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Stanley Kubrick

Stanley Kubrick

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Also Known As: Died: March 6, 1999
Born: July 26, 1928 Cause of Death: heart attack
Birth Place: Bronx, New York, USA Profession: director, producer, screenwriter, photographer

Biography CLOSE THE FULL BIOGRAPHY

5. It took Kubrick¿s death for the film to get off the ground and it was eventually released in the following millennium. The film starred child actor Haley Joel Osment as a young android who sets off on a journey in a dystopian future in order to discover if he is anything more than just a robot. Hailed by most critics, who cited that Kubrick would have been pleased with the results, "A.I." benefited from the infusion of the director¿s bleak outlook and Spielberg¿s bright optimism ¿ all of which helped put a cap on Kubrick¿s brilliant cinematic career.nstead to inject stark humor into the script after seeing the inherent comedy in the idea of mutual assured destruction. Peter Sellers again was the star and this time played three distinct roles: a British attaché to a crazed American general (Sterling Hayden); the mild-mannered President of the United States, who tries to call off the attack while battling a gung-ho general (George C. Scott); and the titular Dr. Strangelove, a wheelchair-bound former Nazi scientist who routinely calls the president Mein Führer and struggles with a hand that wants to give the Nazi salute. With such classic moments as Seller¿s president breaking up a fight and...

5. It took Kubrick¿s death for the film to get off the ground and it was eventually released in the following millennium. The film starred child actor Haley Joel Osment as a young android who sets off on a journey in a dystopian future in order to discover if he is anything more than just a robot. Hailed by most critics, who cited that Kubrick would have been pleased with the results, "A.I." benefited from the infusion of the director¿s bleak outlook and Spielberg¿s bright optimism ¿ all of which helped put a cap on Kubrick¿s brilliant cinematic career.nstead to inject stark humor into the script after seeing the inherent comedy in the idea of mutual assured destruction. Peter Sellers again was the star and this time played three distinct roles: a British attaché to a crazed American general (Sterling Hayden); the mild-mannered President of the United States, who tries to call off the attack while battling a gung-ho general (George C. Scott); and the titular Dr. Strangelove, a wheelchair-bound former Nazi scientist who routinely calls the president Mein Führer and struggles with a hand that wants to give the Nazi salute. With such classic moments as Seller¿s president breaking up a fight and declaring "Gentlemen, you can¿t fight in here. This is the war room," to the Air Force captain played by Slim Pickens waving his cowboy hat and riding to mankind¿s doom atop a falling nuclear bomb, "Dr. Strangelove" marked a true achievement for the director, who created what many considered to have been the best political satire of the 20th century.

Despite some moral backlash, the successes of "Lolita" and "Strangelove" earned Kubrick the freedom to choose his own subjects and, more importantly, to exert total control over the filmmaking process. The first product of this license was the science-fiction classic "2001: A Space Odyssey" (1968). Having set out to make what he called the "proverbial good science fiction movie," Kubrick spent five years making "2001," which started with a collaboration with science fiction author, Arthur C. Clarke, who wrote his novel of the same name while penning the script with the director. A stark and often esoteric look at human evolution, technology and alien life, "2001" was a visually hypnotic film that contained little dialogue and few explicit explanations, but was chock full of filmic metaphors and groundbreaking special effects that remained industry standards for the next decade. Though it received mixed reviews following its initial release, "2001" grew over time ¿ as many Kubrick films had a tendency to do ¿ into becoming what many considered to be the finest science fiction movies ever made, and arguably one of the best in any genre. Featuring such memorable moments as a senior astronaut (Keir Dullea) killing the wayward Hal 9000, to that same character transforming from a human into an extraterrestrial life form, "2001" was without a doubt Kubrick¿s finest achievement.

