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The working title of this film was Indian Love Call. The film carries no individual producer credit. Pre-production news items named Arthur Hornblow, Jr. as the film's producer. According to a January 27, 1954 Hollywood Reporter news item, Hornblow and Larry Weingarten worked as producers in the film's early stages, while LeRoy supervised the initial editing of the film and Jack Cummings oversaw the final editing. Neither LeRoy nor Hornblow made another film for M-G-M after Rose Marie.
The end credits include a statement thanking the government of Canada for its cooperation during the making of the film. Portions of the film were shot on location in Mammoth Lakes, CA and Jasper Park in Alberta, Canada. A June 1, 1953 item in Hollywood Reporter's "Rambling Reporter" column stated that Leslie Caron had been cast as "Wanda," the Indian maiden. A Hollywood Reporter news item adds Russell Conklin to the cast, but his appearance in the final film has not been confirmed. Composer Rudolf Friml collaborated on three new songs for this film: "Free to Be Free," "I Have the Love" and "The Right Place for a Girl."
M-G-M made two earlier films based on the operetta Rose Marie. The 1928 film Rose-Marie, directed by Lucien Hubbard, starred Joan Crawford and James Murray; the 1936 musical of the same title was directed by W. S. Van Dyke and starred Jeanette MacDonald and Nelson Eddy. The plots of the earlier films differed somewhat from each other and from the 1954 version. Reviews alluded to the earlier films, and the New Yorker review commented that Rose Marie, "which was hot stuff back in the twenties, is with us once again, and it has no way improved with age and CinemaScope."