TCM Archive Materials VIEW ALL ARCHIVES (1)
|Also Known As:||Died:||March 10, 1998|
|Born:||January 15, 1913||Cause of Death:|
|Birth Place:||San Leandro, California, USA||Profession:||Cast ...|
COMPLETE FILMOGRAPHY WITH SYNOPSIS
Cast (feature film)
The legacy of actor-teacher Michael Chekhov and his student-protege George Shdanoff on classical Hollywood actors such as Gregory Peck and Patricia Neal is explored. Coming to Hollywood during World War II, both men helped to create and define a school of acting that offered an alternative to Stanis
A neurotic New Yorker travels to Savannah, Georgia to meet his girlfriend's Southern Baptist family...and the world's most wily and manipulative father.
As the story of the Cortino family unfolds over nearly a century, young and innocent Vincenzo Cortino is driven from his home in Sicily and forced to swim to America. There he grows up to become the infamous patriarch of a powerful crime family. However, in his twilight years Vincenzo realizes the r
A woman who corresponds with a prison pen pal continues their relationship after he is released from jail. The prisoner forces her to examine a painful event in her past that shaped her life.
Realizing that her ex-husband's young bride will most likely end up raising her young daughters, a bitter divorcee with a terrible secret invites the other woman to join her and the girls on a trip through the Arizona desert. After facing the journey's challenges, the two women gain a mutual caring
A sheriff in a small Nebraska town realizes that his father may be responsible for his mother's death.
A member of a city bomb squad is the target of a villain from his past.
A German blues pianist makes extra money by driving stolen cars to Italy. When he mistakenly takes the wrong car and picks up a hitchiker, he winds up with gangsters on his tail.
Wayne Szalinski inadvertently zaps his two year old son with an enlarging contraption and the overgrown tot sets out on his own.
A tough New York cop finds himself on the run from the mob and the police when he is framed for the murder of his brother-in-law, a respected city politician.
Santa Claus learns that his 300-year tenure has ended and if he doesn't find a replacement by Christmas Eve, all the lights of Christmas will go out.
Parody of air force fighter films, such as "Top Gun," in which a group of misfit Navy pilots are being trained for a special mission.
With an attack by Cylon robots imminent, Battlestar Galactica is stranded in space with no fuel. And the two commanders on the ship have opposing ideas on how to defeat the robots.
A television movie based on the life of real-estate entrepreneur Leona Helmsley, from the early 1950s until 1989.
Convinced that he''s dying, a man agrees to jump into a volcano to save an island from an angry god.
Romantic comedy where the lives of two families become sexually intertwined and complicated.
Romantic drama about a passionate affair between two Blue Mountain locals which shakes up the whole community.
A television movie about a recently widowed, powerful magazine publisher who falls in love with a younger man and discovers, after a whirlwind marriage, that he's too good to be true.
A millionaire risks everything on a revolutionary new auto design.
A television movie featuring three generations of the Bridges family. The story concerns a young boy who becomes fond of an injured goose destined for the Thanksgiving table.
This valentine to the Philadelphia socialite who hit it big in show business before giving up her career to marry Monaco's Prince Rainier in 1956 reportedly had Princess Grace's blessing, as well as her participation and input, until her death from a stroke and an automobile accident in September, 1
This time around the ill-fated aircraft of the original version, AIRPLANE!, is now a Moon-bound space shuttle but the same crew of loonies are still at the controls, along with some additional cameo appearances by such veteran stars as Sonny Bono, Chuck Connors, Rip Torn, Richard Jaeckel, Sandahl Bergman, John Dehner, and Jack Jones.
The first of two 1980 television movies about Marilyn Monroe, this version of her story, for which writer James Lee won an Emmy Award nomination, came from a chapter of Garson Kanin's popular behind-the-scenes-of-Hollywood book and covered the Monroe story from her days as an aspiring actress throug
When a flight crew falls ill, the only man who can land the plane is afraid of flying.
A deranged engineer, bent on revenge for the death of his wife and daughter, sets two passenger trains on a collision course, and con-man Mike Connors puts his life on the line to ward off the crash.
France''''s King Louis XIV tries to use his look-alike brother to political advantage.
A group of people converge on a barren Arctic island. They have their reasons for being there but when a series of mysterious accidents and murders take place, a whole lot of darker motives become apparent. Could the fortune in buried Nazi gold be the key to the mystery? Donald Sutherland and Vanessa Redgrave investigate.