Further cementing his anti-establishment reputation, Kubrick followed "2001" with "A Clockwork Orange" (1971), adapted from the novel by Anthony Burgess. Depicting a disturbing future set in totalitarian England, the film followed Alex (Malcolm McDowell), a Beethoven-loving amoral punk who leads his gang of droogs on a series of ultra-violent assaults until he is captured by authorities and subjected to nasty behavior-modification therapy. With an initial X-rating, "A Clockwork Orange" opened to come degree of controversy due several acts of onscreen violence, including a brutal rape scene that was made notorious by Alex singing "Singin¿ in the Rain" while beating a man and woman senseless. Forced to recut portions of the film, the director nonetheless displayed a highly visceral visual style punctuated by a camera that moved with an audacity unrivaled in contemporary cinema. Meanwhile, the film received high praise from critics and earned an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture. Kubrick next directed "Barry Lyndon" (1975), a bold attempt to bring modern techniques to bear upon a narrative set in the 18th century. Kubrick spent as much technical effort and expertise recreating the lighting and imagery of William Makepeace Thackeray's novel, as he had done inventing a future in his two previous films. Although a commercial failure, "Barry Lyndon" fit logically into the Kubrick canon, a dour fable of humanity trapped in the same determinism that had colored his previous work. And much like his previous work, the film earned a greater appreciation long after its release, with some critics citing it as one of his finest films.

Notoriously taking a long time to make a movie, Kubrick next adapted Stephen King's horror novel "The Shining" (1980), a slow-moving, but hypnotic horror film about struggling writer Jack Torrance (Jack Nicholson), who serves as the winter caretaker to the remote Overlook Hotel, only to go mad and try to kill his naïve wife (Shelley Duvall) and telepathic son (Danny Lloyd). Thanks to Nicholson¿s manic performance, which included the famous line "Here¿s Johnny!" as he chops down a bathroom door with an axe to kill his wife, "The Shining" was the recipient of diametrically opposed reviews from critics and audiences. A financial success at the time of release, it eventually earned a better reputation over time. Meanwhile, Stephen King took issue with Kubrick¿s take on his material, saying that he actually hated the adaptation despite some memorable visuals because of the director¿s apprehension with tackling the novel¿s supernatural elements. Eventually, King¿s opinions about the film mellowed years later.

Kubrick waited seven years to release his next movie, "Full Metal Jacket" (1987), an adaptation of Gustav Hasford's Vietnam war novel The Short-Timers (1979) that was essentially two movies in one. The first section focused on Private Joker (Matthew Modine), who arrives at Marine basic training on Parris Island where the recruits endure a barrage of insults from their gunnery sergeant (R. Lee Ermey), leading to the mental disintegration and eventual suicide of a slow-witted grunt (Vincent D¿Onofrio). The second part followed Joker to the jungles of Vietnam, where he serves as a combat correspondent and comes across his fellow recruits, all of whom have turned jaded from seeing the horrors of war. Though compelling and well-acted, "Full Metal Jacket" paled in comparison to the tropical splendor of Francis Ford Coppola's "Apocalypse Now" (1979) and the emotional reality on display in Oliver Stone¿s "Platoon" (1986). More than 10 years passed until Kubrick allowed his next film "Eyes Wide Shut" (1999), starring Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman, to see the light of day. True to form, the pedantic filmmaker labored excessively, assigning great importance to each and every image the camera would record and endlessly reshooting scenes until achieving the exact look he desired in this sexual psychodrama about a Manhattan doctor (Tom Cruise) who gets drawn into a ritualistic sexual underworld after his wife (Nicole Kidman) admits to having fantasies about another man.

On March 7, 1999, just four days after screening a final cut of "Eyes Wide Shut" for friends and family prior to its release, Stanley Kubrick died from a heart attack in his sleep. He was 70. Naturally, the director managed to court controversy even after his death when Warner Bros. took control of "Eyes Wide Shut" and digitally altered an orgy scene in order to receive an R-rating instead of the dreaded NC-17 tag. Some critics decried the studios decision to alter Kubrick¿s vision of the film, though it was eventually restored upon its release on DVD. Meanwhile, director Steven Spielberg directed "A.I.: Artificial Intelligence" (2001), which Kubrick began developing as far back as the early 1970s. Throughout the ensuing decades, Kubrick had extended conversations with Spielberg about the project and eventually gave his blessing for him to direct it in 199

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Filmographyclose complete filmography

DIRECTOR:

