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|Also Known As:||Died:||August 3, 1995|
|Born:||February 4, 1918||Cause of Death:||complications from a stroke and colon cancer|
|Birth Place:||London, England, GB||Profession:||Cast ... director actor producer screenwriter composer|
of production, from script rewrites and budgeting to selecting the wardrobe. When director Elmer Clifton suffered a heart attack in preproduction, Lupino stepped in to take his place, calling the shots on set from the first day of shooting in February 1949.
Because the then 31-year-old Lupino was not a member of the Director¿s Guild of America, she downplayed her own significance behind the camera of "Not Wanted," deferring for the record to the ailing Clifton, who retained official credit. Working quickly, Lupino shot the film guerilla style on the streets of Los Angeles to reduce the necessity for and the cost of building sets. Despite the freedom of working outside of the restrictive prevue of the studio system, the first-timer remained dependent on her investors, some of whom evinced conservative inclinations. When one backer objected to a scene in which heroine Sally Forrest shares a boarding house room with an African-American woman, Lupino grudgingly cut the offending footage ¿ but then included business featuring an Asian actress to spite her bigoted benefactor. Though she was not Hollywood¿s first female director it was still novel for a woman to be calling the shots on a feature film. Lupino¿s reputation spread quickly through the studios, with many A-list actresses demanding private screenings of "Not Wanted." Budgeted at just over $150,000, the film grossed over a million.
Retooling Emerald Pictures as The Filmmakers, Lupino and Young got back to business with "Never Fear" (1949), a drama concerned with a young dancer ankled by. Their next film, "Outrage" (1950), about the aftermath of a rape, was distributed by RKO Radio Pictures. Overseeing publicity and distribution, RKO head Howard Hughes gave the film an expensive push, complete with press junket and a splashy premiere preceded by a live stage show. Though Hughes¿ mishandling of RKO would soon bankrupt the studio, "Outrage" was one of its few moneymakers. Profits from The Filmmaker¿s next outing, the sports drama "Hard, Fast and Beautiful" (1951), disappeared due to RKO¿s creative bookkeeping. To keep her debts under control, Lupino continued to act, playing the blind sister of killer Robert Ryan in Nicholas Ray¿s "On Dangerous Ground" (1952).
Arguably Lupino¿s best-regarded film outside of "High Sierra," "The Hitch-Hiker" (1953) pitted fishing buddies Edmund O¿Brien and Frank Lovejoy against escaped killer William Tallman, who browbeats the married men for being soft while forcing them to drive deeper into Mexico. If her previous movies had allowed Lupino the opportunity to shore up the lopsided racial politics of Hollywood, "The Hitch-Hiker" gave her the chance to probe the fragile male psyche. She followed suit with the self-financed "The Bigamist" (1953), with O¿Brien as a businessman juggling wives in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Lupino appeared in the supporting role of O¿Brien¿s L.A. missus, while distribution was handled by The Filmmakers under their own aegis. Despite the apparent solidarity of forming their own distribution arm, Lupino and Collier Young had divorced in 1951. While Young had taken up with "Bigamist" co-star Joan Fontaine, Lupino sought solace in the arms of actor Howard Duff, to whom she would remain married for the next 30 years.
Over the course of the next two decades, Lupino continued to act sporadically in such films as "Women¿s Prison" (1955), "The Big Knife" (1955) and "While the City Sleeps" (1956). For "Private Hell 36" (1954), directed by Don Siegel for The Filmmakers, she shared a writing credit with ex-husband Young and co-starred with Duff. She also began directing episodic television for the networks. Helming multiple segments of "Alfred Hitchcock Presents" (CBS, 1955-1962), "Have Gun, Will Travel" (CBS, 1957-1963), the anthology series "Thriller" (NBC, 1960-62) and Desilu Productions¿ "The Untouchables" (ABC, 1959-1963), she developed a reputation for understanding and anticipating the needs of actors. Lupino was famous for a punchy, unflinching directing style that was branded as masculine despite the fact that her aesthetic was in many ways a refutation of the patriarchal perspective. Paradoxically, Lupino¿s next opportunity to direct a feature came with the girls school comedy "The Trouble with Angels" (1966), starring Hayley Mills as a convent cut-up and Rosalind Russell as her autocratic Mother Superior.
Though she was finished in features by the end of the decade, the aging Lupino continued to work exhaustively in film and television. She had fun teaming with Duff as super-villain Dr. Cassandra in a 1968 episode of "Batman" (ABC, 1966-68) and played a vicious jailhouse screw in the TV movie "Women in Chains" (ABC, 1972). As her looks coarsened with age, she was cast in earthier roles than those suggesting refinement. She played the matriarch of an Arizona rodeo dynasty in Sam Peckinpah¿s "Junior Bonner" (1972), opposite Steve McQueen, and headed another Western clan that is literally bedeviled in Robert Fuest¿s "The Devil¿s Rain" (1976), which featured a young John Travolta in a bit role. In Bert Gordon¿s ignoble "Food of the Gods" (1976), Lupino played an ill-starred farmer¿s wife whose use of goopy space stuff as chicken feed dooms her to a messy demise in the jaws of a giant rat. Her final film role was as another villain, the mastermind of an armored car heist carried out by teenagers, in "My Boys are Good Boys" (1978), executive produced by co-star Ralph Meeker.
Divorced from Duff in 1984, Lupino moved from fashionable Brentwood to the more affordable San Fernando Valley on the far side of the Hollywood Hills. Struggling with long-term alcoholism, she grew reclusive in retirement, estranging herself even from her adult daughter. Duff¿s death in July 1990 hit the former actress hard and her final years were marked by bouts of depression and assorted illnesses, among them a mental deterioration that had first manifested itself as a difficulty remembering her lines on the sets of television shows. Diagnosed with cancer, she suffered a debilitating stroke in 1995 and died in her Burbank home on August 3rd of that year, at the age of 77. Cruelly coincident with Lupino¿s passing was a burgeoning renewal of public interest in her feature film work and her championing among film historians as an important figure in the development of American cinema in the second half of the 20th Century.
By Richard Harland Smith) and "Castle in the Clouds" (1942), therefore winding up on suspension more than once. In 1943, she was named Best Actress by the New York Film Critics for her poignant turn as a dying woman who recounts the bullet points of her tragic fall from grace in Vincent Sherman¿s "The Hard Way" (1943). Despite the honor, Lupino continued to despair over the dearth of good roles in Hollywood and often referred to herself as "a poor man¿s Bette Davis." Over the next few years, she found a niche in shadowy dramas that anticipated the postwar film noir thrillers, including Archie Mayo¿s "Moontide" (1942) with Jean Gabin and Jean Negulesco¿s "Deep Valley" (1947) with Dane Clark.
Lupino left Warners in 1947. After starring in Negulesco¿s scorching noir entry "Road House" (1948), she sought to improve her industry cachet by branching off into producing. With second husband, Columbia production executive Collier Young, she put money into the independent crime drama "The Judge" (1949), directed by Elmer Clifton. The feature was made under the banner of Emerald Pictures, which Lupino named for her mother, in partnership with Anson Bond, heir to America¿s first national chain of clothing stores. The film turned a profit, encouraging Lupino and Young to develop a Paul Jarrico script about an unwed mother that had been pressed upon them by Warners producer Jerry Wald and his brother Marvin. When Columbia head Harry Cohn refused to back "Not Wanted" (1949), Lupino stamped it as an Emerald Pictures film, overseeing all aspects
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