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The working title of this film, in which Stanwyck made her western movie debut, was Shooting Star. As depicted in the film, Annie Oakley, born Phoebe Anne Oakley Moses in 1860, was a markswoman who first toured circus and vaudeville circuits, and from 1885 to 1902 was a star attraction in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. Unlike the film's depiction, however, Oakley married in 1876. Her husband, Frank E. Butler, was a noted marksman who toured with her. For more information about Buffalo Bill Cody, please see the entry below for Buffalo Bill.
Early Hollywood Reporter production charts credit Joseph A. Fields and Robert Neville with the script. Fields is listed on screen as a co-story writer, but Neville's contribution to the final film has not been confirmed. Ray Mayer, Jack Mulhall, Eddie Borden, Otto Hoffman, Brooks Benedict, Pat Moriarity, Brandon Hurst, Will Stanton and George Lollier were listed as cast members in Hollywood Reporter production charts, but their participation in the final film has not been confirmed. According to the production charts, at least part of the film was shot at the Prudential Studios. Harold Wenstrom, not J. Roy Hunt, is listed as photographer in all of the charts. Much of the sub-plot of the film involved Sitting Bull's encounters with modern "technology," such as Murphy beds and gas lighting.
In 1946, Irving Berlin presented a Broadway musical version of the Annie Oakley story called Annie Get Your Gun, which starred Ethel Merman. In 1950, George Sidney directed an M-G-M version of the stage musical, also titled Annie Get Your Gun, which starred Betty Hutton and Howard Keel. Annie Oakley was also featured in an ABC television series, which starred Gail Davis and ran from 1953-57.