A drama based on the legendary circus family, its spectacular but tragic career, and its unique aerial act that includes the seven-member pyramid that led to the 1962 accident in which two of the troupe were killed and another permanently paralyzed.
Romance, intrigue, danger and possibly murder are among the behind-the-scenes elements surrounding a multimillion-dollar fund-raising telethon with an all-star TV cast assembled against a Las Vegas backdrop.
A lighthearted drama of a spirited young boy's adventures aboard a manned space flight. This eleven-year-old with a consuming interest in space travel hides aboard a rocket ship before it blasts off for the moon.
Aging street cop goes after a gang of toughs involved in several robbery-rapes on his beat in this pilot (a spin-off from "Police Story") for the 1975-76 series. The veteran cop concept also was the basis for "The Blue Knight" series at the same time -- and that too was based on a Joseph Wambaugh cr
A humanitarian movement is opposing a plot to round up and kill wild horses so they can be used for dog food, and a reporter goes west to cover the story.
A war movie pitting a crippled American fighter plane against a Nazi tank in a desert duel. Milton Rosen's score was written originally for a 1967 World War II yarn called "The Young Warriors."
A racial drama involving a liberal southern sheriff who brings into his home a northern black delinquent, the son of the man who had saved his life in Korea.
16-year-old Andy Morrison and Rosalind McCarthy have been friends since they were children living on the upper east side of Manhattan. Andy has always loved Rosalind, but somehow she never noticed. Now Rosalind comes home from her boarding school for a week and confides to Andy that she is pregnant by her mother''s boyfriend. Rosalind is desperate and Andy tries to help her find a man who can perform an abortion. Their search is hampered by bureaucracy, overly-crowded hospitals, her parents, and Andy''s upper-class prejudices, but as they work together, they come to understand each other better than they ever have before.
Seven people who arrive at an idyllic tropical resort after receiving a mysterious invitation find their dream of paradise turning into a hellish nightmare with little chance of escape.
A fraternity of public and private investigators looks into the suspicious death in an auto accident of the son of one of its members' long-time, wealthy ladyfriend. This was yet another pilot for a prospective series for Lloyd Bridges.
A social climber schemes to inherit one million dollars by trading identities with a dying man. Working and pre-release titles for this one were "A Knock at the Wrong Door" and "Strangers and Lovers."
A research scientist is driven to the brink by a recurring dream that he is marked for death by a mysterious tribunal, and soon he is unable to separate his dreams from reality -- and vice versa.
A detective discovers his son-in-law cheating on his daughter, confronts the other woman and accidentally kills her, and then attempts to pin the crime on a wino.
A middle-aged woman leaves her husband and children in search of herself.
Canadian commandos take on a Nazi post on the coast of France.
The story traces the slow destruction of a family by a generation gap, drugs, and a lack of understanding of each other.
An underwater team circles the globe to test an earthquake warning system.
Booze, pills and loneliness mark a young actress' rise to stardom.
An Indian war threatens when prospectors discover gold on a reservation.
A fake rainmaker melts the heart of a Kansas spinster while trying to save the town''s crops.
About to lose his sole possession, his boat, for lack of payments, ex- Coast Guardsman Jim Benson takes a gamble on a fishing charter and removes the boat from the dock despite a sheriff's seizure order. But Jim finds himself with a loudmouthed drunk, Shanks, and his companion, Sally. To avoid paying for the fishing excursion, Shanks stages a fight with Jim and, when Jim puts him ashore at a small Mexican port, Shanks takes off, stranding both Jim (who is out of gas as well as cash) and Sally. The two begin to become "friends in need" and are put up by Alfonso, local innkeeper who is a friend of Jim's. But the town is the base of operations for a gang, led by Bodine and Ortega, who smuggle illegal aliens into California for a profit. Learning of Jim's plight, they offer him money to run 'just one' shipment of these 'wetbacks' across the border - then blackmail Jim to continue working for them. Sally tries to persuade him to tell the police, but he is too afraid and plans to run away, so Sally reveals a secret which she intends to make him want to stay and fight to clear his name...
Wyatt Earp fights to straighten out a crooked cow town.