1.
  Eyes Wide Shut (1999) Director
2.
  Full Metal Jacket (1987) Director
3.
  Shining, The (1980) Director
4.
  Barry Lyndon (1975) Director
5.
  A Clockwork Orange (1971) Director
6.
  2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) Director
8.
  Lolita (1962) Director
9.
  Spartacus (1960) Director
10.
  Paths of Glory (1958) Director

CAST: (feature film)

1.
 Making The Shining (1980) Himself
2.
 Day of the Fight (1951)
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Milestones close milestones

1945:
Photograph taken by Kubrick of a newsdealer on the day of President Franklin Roosevelt's death bought by <i>Look</i> magazine; Kubrick subsequently hired as a photographer for the magazine and worked there from 1946-1950
1951:
First short film as director (also screenwriter, director of photography and producer), the 16-minute documentary "Day of the Fight", about boxer Walter Cartier whom Kubrick had photographed for <i>Look</i> magazine
1953:
First medium-length film as director (also director of photography), the documentary "The Seafarers"
1953:
First feature film as director (also director of photography, editor and producer), "Fear and Desire"
1955:
Founded (with James B Harris) Harris-Kubrick Productions; partnership lasted through "Lolita" (1962)
1956:
Scripted first Harris-Kubrick production "The Killing" from Lionel White's thriller "Clean Break"
1957:
Adapted (along with Calder Willingham and Jim Thompson) Humphrey Cobb's World War I novel "Paths of Glory", starring Kirk Douglas; as an indictment of war, compared to Lewis Milestone's "All Quiet on the Western Front" and Jean Renoir's "La Grande Illusion"
1957:
Signed contract with MGM but released after making no films
1960:
Hired by Marlon Brando to direct the Western "One-Eyed Jacks"; left the project after six months; Brando went on to direct (date approximate)
1960:
Replaced Anthony Mann as the director of "Spartacus", at the time the most expensive movie ever made in America
1961:
Moved to Great Britain, which stood in for America in "Lolita"; based in London ever since
1963:
Scripted along with Terry Southern and Peter George from George's novel "Red Alert" the apocalyptic black comedy "Dr Strangelove, or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb"; also directed, produced and served as special photographic effects designer; Kubrick garnered Academy Award nominations for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Screenplay
1968:
Wrote, produced, directed and designed the effects for "2001: A Space Odyssey"; received Oscar for Best Special Effects and nominations as Best Director and for Best Screenplay
1971:
Produced, directed and adapted "A Clockwork Orange" from the Anthony Burgess novel; received Academy Award nominations for Best Screenplay and Best Picture and as Best Director
1975:
Last feature for five years, "Barry Lyndon"; wrote, produced and directed; again personally nominated for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Screenplay
1980:
Returned to features with screen adaptation of Stephen King's "The Shining"
1987:
First feature in seven years, "Full Metal Jacket", based on Gustav Hasford's novel "The Short Timers"; shared an Academy Award nomination for Best Screenplay
1996:
Announced casting of Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman in feature "Eyes Wide Shut" and began lensing in November; completed shooting in 1998; film released posthumously in the summer of 1999
2001:
"A.I. Artificial Intelligence", a film based on his unproduced screenplay, written and directed by Steven Spielberg released
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Education

City College: New York , New York -
Columbia University: New York , New York -
William H Taft High School: Bronx , New York - 1946

Notes

"I'm distrustful in delegating authority, and my distrust is usually well founded." --Stanley Kubrick.

"I tried with only limited success to make the film as real as possible but I was up against a pretty dumb script which was rarely faithful to what is known about Spartacus. If I ever needed convincing of the limits of persuasion a director can have on a film where someone else is the producer and he is merely the highest paid member of the crew, 'Spartacus' provided proof to last a lifetime." --Stanley Kubrick quoted in "World Film Directors" Volume II 1945-1985, edited by John Wakeman (New York: H W Wilson Company.)

"There is no doubt that there's a deep emotional relationship between man and his machines, which are his children. The machine is beginning to assert itself in a very profound way, even attracting affection and obsession.

