life magazine article on the picture, and various news items, the set constructed for the "Rosalie" production number cost over $200,000 and used $30,000 worth of electricity. Over sixty acres were needed to construct the set and over 1,500 extras were used in the biggest night scene ever filmed to that time. Wardrobe people worked over four weeks to make costumes to accomodate all of the extras. A studio press release noted that two hundred actual West Point cadets appeared with Powell in one number and each received a kiss from the star. Rosalie was one of the top twenty box office films of the year. Vienna Opera Company star Ilona Massey made her motion picture debut in the film. An ad in Hollywood Reporter on December 24, 1937 gives special thanks to a number of the film's production crew and advisors. Among the persons listed whose exact contributions to the film have not been determined include, William Lewis, Florence Thomas, Harry Albies, Harold Thurburg, Tommy Griffin, James Harper, Charles Salerno, Hezi Tate, Bob Barnes, Lt. Fred Thompson and Ira Heyman. Modern sources add the following cast members: Al Shean (Herman Schmidt) and Katharine Aldridge (Lady in Waiting).