A government agent is sent to a western town to investigate attacks that the townspeople say are being commited by rampaging Apaches. The agent, however, suspects that different forces may be committing these crimes.
William (One-Take) Beaudine didn't need more than one take on this film as he had already directed it four or five times in his career, as it had been a staple to be dusted off every three or four years at Monogram/Allied Artists dating back to the days of W. Ray Johnston and Trem Carr. Girl (Vera Miles) owns a horse. Girl hires boy (Lloyd Bridges)as a trainer. Horse (Gypsy Prince)enters a race and is injured. Boy takes job at another stable and is semi-seduced---hey, this is the 1950's and still Monogram hiding behind the Allied Artist moniker---by stable siren (Margaret Sheridan.) Girl rehabilates horse. Girl enters horse in big race. Horse wins. Boy comes back.
The only survivors of an Indian raid fight to reach safety at a distant fort.
American Frank Pryor (Lloyd Bridges) arrives in London to take up an interrupted romance with Pauline French (Moria Lister), whom he hasn't seen in six years. At the airport a man standing alongside Pryor is slain by an unseen sniper, and he is detained by Scotland Yard for questioning. Released, he goes to Pauline's apartment, and learns that she had an intimate association with the slain man and is not interested in talking about it. Scotland Yard also knows this and Pryor and Pauline are kept under surveillance. After complications involving the dead man's wife, it is found that the man Pauline knows isn't dead at all and isn't who he is supposed to be.
The son of an ex-ballplayer manages to assist a struggling major league baseball club.
Epic dramatization of the Pilgrims'''' journey to the new world on the Mayflower.
A retired Marshal must defend his town from a revengeful villain.
Mountain climbers in the Swiss Alps mull over past problems while trying to conquer a perilous peak.
A gun salesman tracks down the outlaws who stole his sample case.
Astronauts (Lloyd Bridges, Osa Massen, John Emery, Noah Beery, Jr., and Hugh O'Brien) blast off to explore the moon on. Because of craft malfunction and some fuel calculations, they end up landing on Mars. On Mars, evidence of a once powerful civilization is found. The scientists determinted that an atomic war destroyed most of the Martians (Who suprsingly look like humans). Those that survived reverted to a caveman like existance. 2 of the Astrunauts are killed while on Mars. The remaining 3 Astronauts return to Earth. Unfortunatly, they are killed when lack of fuel causes them to crash on re-entry.
Drifter Sam Bass shows up in Denton, Texas (soon to host a great horse race) looking for work. Before long, he attracts the attention of pretty storekeeper Katherine Egan (the sheriff's sister) and that wild frontiers woman, Calamity Jane. Circumstances make Sam richer by a very fast race horse. But his seemingly good luck with horses and women leads him to disaster. Will he be forced into a life of crime?
A black G.I. faces racism while fighting for his country in World War II.
When a murderer''''s son accidentally kills someone, he takes it on the lam.
An English convict girl sent to the colonies gets mixed up in the war with the Indians.
Documentary cameras trace the P-47 Thunderbolt bomber''s role in the invasion of Italy.
A cattle-vs.-sheepman feud loses Connie Dickason her fiance, but gains her his ranch, which she determines to run alone in opposition to Frank Ivey, "boss" of the valley, whom her father Ben wanted her to marry. She hires recovering alcoholic Dave Nash as foreman and a crew of Ivey's enemies. Ivey fights back with violence and destruction, but Dave is determined to counter him legally... a feeling not shared by his associates. Connie's boast that, as a woman, she doesn't need guns proves justified, but plenty of gunplay results.
In the years following the Civil War, the town of Abilene, Kansas is poised on the brink of an explosive confrontation. A line has been drawn down the center of the town where the homesteaders and the cattlemen have come to a very uneasy truce. The delicate peace is inadvertantly shattered when a group of new homesteaders lay down their stakes on the cattlemen's side of town, upsetting the delicate balance that had existed thus far and sparking an all-out war between the farmers, who want the land tamed and property lines drawn, and the cowboys, who want the prairies to be open for their cattle to roam.
A platoon of American soldiers captures an Italian farmhouse.
A respected businessman and his gambler best friend fall for the same woman in 1850s Oregon.
A German officer fights to keep the Nazi dream alive even as his nation faces defeat.
In hopes of becoming a movie star, a country girl follows two con men to Hollywood.