"There is a sexiness to beautiful machines. The smell of a Nikon camera. The feel of an Italian sports car, or a beautiful tape recorder. ... Man has always worshipped beauty, and I think there's a new kind of beauty afoot in the world." --Stanley Kubrick to The New York Times in 1968, at the time of the release of "2001."

"He does not believe in biting the hand that might strangle him." --critic Hollis Alpert.

"He is a brilliant filmmaker, but he does not do well in the final test--as a man." --"A Clockwork Orange" star Malcolm McDowell on Kubrick.

" ... I think the enemy of the filmmaker is not the intellectual or the member of the mass public, but the kind of middlebrow who has neither the intellectual apparatus to analyze and clearly define what is meant nor the honest emotional reaction of the mass film audience member. And unfortunately, I think that a great many of these people in the middle are occupied in writing about films. I think that it is a monumental presumption on the part of film reviewers to summarize in one terse, witty, clever Time Magazine-style paragraph what the intention of the film is. That kind of review is usually very superficial, unless it is a truly bad film, and extremely unfair." --Stanley Kubrick to Robert Emmett Ginna from an unpublished 1960 interview (From Entertainment Weekly, April 9, 1999.)

"He didn't like stupidity, razzmatazz, celebrity. Stanley refused to accept that drainage of his spirit." --novelist and friend David Cornwall (aka John Le Carre), quoted in Newsweek, March 22, 1999.

"He not only understood humanity, he understood it too well. He had no love of humanity. He was a misanthrope." --Alexander Walker, author of "Stanley Kubrick Directs."

Companions close complete companion listing

wife:
Toba Etta Metz. Born on January 24, 1930; highschool sweethearts; married in 1947; divorced in 1952; worked as dialogue director on "Fear and Desire" (1953).
wife:
Ruth Sobotka. Dancer. Married in January 1955; divorced c. 1957; was art director in "The Killing" (1956); also acted in "Killer's Kiss" (1955) as the heroine's sister in the flashback sequences.
wife:
Susanne Christiane Harlan. Painter, former actor. Married in April 1958; appeared in "Paths of Glory" (1957) as the young woman singing the German song at end; had been previously married to Werner Bruhns with whom she had a daughter Katherine; mother of Kubrick's two daughters; survived him.

Family close complete family listing

father:
Jacques Leon Kubrick. Doctor. The son of Polish and Romanian Jews; married Kubrick's mother on October 30, 1927.
mother:
Gertrude Kubrick.
sister:
Barbara Mary Kubrick. Born on May 21, 1934.
brother-in-law:
Jan Harlan. Filmmaker. Made series of documentaries about Kubrick.
daughter:
Katherine Kubrick. Natural daughter of Werner Bruhns and Christiane Kubrick; looked upon Kubrick as her father and adopted his surname.
daughter:
Anya Renata Kubrick. Born on April 6, 1959; mother, Susanne Christiane Harlan; survived him.
daughter:
Vivian Kubrick. Screenwriter. Born on August 5, 1960; mother, Susanne Christiane Harlan; shot documentary film of Kubrick making "The Shining" (for which she worked in the art department), screened on the BBC arts program "Arena" in 1980, parts of which made it into another documentary "The Invisible Man", shown on England's Channel 4 in 1996; had a bit part in "2001" (1968); composed the original music for "Full Metal Jacket" (1987) under the pseudonym Abigail Mead; survived him.
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Bibliography close complete biography

"The Making of Kubrick's 2001"
"Kubrick"
"Stanley Kubrick: A Guide to References and Resources"
"The Films of Stanley Kubrick"
"A Cinema of Loneliness"
"Stanley Kubrick: Inside a Film Artist's Maze"
"Stanley Kubrick: A Film Odyssey"
"Stanley Kubrick: A Biography" Donald I. Fine, Inc.
"Perspectives on Stanley Kubrick" G.K. Hall & Co.
"Stanley Kubrick Directs" W.W. Norton & Co.
"Eyes Wide Open: A Memoir of Stanley Kubrick" Ballantine
"Kubrick" Grove Press
"Kubrick: Inside a Film Artist's Maze" Indiana University Press
VIEW COMPLETE BIBLIOGRAPHY

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