A Broadway producer finds fame with his new act -- a dancing caterpillar.
A posse, hunting the assailant of Denton's Partner, captures Steve Carlisle (Charles Starrett), who identifies himself as a mineralogist sent to check the area for quartz for radio parts. Calling at the Denton ranch, Steve hires Cannonball Mullins (Dub Taylor), who has just been fired by Jane Fielding (Vi Athens), Denton's ward. Steve learns that she wants to sell the ranch to the Empire Syndicate. Paul Edwards (Lloyd Bridges), syndicate representative, plans to convert the ranch into a swank hotel-gambling operation. At a party which Jane gives for Edwards, Hiram Denton (William Gould), is murdered and Steve is accused. He and Cannonball escape before the sheriff can take them into custody, and in searching for evidence find that Jane and Edwards are married and have done the killings in order to gain the ranch.
The crew of a torpedoed ship fights to take out an enemy sub.
A criminal psychologist searches for clues in an elderly crime victim's dreams.
A would-be censor''''s brother produces a Broadway show with a controversial star.
A reformed thief goes undercover to stop Nazi agents from hijacking planes.
An international platoon fights off Nazis in World War II Africa.
Erik Toresen, widower and fishery observer, leads a quiet life in a small Norwegian town; but after the Nazi occupation, German abuses lead Erik to form a Resistance group. After a killing, Erik flees to the wilderness and finds a secret German air base; he resolves to escape to England with its location.
Austin Shannon (Freddie Bartholomew), after showing cowardice in sports and unable to adjust to student life, decides he is a misfit at military school and runs away. He meets newsboy Joe Novak (Jimmy Lydon)and they become friends. A $1000 reward is posted for Freddie's return but Joe doesn't take advantage of it. Joe desires an education so Austin tutors him, while Joe teaches Austin how to box, play baseball and football...without flinching (no small task indeed when working with a Freddie Bartholomew character.)
A radio reporter sets out to track down and expose Nazi agents.
An escaped political prisoner and a stuffy law professor vie for the hand of a spirited schoolteacher.
A disgraced pilot sets out to regain his son''''s respect.
(Com ''42,BW). Joe E. Brown, Adele Mara, Victor Jory, Fritz Feld, Don Beddoe, Pedro de Cordoba, Lloyd Bridges, Forrest Tucker, Chief Thunder-Cloud. A meek easterner (Joe E. Brown) unwittingly becomes sheriff of a western town and resorts to dressing in drag in order to foil the plans of the villainous Victor Jory. One of Joe E. Brown''s most popular comedies.
Morgan and his gang are smuggling furs across the border. Both the Mounties on the Canadian side and Tex Martin on the American side are after them. When Morgan sets up Tex to be found with furs, Mountie Bill arrests him. But he lets him go hoping he will lead him to the gang and eventually the two join forces.
Dagwood decides to go to college. Blondie goes along with him, keeping their marriage a secret. They send Baby Dumpling off to military school where he becomes top sergeant. Blondie is hounded by the campus stud and Dagwood makes the rowing team. It is revealed that a new child is on the way.
A reformed thief tracks down an escaped convict so he can prove the man is innocent.
A reformed criminal hunts Nazi spies in London during the Blitz.
(Wes ''41,BW). Bill Elliott, Iris Meredith, Dub Taylor, Kenneth MacDonald, Richard Fiske, Don Curtis, Lloyd Bridges. President Grant enlists the son of Davy Crockett to help secure Texas'' vote for inclusion in the Union in this Civil War era western starring Bill Elliott in the title role.
A reformed jewel thief fights to clear his name when he's framed for murder.
Sisters working at a hotel try to hide a dead body before the next convention arrives.
A playboy marries a woman doctor then grows jealous of her male patients.
A prizefighter who died before his time is reincarnated as a tycoon with a murderous wife.
Tom Harmon (ol' # 98 for the Michigan Wolverines, husband of actress Elyse Knox and father of Mark Harmon and Kelly Harmon)took a back seat to no one on the football field (except the Minnesota Gophers) or, later, in the broadcast booth, but, on film, he managed to find himself in two of the all-time bad sports movies..."The Spirit of West Point" and "Harmon of Michigan." The latter, if it had been a true-life biography of Tom Harmon, might have made a passable film but after a short prologue, narrated by sports writer Bill Henry who is not the same as actor William Henry, that semi-recaps Harmon's football-playing days at the University of Michigan, it quickly develops into a mess that indicates the director and writers used the technical adviser, Coach Jeff Cravath, only to put plays on the blackboard. Once Harmon,(supposedly playing himself but the character he plays here has more character flaws than the law allows), graduates from Michigan, he marries his college sweetheart Peggy Adams (Anita Louise), turns up his nose at the prospect of playing professional football---a poor-paying and not-that-well respected job in 1941---and starts a vagabond tour of coaching tank-water colleges. Authenicity went out the window when the narration ended, as did any kind of time tracking, as everything that follows seems to happen in a single football season. Tom takes an assistant coach job at a cow-pasture college under Jimmy Wayburn (William Hall) and lasts one day before Wayburn fires him. Then he signs to play for a College All-Star team doing exhibition games against pro teams, but his team-mates, hacked because Tom gets star billing, lay down on him and he gets smacked down hard on every play. One of the leaders willing to let Harmon get slaughtered is old Michigan teammate Forrest Evashevski (playing himself), a life-long friend in real life and Godfather to Mark Harmon and a long-time respected coach at the University of Iowa. Harmon wins the game by himself, but decides this isn't his cup of tea. He hangs around the house a few weeks, then gets a job as an assistant under old-time coach Pop Branch at a college that has three buidings on campus and a football stadium seating 100,000 fans. He helps Pop win a few games (still ticking along in what appears to be the same fall football season), but the alumni at Webster College are tired of losing, fire their coach and hire Harmon away from Pop. Harmon takes over the Webster team in mid-season and becomes the all-time example of a hard-ass coach willing to win at any cost, including installing a screen-pass play that depends on an illegal blcoking scheme---the Flying Wedge---to make it work. His Webster team begins to thump their opponents by large scores, usually leaving the other team battered and bloodied by the use of the illegal blocking scheme. They win four or five games which, based on the writers time scheme, would have them playing 20 games a season in what was then a nine-and-ten game season. Plus, the press and other coaches around and about, are up in arms about Harmon's tatics, but the jerks refereeing the games evidently haven't read the rule book nor the newspapers and throw no penalty flags against his team. Well, one referee does once, but he never officiated nor had lunch in that town again. It, by any reasonable calendar must now be July of the next year in a season that should have ended in December, and hard-case Harmon's team is going up against Pop's team (where Harmon coached earlier in this never-ending season) and Pop drops by and tells Tom he ain't all that fond of Tom's coaching methods, but Tom poo-pahs him off, and then sends his team out and they gleefully dismantle Pop's fair-playing team by 109-0. But Webster's quarterback Freddie Davis (Stanley Brown) suffers a concussion running a play Harmon calls just to run up the score even higher---Harmon evidently didn't read the script because nobody using their own name would want this character perceived
A musician's ex-wife wants him back after he finds love and success.
A college coach uses a beautiful blonde to woo athletes into joining his team.
Animated retelling of the children's classic about a spunky young boy, Peter, and his struggle to outwit a mighty wolf.
Documentary biography of actor Gary Cooper.
Animated retelling of the children's classic about a spunky young boy, Peter, and his struggle to outwit a mighty wolf.
A presentation of the third annual Jim Thorpe Pro Sports Awards, honoring individual sports achievements in ten categories.
Reinterpretation of the classic fairy tale, Cinderella, by members of Dorothy Hamill's Ice Capades.
A five-part, 10-hour documentary depicting the "Wild West." Uses still photographs and voice-over narration.
A documentary chronicling how the pursuit of the American Dream has changed the environment. Makes use of first-person accounts of writers, politicians, historians, business people, Native Americans and other citizens. Combines archival footage and original photography.
Concert special to benefit a children immunization program (Musicians Unite with Stars to Immunize Children -- M.U.S.I.C.).
A mock documentary that follows the making of "Hot Shots! Part Deux," chronicling the mounting pressures on director Jim Abrahams as he attempts to finish the follow-up to the 1991 movie "Hot Shots!" In addition to clips from "Hot Shots! Part Deux," the special spoofs traditional behind-the-scenes s
A live presentation of the 44th annual prime-time Emmy Awards honoring the best in television.
A telecast of the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (ATAS) sixth annual Television Academy Hall of Fame induction ceremony, honoring individuals who have made lasting contributions to the television industry. The program also features footage chronicaling the careers of the inductees.
A Christmas special of the PBS series, "Shining Time Station." A mysterious old man named Mr. Nickelous arrives at Shining Time Station amidst the holiday bustle.
Live coverage of the sixty-first annual Academy Awards ceremony from the Shrine Civic Auditorium in Los Angeles. Highlights include: an opening production number which recreates Hollywood's glittering past and such landmarks as the Cocoanut Grove and the Chinese Theater; a tribute to the great musi
A special featuring interviews with five mothers of well-known entertainers, who discuss how family support contributed to their children's success.
A one-hour documentary about the killer whale with sequences shot in the open seas showing the remarkable animal as a terrifying predator and also at Sea World, in Orlando, where the creature is gentle and intelligent as it interacts with human beings. Included is footage of the birth of the first
Two-hour coverage of a black-tie event, broadcast from the Constitution Hall of Philadelphia's Civic Center, honoring the bicentennial of the signing of the United States Constitution. The program features performers and special guests offering tributes through music, dance, and dramatic representat
A star-studded sequel to "The Night of 100 Stars." A celebrity benefit for the Actors Fund of America, featuring music, songs, dances and comedy. Three hundred and eight stars participated in a seven-hour marathon that was edited to three hours for television.
A celebration of how the very young and the very old appreciate and enjoy each other via sketches and variety performances.
Another installment of an irregular series of specials in which show business personalities perform circus acts.
Former American servicemen recount their experiences during World War II.
A twice-yearly series of specials in which celebrities compete in various athletic contests to determine which is the superior sex.
The second of a four-part biography of Benjamin Franklin. The program recounts the elderly Franklin's own reminiscences of his early years.
The program features excursions to various tropical islands as well as tips on boating safety and marine-band radio use.
The program features excursions to various tropical islands as well as tips on boating safety and marine-band radio use.
Cast (TV Mini-Series)
Miniseries based on Sidney Sheldon's novel about the lives and loves of three female medical residents and roommates.
A two-part miniseries based on a true story. Set in Indiana in the 1920s, the story concerns a young woman who becomes a victim of the terrorist activities of the Ku Klux Klan. She eventually dies at the hands of charismatic political boss and Grand Dragon David Stephenson. The ensuing investigation
A two-part miniseries concerning the murder of a first-year cadet at a prestigious military academy and the subsequent cover-up by school authorities that implicates an innocent cadet.
The two American families introduced in the miniseries "North and South" -- the Hazards of Pennsylvania and the Mains of South Carolina -- are swept into the ferocious conflict and turbulent passions of the Civil War in this six-part, twelve-hour miniseries. The story plunges the Mains, South Caroli
Sometimes she's too big. Or much too small. Sometimes things are backwards. And there's always too much pepper in the soup. Nothing is quite right since Alice chased a very unusual White Rabbit and stumbled into an adventure that grows curiouser and curiouser.
A sweeping eight-hour, three-part miniseries chronicling the life of Washington from ages 11 to 51, beginning just after the death of his father in 1743 and taking him through his journeyman days as a young surveyor, his hidden love for Sally Fairfax, the wife of his best friend, his marriage to wid
This three-part, eight-hour exploration of the John Steinbeck novel about the Trask family and the women who haunted their lives for two generations covered far more ground than did the 1955 feature film that starred James Dean, Julie Harris and Raymond Massey. Timothy Bottoms and Bruce Boxleitner a
The dramatization of Alex Haley's chronicle of his family history from his ancestors' life in tribal Africa of the eighteenth century to their emancipation in the post-Civil War South became an overnight phenomenon the subject of educational programs as well as newspaper editorials that attracted, a
Cast (TV Mini-Series)
This sweeping Civil War saga that took eight hours to unfold (over three nights), adapted from historian Bruce Catton's book, has an all-star cast winding its way through fact and fiction, covering the period from 1859 to the Lincoln assassination. The two leads are Stacy Keach as the fictional Jona
Two two-hour pilot films are strung together here in which a hospital director in line for a federal cabinet post first finds that his private life may jeopardize the opportunity and then discovers himself in the middle of a scandal involving stolen federal health funds.
A short dramatization of how Eli Whitney developed the system of interchangeable parts and mass-production after promising the U.S. War Department 10,000 muskets over two years.
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